601 CE and Earlier

New discoveries show Pictish heritage in Scotland

The Romans called the people of the north the "Painted Ones" due to their woad body painting, but little is known about the Pictish civilization. Now archaeologists working in Scotland's northern highlands have found evidence that the area may have been the people's power center.

Vindolanda Nero coin "a special find"

Archaeologists working at Vindolanda, the Roman fort in northeastern England, made a "special" find recently: a rare gold coin bearing the image of Roman emperor Nero, the first gold coin found during the excavation's 40-year history. (photo)

"Holy Grail" stolen in Wales

The Nanteos Cup is missing. Rumored to be the Holy Grail, brought to Britain by Joseph of Arimathea, the olive wood cup is normally kept in a bank vault in Wales, but was loaned to an ailing women in Weston-Under-Penyard. It was stolen from her home July 14, 2014. (photo)

Earliest case of Down syndrome diagnosed in French skeleton

A team of archaeologists at the University of Bordeaux has identified the earliest known case of Down syndrome in the remains of a child who lived in 6th century France. The diagnosis was made after the remains were submitted to a (CT) scan.

New discoveries at Roman Maryport

Experts and volunteers from Oxford Archaeology have discovered what they believe is a "lost" Roman harbor along with a Roman fort at Maryport, on the west coast of Cumbria in England. The archaeological project hopes to "build up a picture of what ordinary life was like" in this part of Roman Britain.

Evidence of 1st century Roman military camp found in Germany

For generations, archaeologists have been looking for evidence of a Roman presence in eastern Germany, and with the discovery of a large, first century military camp near Hachelbich in Thuringia, they have found it.

Reconstructing and Testing Ancient Linen Body Armor

In little more than two decades Alexander the Great of Macedon (356-323 BCE) conquered by military force nearly the entirety of the known world. Despite the fact that he led one of the most successful armies of all time, surprisingly little is understood about the main type of body armor that apparently both Alexander and many of his men wore.

Coins and hacksilver found in Netherlands

Precious metals were scarce during the decline of the Roman Empire in Germanic Europe, which would explain the recent discovery of a hoard of "gold coins and pieces of silver tableware which had been deliberately cut up (hacksilver)" in a field near Limburg in the Netherlands. (photos)

Offa's Dyke may be misnamed

Offa's Dyke, a linear earthwork stretching 177 miles (285 km) in Chirk near the Shropshire border, may be misnamed. Legendarily built by King Offa of Mercia during his reign between 757 and 796, the earthwork may actually be 200 years older.

Rethinking Attila the Hun

Attila the Hun, called the “scourge of god” in the 5th century, has historically been considered a ruthless barbarian for his campaign against the Romans' eastern empire, but new thought shows the king to be somewhat more complex. Owen Jarus has a feature story for Live Science.

Hadrian's Wall Trust is no more

Over the next six months, the Hadrian's Wall Trust, the charity that maintains the famous Roman wall crossing northern England, will be closed due to "significant financial constraints." In the future, the wall will be maintained by English Heritage and local authorities.

Incredible Lod Roman mosaics to go on display in England

A collaboration between the Israel Antiquities Authority and the British Museum will bring the amazing 3rd century Roman floor mosaics from Lod, Israel to Waddesdon Manor in Buckinghamshire, Engand for an exhibit from June 5 – November 2, 2014. The mosaics are "one of the oldest surviving complete Roman mosaics" ever discovered. (photos)

Students "Eat Like a Roman" at the University of Buffalo

Roman music, historical dress and Latin greetings set the mood for a special banquet served to 2,000 University at Buffalo students in April 2014, as part of the class "Eat Like a Roman" taught by UB’s Department of Classics. (photos)

Roman house subject of 2014 dig at Maryport

Roman Maryport, near the western edge of Hadrian's Wall, has produced a number of interesting artifacts in previous digs. In 2014, archaeologists will focus on the investigation of a large, 3-room, stone-strip building discovered in 2013. (pictures)

Beautiful mosiac floors revealed in Israeli Byzantine church

An excavation of a site near the Bedouin village of Hura by the Israel Antiquities Authority has revealed a 6th century Byzantine church, complete with amazingly intact mosaic floors. (photos)

First century irrigation system found in England

Archaeologists working on a development site in Cambridge, England have discovered what they believe is Great Britain's oldest irrigation system. The Roman site includes evidence of planting beds and pit wells.

Saving Winchester Roman wall "not possible"

Local historians in Winchester, England are outraged at the proposal that a Roman wall, unearthed in 2013 during construction of 14 new houses, may be destroyed and used as filler for foundations.

"Stunning" Roman bracelet on display in Furness

Trade between the Roman and the British locals may be enbodied by a single silver bracelet, dating to the second century, discovered recently by a metal detectorist near Dalton-in-Furness, England. Probably traded by a Roman soldier visiting the town, the "stunning" bracelet is now on display at Barrow's Dock Museum in Furness. (photo)

The "peaceful conquest" of Roman Britain

Everyone knows that the transition from Roman Britain to Anglo-Saxon England was a brutal time -- everyone but Dr Andrew Millard, from Durham University, whose new study in the Journal of Archaeological Science, shows a more peaceful process. (maps)

Ludus on the Danube

For over 100 years, archaeologists have been stydying Roman Carnuntum, on the Danube River near Vienna, but only recently were they aware of the existence of a ludus, or gladiator school, covering 30,138 square feet (2,800 square meters). The new research has been used to construct a 3D model of the site. (photos)

Early Saxon graves unearthed in Cambridgeshire

Archaeologists in the English village of Haddenham have uncovered nine burials dating to the Early Saxon period (6th century CE) in the car park of the Three Kings Pub. The graves, of both men and women, contained a wealth of grave goods including a spear and shield and a beaded necklace. (photos)

Illegal metal detectorist tears Roman gold from ground in Germany

Investigators in Germany are untangling the case of a metal detectorist who illegally dug up more than EU€1 million worth of Roman gold in a forest in southern Rheinland-Pfalz. The perpetrator may already have sold some of the pieces on the Black Market. (photos)

Anglo-Saxon artifacts discovered near Maidstone

A metal detectorist from Medway History Finders has uncovered a collection of Anglo-Saxon artifacts dating to the 6th century near Maidstone, Kent, England. The hoard, valued at more than UK£40,000, includes silver brooches with red garnets and hairpins. (photos)

1,500-year-old Christian church unearthed near Tel Aviv

Construction work for a new neighborhood at Moshav Aluma, 30 miles south of Tel Aviv, has unearthed the foundations of a 6th century Byzantine church. The remains of the basilica and its artifacts discovered include "a cistern, a pottery workshop, cooking implements, oil lamps and central halls with a pair of side aisles divided by marble pillars."

Stonehenge bluestones may have been local

Legend says that the bluestones of Stonehenge were transported from a quarry in Wales to the site on the Salisbury Plain, but a new study published in the Journal of Archaeological Science shows that the stones may actually have come from a site only three kilometres from the structure.

Britain's fifth-century cultural revolution

"Dark Ages" history traditionally considers the transition from Roman to Anglo-Saxon culture in England a time of bloody conquest, but in a new article published in the Journal of Archaeological Science suggest that the evolution may have been more cultural than brutal.

Excavations show connections between Paganism and early Christianity in Ireland

Recent excavations at Caherconnell, County Clare, by the Caherconnell Archaeology Field School are shedding light on the transition from Paganism to Christianity in 5th century Ireland. Burials found in stone cists show that mourners used a combination of both religions to honor their dead.

"Impressive basilica" unearthed at Moshav Aluma

Archaeologists from the Israel Land Authority have discovered a 6th century Byzantine basilica, featuring "magnificent mosaic" floors, at Moshav Aluma, near Pelugot Junction, in Israel. (photo)

Construction workers uncover mass grave at the Uffizi

Construction workers at the site of a new elevator for Florence, Italy's famous Uffizi gallery were surprised to find not the usual Roman artifacts, but a mass grave that might contain over a thousand bodies.

St Piran's Oratory to be excavated

In 1910, the remains of St Piran's Oratory near Perranporth, Cornwall were encased in a concrete bunker to preserve them from the coast's harsh weather, but now archaeologists have received permission to excavate the sixth century chapel, believed to be Britain's oldest place of Christian worship. (photos)