Physorg

www.physorg.com, a science and technology news portal

Technology traces Roman beads to Egypt

A team of scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany has analyzed glass beads found in former Rhaetian settlements in Bavaria, and concluded that the beads, dating from the 1st through 4th centuries, must have originated "somewhere near a soda lake like those in Wadi El Natrun in Egypt." (photo)

Soil samples help analysize death of Danish child

Analysis of soil samples has revealed the suffering of a 13th century Danish child in the days before his death, according to chemist Kaare Lund Rasmussen from University of Southern Denmark. The 10-13 year-old child from Ribe had been treated with mercury, causing great suffering.

First of Leicester's double coffins opened

While the impact of the Leicester car park's second most interesting find will not not be as great as the discovery of the remains of Richard III, archaeologists are still excited about the mysterious coffin-within-a-coffin found at the site. The lid of the first, stone coffin was lifted recently to reveal an inner lead coffin, which was removed for further analysis. (photo)

Technology of Cheapside Hoard amazes modern researchers

Researchers from Birmingham City University have used modern technology to re-examine the Cheapside Hoard - "the world's largest collection of Elizabethan and Jacobean jewellery discovered in a London cellar in 1912" -- and were "stunned at the advanced technologies" used to craft the items.

Roman temple near Hadrian's Wall identified

The remains of a building near Hadrian's Wall, dating to the second century and first unearthed in the 1880s by a local archaeologist, have been identified as a Roman temple. The temple is the most north western classical temple from the Roman world yet discovered.

Galileo ice debate continues

Why does ice float on water? This was the subject of debate between Galileo and his arch-enemy Lodovico delle Colombe during the summer of 1611, which brought into focus some of the odd properties of water.

Earl of Sandwich risked health with frozen chocolate delight

In 1668, the Earl of Sandwich collected recipes for chocolate, a treat just introduced to England believed to be "unwholesome." His iced chocolate recipes are a highlight of a paper by Dr Kate Loveman of the University of Leicester entitled The Introduction of Chocolate into England: Retailers, Researchers, and Consumers, 1640–1730.

Boat burials might help solve mystery of Viking trading center

To most historians, Steinkjer was just a name mentioned in the Norse Sagas, but new evidence discovered in two boat graves in Lø, Norway, may have solved the puzzle of the mysterious trading center.

New book relocates Battle of Bosworth

For centuries, everyone knew that the Battle of Bosworth, which led to the death of Richard III and the ascendence of the Tudors, took place on Ambion Hill, but new research by Glenn Foard and Anne Curry places the site two miles away by a marsh called Fen Hole.

Late Roman well offers insight into technology

A well-preserved, late-Roman well near Heslington, England demonstrates use of the latest technology of the time, including curved stone facings and a dish-shaped base. Archaeologists from the University of York believe the well had "significance in contemporary local agricultural cycles and fertility practices."

What we can learn from Timbuktu

In the Middle Ages, Africa was a leader in the scientific research and knowledge. Now Umar Benna of the College of Architecture and Planning at the University of Dammam, in Al-Khoba, Saudi Arabia believes that the lessons of Timbuktu's gradual development approach can teach modern Africa, as well as the western world, how to deal with globalism.

Scientists reconstruct leprosy genome medieval strains

Lepers are a common image in medieval histories, but by the end of the 16th century, the disease appeares to have mostly died out in Europe. Now a team of biologists and archeologists have reconstructed the genomes of medieval strains of the pathogen responsible for the disease to find out why.

The impact of Shakespeare's investment

In 1594, William Shakespeare made a move that gave him financial stability and, some say, changed the way he wrote plays: he purchased a one-eighth share in the Lord Chamberlain's Men. One of those people is Dr Bart van Es of Oxford University's Faculty of English Language and Literature, who claims that the purchase gave the playwright a better relationship with and understanding of actors.

Our great big European family

Great Britain and continental Europe are just one, big family - at least genetically - according to a new study by Graham Coop, a professor of evolution and ecology at the University of California, Davis in PLoS Biology.

Viking "compass" may have calculated latitude

In a new study in the Proceedings of The Royal Society A, researcher Balázs Bernáth and his team propose that Viking-era sun compasses, whose "lines don't quite match scientists' interpretations," may have had another purpose: calculating latitude. (photo, diagram)

The mind of the medieval reader

Who knows what people in the 14th century reador thought? MIT professor Arthur Bahr thinks he does.

Richard III generates first research paper

It must have been a race to the finish line, but the first academic paper to be published on the discovery of the remains of Richard III is The king in the car park: new light on the death and burial of Richard III in the Grey Friars church, Leicester, in 1485 by Richard Buckley, Mathew Morris, Jo Appleby, Turi King, Deirdre O'Sullivan, and Lin Foxhall.

Exhibit showcases West's debt to Islamic doctors

In a new exhibit, the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) in London will showcase the work of early Islamic physicians. The mirror of health: discovering medicine in the golden age of Islam will be on display at the college's museum from 1 May to 25 October 2013.

Richard III letter auctioned for UK£35,000

A rare document bearing the signature of Richard III before he was king was auctioned recently, bringing nearly UK£35,000. The document signed "R. Gloucestre" was written when the duke was in his twenties and involves a "land dispute between Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, and some of his tenants."

Scoliosis and its medieval cure

The discovery of the remains of King Richard III of England has led to the discussion of the king's scoliosis, "a lateral or side-to-side curvature of the spine," easily seen in the skeleton, and the techniques that would have been available to "cure" it.

Richard on the couch

Now that Richard III's body has been identified, experts are probing his mind. In a paper presented March 2, 2013 at the University of Leicester, Professor Mark Lansdale and forensic psychologist Dr Julian Boon offered an analysis of Richard III's character.

Ransom profitable for medieval rank-and-file

History has recorded that the ransom of kings and nobles was a popular way for armies to raise money during the Middle Ages, but new research shows that the practice may have also been popular among common soldiers.

Did "Solarsteinn" lead Vikings west?

Experts have long speculated that a Norse Solarsteinn, or sunstone, was used to help Viking mariners find their way west through cloudy weather, and the discovery of such an artifact on a sunken, 16th century English warship may prove it.

Identity theft in the Renaissance

Most people believe that identify theft is a modern concept, but the Renaissance also had its share of frauds and pretenders. In a new book Renaissance Impostors and Proofs of Identity, author Miriam Eliav-Feldon of Tel Aviv University's Department of History looks at men and women of the time who played loosely with the rules of identity.

New Year magic in the Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, the period after Christmas was a time for looking ahead to the new year. Practices included superstitions and methods to predict weather for the coming year. The clergy accepted some of the age-old rituals, but were loathe to allow others. A recent article for Phys.org looks at Christmas Day fortune telling.

Inability to adapt not the cause of demise of the Vikings

One of the theories about the demise of Viking settlers on Greenland was that the Norse were unable to adapt to the island's harsh climate, but Danish and Canadian researchers believe that was not the cause.

The complexity of identifying Richard III

Archaeologists, historians and royalists are waiting with bated breath for the determination of the identity of a skeleton found in Leicester, England. The skeleton is believed to be that of King Richard III, but they may have a long wait for the test results.

University of Exeter app to bring Anglo-Saxon poetry to smart devices

Like Anglo Saxon poetry? The University of Exeter will soon have an app for that! An article for Phys.org writes, "The University of Exeter's Modern Languages department is working in collaboration with Antenna International to create the App which will reveal the secrets of medieval literature to a new audience."

Tycho Brahe not poisoned

For over 400 years, rumours have surrounded the death of Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, including one which suggested that Brahe was murdered using mercury by his assistant Johannes Kepler. Now, after two years, evidence from the scientist's exhumed body disproves the theory.

Psychological profiling by the Vikings

Dr Tarrin Wills, from the Centre for Scandinavian Studies, believes that Vikings used their understanding of human psychology to "profile" possible trouble-makers. He recently presented his research at the British Science Festival.