Russia's Caucasus "the mountain of tongues"

A 10th-century geographer, traveling in Russia's Caucasus Mountains, referred to them as the "mountain of tongues" due to the diversity of languages preserved in the isolated villages. This diversity continues today in an area which supports 34 ethnic groups.

While Russian is taught in the schools, the variety of languages includes those with Turkic, Mongol, Greek, and other language roots. One cultural group, the Tats, speak a 1,000-year-old dialect of Persian.