1001 CE to 1100 CE

No horns on their helmets

Everyone knows that the Vikings were dirty louts in helmets with horns -- at least that is what Danish Facebook readers thought in a recent survey by ScienceNordic’s Danish partner site, videnskab.dk. ScienceNordic debunks the myths about Viking appearance on a webpage entitled What Vikings really looked like.

Macbeth, too, got a bad rap

The discovery of the remains of Richard III and the rethinking of his reign have caused some  to re-examine the image of another of Shakespeare's villains, Macbeth. Scots MSP Alex Johnstone is proposing such a study.

Escrick ring baffles archaeologists

A beautiful sapphire ring discovered in 2009 by a metal detectorist in North York, England, has stumped experts who have been unable to date the ring. (photo)

Stafford Castle to be restored

The Stafford Borough Council reports that over UK£75,000 will be spent to restore Stafford Castle, a late 11th century Norman castle in Stafford, England.

Bayeux tapestry complete at last

The residents of he Channel Island of Alderney, led by librarian Kate Russell, have recently completed a major project: the final panels of the Bayeux tapestry. (photo)

Beowulf manuscript online

Ever tried to read Beowulf in the original language? Now you can, thanks to the British Library.

Saxon brooch found at site of Northampton Castle

Construction work to replace a train station in Northampton, England has unearthed "an ironstone wall, fragments of pottery and a Saxon brooch." (photo)

Drought reveals early Byzantine city

For a thousand years, the Byzantine port city of Bathonea lay hidden and forgotten beneath farmland, but a recent drought revealed the town's seawall, leading to the discovery of a "well-connected, wealthy, fully outfitted harbor city that thrived from the fourth to 11th century." (photos)

11th century Jewish documents found in Afghan fox den

Two years ago, the chance discovery of a collection of documents in a cave in Afghanistan gave experts a first ever glimpse of 11th century "religious, cultural and commercial life of the Jewish community in a central location on the trade route between China and the West."

In search of rockets

While rockets are often thought of as the realm of modern scientists and the military, they have their roots in medieval China. This article traces their roots from a 12th century party trick to their evolution as the terror of Mongolian invaders.

Viking troop transport to go on display at the British Museum

The Roskilde 6, the largest Viking long ship ever found, is traveling to England, not to loot and pillage, but to educate, 1,000 years after it carried troops for King Canute of Denmark. The warship wil be displayed by the British Museum in 2014.

Remains of Northampton Castle discovered

Three feet (one metre) beneath the surface of the site for the new railway station building in Northampton, England, lay a secret, recently discovered: the remains of the 11th Century, Northampton Castle.

Battle of Hastings cancelled due to rain

Sunday October 14, 2012 marked the 346th anniversary of the Battle of Hastings which brought Norman rule to Anglo-Saxon England. Unfortunately, rain and mud put a damper on the celebration, cancelling the battle re-enactment.

Archaeologists seek Kingsholm Palace

A BBC video reports that archaeologists believe they have discovered the site of the Anglo-Saxon Kingsholm Palace in Gloucester, England.

Bayeux Tapestry captured in crystal

The 11th century Bayeux Tapestry, depicting the Battle of Hastings, measures an impressive 70m (230ft). Now an artist from Somerset, England has engraved the entire piece onto a crystal bowl. (photo)

London burials surprise archaeologists

The discovery of over 500 skeletons, some dating to the Middle Ages, has halted plans for the construction of a UK£20m leisure centre in south-east London. BBC London's Nick Beake has a video report.

NOVA looks at history of Viking weapons

A recent program in the PBS NOVA series explores Secrets of the Viking Sword. The 53-minute program is available to download and view from the NOVA website.

In search of Hastings

Tradition (and tourism) have long held that Battle Abbey was the site of the famous Battle of Hastings. However, while as many as 10,000 men may have died there, no bodies or major artifacts have been found. Historian John Grehan thinks that the battle may really have taken place in Caldbec Hill, a mile away.

African king is history's richest man

Bill Gates who? CelebrityNetWorth has named Mansa Musa I, the 14th century leader of the Empire of Mali, the richest man of all time, with a personal worth of over US$400 billion.  Mali's role as supplier of salt and gold to much of the known world made the king rich and Mali an economic superpower.

11th century Tibetan statue carved from a meteorite

In a story fit for an Indiana Jones movie, a statue carved by the Bon people of Tibet in the 11th century and excavated by Nazis in the 1930s has been found to be carved from a meteorite that fell to earth between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago.

The truth about "really dirty Vikings"

Many movies and books portray Vikings as "really dirty savages who wore horned helmets," but the website ScienceNordic sets the record straight with the educational article What Vikings really looked like.

Taking the feudal oath online

As part of their Internet Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University offers a section on medieval feudal oaths as part of a legal discussion of feudalism. Sources were created during the Middle Ages.

New theory of St John's College skeletons: Viking raiders

Once believed to have been victoms of the St Brice's Day Massacre, 37 skeletons found on the grounds of St John's College, Oxford in 2008, are now believed to have been executed Viking raiders.

Pennsic Hastings Battle 2012

The year 1066 was a turning point in history, and for the last two years at the Pennsic Hastings Battle, the Saxons managed to turn the tides of history back upon themselves, defending the Saxon lands from the Norman invaders!

1000 years of London's records in new book

A new book by David Pearson looks at 1000 years of records for the city of London. London 1000 Years: Treasures from the Collections of the City of London is reviewed by Paul Lay on the History Today website.

New book studies distortions of First Crusade histories

In a recent article for the New York Times Sunday Review, author and director of the Center for Byzantine Research at Oxford, Peter Frankopan,  discusses his new book The First Crusade: The Call From the East.

Byzantine settlement found in central Greece

Construction workers excavating for a new home uncovered the remains of a Byzantine settlement recently in Lefokastron in central Greece. Experts believe the 11 sites date between the 4th and 11th centuries.

Lincoln Castle's Magna Carta to receive new vault

Lincoln Castle, in Lincolnshire County, England, will receive a facelift thanks to grants and fundraising amounting to almost UK£19m. Improvements will include a new viewing vault for the Magna Carta. (video)

St. Johns skeletons prove to be Vikings

In 2008, 37 skeletons were discovered buried at St John's College in Oxford, England. Once believed to have been victoms of the 1002 St Brice's Day Massacre, the remains are now believed to be Viking raiders.

Adapting to change - Viking style

The world seems to be changing very quickly with climate change, economic turmoil and culture wars taking place around the globe. Scientists studying global change believe much can be learned from the Vikings and how they adapted to their turbulent world.