1201 CE to 1300 CE

13th century Scotland is closer than you think

Medieval Scotland can be closer than you think...in New York, for instance. A home inspired by a 13th century Scottish castle is up for sale in New City, New York, just an hour north of Manhattan.

Scholar thinks original Robin Hood may be from Kent, England

An English scholar and author has put forth the theory that Robin Hood was originally William of Keynsham, a bailiff who led a group of archers against the invading French in the woods near Sussex and Kent in 1216.

Maria Vretmark and the mystery of the king's tomb

Maria Vretmark has a "fantastic story" to tell: Who is buried in King Magnus Ladulås' tomb? New DNA tests carried out by her team have determined that at least some of the bodies in the tomb in central Stockholm, Sweden are several centuries younger than the reign of Magnus, who ruled from 1275 until 1290.

Bill mandates that New Hampshire laws cite Magna Carta

Laws in the United States are supposed to take their legal precedent from the Constitution of the United States, but a new law proposed by Republicans in New Hampshire would require all legislation find its origin in the 800-year-old Magna Carta.

Medieval church unearthed in Sozopol, Bulgaria

It has been a busy year for archaeologists in Sozopol on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, where recently the remains of a 13th century church and the eastern gate of the ancient city fortress were discovered.

Plea to save German "leaning tower"

The famous leaning tower of the Church of Our Dear Ladies on the Hill in Bad Frankenhausen, Germany is scheduled for demolition if funds to stabilize the tower cannot be raised. The tower leans 4.5 meters (15 feet) from the perpendicular, more than the leaning tower of Pisa. (photo)

13th century seal matrix match to British Library Stone Priory seal

Experts at the British Library have matched a bronze seal matrix, dating to the 13th century, with a 19th century sulphur cast of a seal belonging to the Augustinian canons of Stone Priory in Staffordshire. The matrix was discovered recently in a Surrey field. (photos)

Artifacts spanning 23 centuries declared treasure in Norwich, England

A recent inquest in Norwich, England has resulted in a number of artifacts, dating from 800 BCE through the 15th century CE, being declared treasure. The six groups of treasures were all discovered by metal detector enthusiasts. (photo)

Acre: “one of the most exciting sites in the world of archaeology”

Archaeologists and tourists alike are rediscovering Acre, the Crusader city in Israel. Now the ancient city is being viewed as a goldmine for medieval artifacts. Eliezer Stern, the Israeli archaeologist in charge of Acre, calls the city “one of the most exciting sites in the world of archaeology.” (photos)

Mongol shipwreck might be part of invasion force

In the 13th century, Mongol leader and Chinese ruler Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan. A witness to the ill-fated attempt may have been found off the coast of Nagasaki in the form of a nearly-intact Chinese ship.

13th century Spanish document surfaces at University of Virginia

15 years ago, George Greenia discovered a 13th century medieval Spanish document, missing for centuries, in the archives at the University of Virginia’s Alderman Library. Now the contents and story of discovery of the document have been disclosed.

Fibonacci: How numbers helped shape the development of modern Western Europe

In 1202, life in western Europe was changed by the publication of Liber abbaci, a book by Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci, the first general-purpose book of arithmetic in the West, which "explained the 'new' methods in terms understandable to ordinary people."

Crusader inscription found in Arabic

A 13th century inscription written in Arabic has been translated and found to be a proclamation by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. The inscription is thought to originally be from a wall in Jaffa, Israel. The inscription is the only known example of its kind.

Restoration of Newcastle's Black Gate planned

In the 13th century, Henry III built the Black Gate at Newcastle, England's castle to help beef up the defenses of the City. Now the City Council has been awarded UK£1.4m by the Heritage Lottery Fund to make the site available to the public.

Location of 13th century seal puzzles experts

A large medieval seal dating to the 13th or 14th century has been discovered in a field in Surrey, England. The mystery of the seal is that it is believed to have originated at Stone Priory in north Staffordshire. (photo)

Art historian finds devil is really in the details

An art historian claims to have found an image of the devil in the fluffy clouds of a 13th century fresco by the early Renaissance artist Giotto. The fesco, in the Assisi Bascilica in Italy, depicts the death of St. Francis of Assisi.

Rethinking William Wallace

When Mel Gibson brought the story of Scottish hero William Wallace to the screen in Braveheart, Wallace became a worldwide symbol of freedom, but the seeds of rebellion may have had a slightly different beginning according to a new study.

13th century graveyard in Italy reveals strange burials

A woman with nails driven into her skull and another surrounded by 17 dice have led archaeologists to speculate that a cemetery in Tuscany may have been a witch's graveyard.

What prompted the Icelandic Sagas?

Dr. Emily Lethbridge of Cambridge University is seeking to understand the significance of the Icelandic Sagas, why they were created during the 13th and 14th centuries, and why they still resonate with the people of Iceland today.

Norman involvement in 11th century Spain

In his 2007 dissertation for the University of Nottingham, Norman and Anglo-Norman Participation in the Iberian Reconquista c.1018 – c.1248, Lucas Villegas-Aristizabal considers the contribution of the Normans, especially Crusaders, in the Christianizing of the Iberian Peninsula.

The scribes behind the Middle English masters

“The clerks of the London Guildhall form the invisible link between medieval authors like Geoffrey Chaucer and their first audiences, the original owners of the medieval manuscripts we study today,” said Professor Linne Mooney of the University of York.

Intricate silver and carnelian ring found in North Yorkshire

A 13th or 14th century ring was discovered near Ripon, England in 2010 by metal detectorist Lindsey Holland. The silver and carnelian ring is expected to be declared treasure, making it available to be acquired by a museum. (photo)

"The seal of Tristan of Treago" found in Cornwall

Metal dectorist John Fereday was "so excited that his hands were shaking" when he discovered a 13th century silver seal on a farm near Newquay in Cornwall. "Medieval seals are very rare in Cornwall and silver ones are rarer still," said liaisons officer Anna Tyacke.

Crusader sword pommel: "one of the most significant relics of the Middle Ages ever discovered in Scotland"

A metal detectorist has discovered the pommel of a 13th century sword in a farmer's field in Selkirkshire, Scotland. Experts believe the bronze pommel belonged to a Norman noble involved in the Last Crusade.

Phalluses scrubbed from medieval fresco

After a three-year restoration project, the 13th century Tree of Fertility fresco in the small Italian town of Massa Marittima was ready to view, but art experts had some problems with the restoration work when they noticed that testicles and phalluses hanging from the tree had been removed.

"Wonderful" medieval walls found near Llanrwst, Wales

Drainage work at a hotel near Llanrwst, Wales has unearthed three 13th century walls believed to have belonged to the cloister of a Cistercian abbey.

New Welsh Pilgrim's Way inaugurated by 127 mile walk

The new Pilgrim's Way walking path in Wales was christened recently when 80 walkers began the 127-mile (204km), 12-day trek from Basingwerk Abbey in Holywell, Flintshire to Bardsey Island in Gwynedd. (slideshow)

13th century fulling mill found in Barrowburn

A team of archaeologists from Coquetdale Community Archaeology has discovered the remains of a 13th century cloth mill on the River Coquet near Barrowburn, England. Experts believe that the mill was built by monks from the Newminster Abbey in Morpeth.

Medieval chess piece found in Iceland

A 12th or 13th century chess piece has been found in Iceland. The piece is carved from herringbone and looks  similar to the Lewis Chessmen.

Walters Art Museum features digitized Islamic manuscripts

The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland has begun a project to digitize its collection of Islamic manuscripts. A gallery of images, including covers and bindings, is available on the museum's website.