1501 CE to 1600 CE

Letters to Eung-tae tell story of love and grief

500 hundred years ago, a grieving wife wrote 13 love letters of Shakespearean pathos to her dead husband. The letters were buried along with the mummified remains in Andong City in South Korea, and tell "him she wants to see him and listen to him in her dreams."

The medieval debate over "the rule of the rod"

Debate over corporal punishment in schools continues to this day, but new research by Dr Ben Parsons, of the University of Leicester, shows that the debate is an old one. In his project, Discipline and Violence in the Medieval Classroom, Parsons examines writings from the Middle Ages and concludes that corporal punishment was not necessarily the rule of the day.

Richard III to be reburied with medieval pomp and ceremony

Reburial of nobles was common practice in the 15th century, so the spirit of Richard III should feel right at home when he is soon reinterred in Leicester Cathedral. Experts have discovered a medieval ceremony of reburial, parts of which will be used in the upcoming service.

German brewers demand Reinheitsgebot be recognized by UNESCO

A 16th century German law, Reinheitsgebot, laying out the purity of beer, should be included in UNESCO's list of famous traditions, according to the country's beer industry. Over 5,000 beers still carry the law's seal which requires that only water, barley, yeast and hops may be used to brew beer.

Tudor Monastery Farm on BBC 2

Watchers of BBC 2 may want to catch up on the latest episodes of The Tudor Monastery Farm, where modern experts "work as ordinary farmers under the eye of a monastic landlord, learning to master the landscape away from the farm in order to supplement their income."

Eggshells and pipes highlight 16th century Swedish kitchen

Swedish archaeologists were recently given the rare opportunity to excavate a portion of the Södermalmstorg area in Stockholm. The excavation revealed a complete 16th century kitchen, including intricately-carved tobacco pipes and an unexplained pile of eggshells. (photos)

Old Masters Week to feature sale of the Rothschild Prayerbook

Representatives from Christie's auction house in New York have announced that the centerpiece of its January 2014 Old Masters Week auctions will be The Rothschild Prayerbook, considered to be "the finest illuminated manuscript in private hands." The manuscript was created for a member of the Dutch court in 1505. (photo)

Cardiff Castle re-moated

After ceremonies to mark the conclusion of Bute Park's restoration, the waterworks were opened and Cardiff Castle's moat was filled for the first time in 30 years. During the restoration, the moat was excavated by archaeologists, revealing more than 3,000 items dating back to the 16th century.

16th century blacksmith shop found in Norway

The discovery of an old forge, an iron arrowhead and utensils has led archaeologists to believe that they had found an area used by blacksmiths dating to the 1500s. The site was unearthed under Klosterenga in Oslo, Norway.

The allure of the sea monster

For medieval people, the ocean was the ultimate mystery, as were the creatures that lived there - in truth and in the imagination. Many of these creatures were depicted on medieval maps, the subject of two new books reviewed on Smithsonian's Collage of Arts and Sciences blog.

New Shakespeare collection to include "Apocrypha"

Have you heard of Shakespeare's Mucedorus? Neither have most people, since the late 16th century play has been attributed to someone else. But now, thanks to linguistic "fingerprinting," Shakespeare's involvement in the writing of the play may have been proven.

Elizabeth reference found in Raleigh portrait

The recent restoration of a portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh has revealed a secret: a hidden crescent moon over water, a symbol of the explorer's devotion to Queen Elizabeth I. The portrait is on display at the National Portrait Gallery in London until January 5, 2014. (photo)

DNA study proves French relics not royal

Three years ago, French scientists identified a mummified head as that of the beloved French king, Henri IV, but now new DNA research proves that the relic did not belong to a royal. Henri IV ruled from 1589 to 1610.

Da Vinci mystery solved

Rumors of a portrait of Renaissance noblewoman Isabella d’Este by Leonardo da Vinci have circulated for centuries, but no art historian had actually seen it. Now a painting, believed to be by the master, has been discovered in a Swiss bank vault, possibly solving a 500-year-old mystery. (photo)

Is the turkey leg period?

Turkey legs, a staple of "Ye Olde Renaissance Faire," have often been the subject of debate among cooks and researchers of the time period. The topic returns in the food section of the Kansas City Star in an article by Tim Engle.

Cheapside Hoard scores dedicated exhibition at the Museum of London

In 1912, a tenement building in Cheapside, in the heart of London, was demolished, unearthing one of the rariest treasures in the city's history. Vivienne Becker, of the Telegraph, offers a feature on the Cheapside Hoard, currently on display at the Museum of London. (photos and video)

Cambridge University lawbreakers catalogued

Jacky Cox, Cambridge University's archivist, has a monumental job ahead of her: creating the first catalogue of thousands of court records from the 16th and 17th centuries, chronicling the misdeeds of students, staff and townspeople attached to the university. About half of the records from Vice-Chancellor's Court (1540-1630) are now summarised online.

Scottish battle anniversaries focus of tourism industry

September 9, 2013 marked the 500th anniversary of the Battle of Flodden (the English won), while 2014 will be the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn (the Scots took that one), two events destined to bring tourists flocking to Scotland and northern England. Sophie Campbell of The Telegraph has a feature story.

The jewels of the saints

After the Reformation, many Catholics were depressed about the loss of relics of their saints. In the 16th century thousands of skeletons were taken from the catacombs in Rome, bedecked with jewels, and distributed throughout Europe. A slideshow of jeweled saints, photographed by art historian Paul Koudounaris, is online.

Search for sultan's heart continues

Archaeologists working at a site near Szigetvar, Hungary have discovered an Ottoman-era town near the site of the 16th century siege between Suleiman the Magnificent and Croatian-Hungarian nobleman Miklos Zrinyi. Experts hope to find the location where the sultan's heart is buried.

Tudor tombs re-created by historians and scientists

Archival experts are teaming up with scientists to re-create two Tudor monuments using a combination of cutting-edge technology and document research. The two tombs, both victims of Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries, are those of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk and Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, illegimate son of Henry VIII. (photo)

3-D London before the Great Fire

Students and competitors of Crytek's Off the Map contest have developed a game-quality video of London, starting in Pudding Lane, with great detail (photos and video).

Spanish fort in Appalachian Mountains

A team of archaeologists has discovered a Spanish fort built in the foothills of North Carolina's Appalachian Mountains by Spanish Captain Juan Pardo in 1567, nearly 40 years before Jamestown. Fort San Juan is now considered the earliest European fort constructed in the interior of the United States.

History lost to fire regulations

It was a sad day at the Minerva Inn, the oldest pub in Plymouth, England, when fire regulations forced owner Shelley Jones to paint over 500 years of hand-written messages left by regulars and sailors on its timber beams and roof. The pub was frequented by Sir Francis Drake and is believed to contain beams and masts stripped from the Spanish Armada. (photos)

Technology of Cheapside Hoard amazes modern researchers

Researchers from Birmingham City University have used modern technology to re-examine the Cheapside Hoard - "the world's largest collection of Elizabethan and Jacobean jewellery discovered in a London cellar in 1912" -- and were "stunned at the advanced technologies" used to craft the items.

"Lost" Jewish cemetery found in Vienna

In 1943, Nazis encouraged the destruction of the gravestones in Vienna's oldest Jewish cemetery. Now through the use of ground-penetrating radar, some of the stones, dating back to the 16th century, have been re-discovered.

Luther pamphlets stolen from museum in Eisenach

Officials at the Lutherhaus museum in Eisenach, Germany were shocked to learn that three original 16th century printed pamphlets by Martin Luther had been stolen from the museum July 12, 2013. The pamphlets included hand-written notes by contemporaries of Luther.

Archaeologists search for graves at Flodden

In September 1513, thousands of bodies were buried on or around the battlefield of Flodden in Northumberland, England. Now, 500 years later, excavation has taken place to locate and protect the remains and to declare the burials as war dead.

Rethinking Henry VIII

For 500 years, Henry VIII has had a reputation as a womanizing villain, but TV historian Dr Lucy Worsley has a different view: Henry was a family kind of guy who just wanted to settle down with a good woman.

Introducing Hernán Cortés

Arguably, Hernán Cortés is the most famous - or infamous - of the Spanish explorers. Jessie Szalay, LiveScience Contributor, offers a biographical feature on the conqueror of the Aztec Empire and governor of New Spain.