Meeting the Magyars

Aiofe's weekly annotated list takes us to Hungary for a look at that country's medieval past.

Greetings everyone. This week's topic was requested by my husband (there have to be SOME benefits to being my spouse, after all :). The subject under the microscope is Medieval Hungary and the MEDIEVAL Magyars (What I'd call native Hungarians in fact call themselves Magyars to this day, which made searching for information a little tricky).

As always feel free to pass this information along to whomever will be interested, and feel free to update your own WebPages with these links.

Yours in service,
And CHEERS
Aoife

Hungarian National Museum Exhibitions (English version)
http://origo.hnm.hu/english/kiall.html
The museum site has some wonderful material appealing to: Fiber arts persons (a coronation mantle dating from King Stephen and Queen Gisella in l031); armorers (I was unable to get to the atmor pictured in the exhibits menu--got a "pip-makers" link instead, but I live in hopes that it is possible); Stoneworkers (referred to as lapidary on site); Archive of the Museum has links (someonly in Hungarian) to Prehistoric Gold Finds (looking very viko-celtic to this untrained eye), and an article and photos from an Avar Gold Hoard--thankfully in English.

A Hungarian Language Course
http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~arubin/hungarian.html
(Site Excerpt) Magyar (pronounced /Mawdyar/), as the Hungarians call their language, is spoken by the approximately 10.3 million inhabitants of Hungary, as well as another 4 million people in neighboring countries and a million others scattered around the world. It belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family, which includes Finnish and Estonian, but its closest relatives are several obscure languages spoken in Siberia. Hungarian is not at all related to the Indo-European languages which surround it, and is very different both in vocabulary and in grammar. Hungarian is an agglutinative language, meaning that it relies heavily on suffixes and prefixes. The grammar is seemingly complex, yet there is no gender, a feature that most English speakers grapple with when learning other European languages. Hungarian does use the Roman alphabet however, and after learning a few simple rules one can easily read Hungarian. Pronunciation is also very easy, especially compared to other neighbouring languages like Czech, German, and Russian.

Hungarian Lessons / Magyar leck� (with sound guides)
http://www.hungarotips.com/hungarian/
(Site Excerpt) Hungarian is spoken by only 15 million people worldwide. It is hard to learn magyar outside of Hungary, since it is almost impossible to find local source, classes or tutors to help. This website offers some lessons for those who really want to learn Hungarian. You also find a growing collection of sound files, self-quizzes, tests and puzzles here to support these lessons.

Hungarian Agar Dogs (a medieval sighthound breed)
http://www.planet-pets.com/magyar.htm
(Site Excerpt) The present day Hungary's inhabitants are mostly descendants of the Magyar's. These are the people who invaded and settled into Hungary in the 9th century. The Magyar people brought their dogs with them when settling. These dogs are thought to resemble the Sloughi and other eastern greyhound types.

Coruinus Library Hungarian History
http://www.net.hu/corvinus/aloldal.htm
(Site Excerpt) Welcome to our Corvinus Library. Here you will find some books on Hungarian history, published in the United States of America, in the English language. Some others are translated from Hungarian (please excuse our accent...). There were a lot of anticipated, but unexpectedly fast changes lately in Central and East-Central Europe and the Balkans. Researchers, historians, diplomats, professors were scrambling for information on historical and artificially created states of the area. Unfortunately, there were very few - fair and objective - books available on Hungary. To help to fill the sudden demand, we have distributed thousands of books on the subject among university, research, media and government libraries. (Ed note: Please see the Free Books link, some of which are CD Rom versions of Hungarian History. There's a pretty good list of books to be had free for researchers: I suggest that you pool your resources so as to not overwhelm them with requests).

Hungarian History
http://www.hungary.org/users/hipcat/history.htm
(Site Excerpt) Hungary has long been a citadel of Western thought in Central Europe. Relatives of the Hungarians, the Huns, Avars, and Szekleys settled the Carpathian basin as early as the 4th century. Magyar tribes established the Hungarian State in the Carpathian Basin in 896. Long after the fiered Attila, "The Scourge of God," ravaged Europe, the Magyar Chieftan Vajk converted to Christianity, established Hungary as a Christian power, and received his crown from the Pope, thus becoming Istv� Kir�y (King Stephen), Hungary's first Christian King in the year 1000. He was later canonized as St. Stephen of Hungary.

World Wide Web Virtual Library: History: Hungary
http://www.ukans.edu/history/VL/europe/hungary.html
More than 100 links relating to Historical Hungary from it's earliest history on towards modern day. Includes some Jewish Hungarian History.

About.com's History of Painting and Sculpture in Hungary
http://historymedren.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2F...
(beware wrapped URL's. Copy the entire link address adn paste it into your browser window).
(Site excerpt) On the following pages the concise history of painting and sculpture in Hungary can be found. From the time-frame extending from the establishing of the Hungarian state in the 11th century to the mid 20th century, you can select a period from the menu located at the left side of the screen. Using the icons always present at the top of the screen you can return anytime to the virtual collection.

The Magyars of Hungary
http://www.geocities.com/egfrothos/magyars/magyars.html
(Site Excerpt) The Hungarians, unlike their Slavic neighbours, speak a language of the group known as Finno-Ugric. Despite claims of Hunnish descent, it is thought that they came from the Ural Mountains in Russia and migrated east, then south in contact with Turks and Iranians, taking on a nomadic, herding lifestyle. The word Hungary is thought to have come from On Ogur ("ten arrows"), the name of a Magyar tribal confederation.

ABOUT HUNGARY
http://www.hajduboszormeny.hu/ehb1100.htm#med
The seven Magyar tribes gradually evolved over four centuries into a kingdom known as Hungary, led by Stephen I and his successors. Parts of Transylvania were conquered and colonized in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. In 1090 Laszlo I occupied Slavonia, and in 1103 Kalman I named himself king of Croatia, though Croatia actually remained an "associate" kingdom administered by a civil governor. Hungary gradually evolved into a feudal economy, and by the reign of Bela III beginning in 1173, the country was a major power in southeastern Europe.

Medieval History
http://www.mehedinti.info/en/presentation/history-medieval.htm
Note that though this site has no official title except the above (that I can find), I does contains some good historical information. (Site Excerpt) The Wallachian ruler Mircea eel Batran (1386-1418) strengthened and enlarged the fortress, coined money in the Severin Fortress and favoured both Romanian and foreign tradesmen (who were) going through the Schela Cladovei Customs. The sub dual of the Severin Fortress by the Turks and its final destroying opened the way to the Turks towards Central Europe. In 1541, half of Hungary's surface was turned into a Turkish province.

The Fall of the Medieval Kingdom of Hunagary (a bibliography)
http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/warso/warso29.htm

Magyar Madneess Timeline (an event based on an historical timeline)
http://www.stolaf.edu/orgs/sca/scrapbook/oldevents/magyar/timeline.html#...
Each activity at this Magyar-themed event is based upon an instance in Hungarian History. Brought to you by: The Baronial Colleges of Nordleigh

The History of Hungary
http://www.barbarahouse.homestead.com/history.html
(Site Excerpt) While dates are uncertain, evidence suggests Celts dominated part of the region until their ouster by the Romans in the first century AD, who made the land the imperial province of Pannonia. The Romans were expelled by the Goths in the fourth century, and later Attila the Hun dominated and terrorized the area. Avars, Bulgars, and Germans all staked claims to various territories within the Basin. By the late ninth century, the occupying Moravian or Slavic settlements were vanquished when Magyar cavalrymen, led by their chieftain �p�, swept through the region. After �p�'s death in 907, the Magyars, who made marauding forays throughout central Europe, were defeated by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I in 955. Duke Geza found it politically expedient to convert to Christianity in 975, and his son Stephen, founder of the �pad Dynasty, was made king by Pope Sylvester II around 1000 AD.

The Early History of the Hungarian Ethnic Designations by Fred Hamori
http://www2.4dcomm.com/millenia/magynam.htm
(Site Excerpt) The Hungarian nation throughout it's known history has at least three distinct names, not counting the other six tribal names which are also traceable back into antiquity. ( the other tribal names are Kari, Kasi, Kurt-Gyarmat, Tarjan/Tarxan, Jenu, Nyek) These three names whose roots are to be discussed refered more to the leading nation, which also could have had its unique independent origin. Starting with the oldest references and advancing to the newest are the following at different times and different languages; (1) Sabar-toi Asfali, Subar, Sabir, Savar, Sawardiya , Land of 4 rivers, source of 4 great rivers, Urartu and the Caucasus. (2) Mas-ar, Masgar, Mazar, Madjar, Magor, Magar, Magyar, Makar. Royal Apostolic rule & land of 4 rivers. (3) Onogur, Hunugur, Ugor, Ungar, Hungar, Uhor, Venger. The 10 arrows confederation. "Onogur "

Museums on Hungary on the WEB, in order of counties
http://www.ace.hu/ceicom/hungary/hunliste.html

Art on Egg (Egg art including a great many Payzanki styles)
http://datan-datenanalyse.de/Tojas/index.html
To see examples of the museum's display, click English along the top menu, then click Views, in small type, to the top right.

History of Romaina
http://home.online.no/~romemb/history.htm#MIDDLE
This site is mentioned because of the enormous role Huingary played in Romania's history. Many people still claim that Transylvania is actually Hungarian in nature, not Romanian.

Magyar SCA Listserve - Medieval Hungary and things Hungarian in SCA.
Subscription: email to magyar-request@bransle.ucs.mun.ca

History of Transylvania
http://members.aol.com/revanche2/Hisstory.html
(Site Excerpt, excuse the cheesy graphics) Hungarians conquered Transylvania in 896 AD. Soon after, German settlers, later called Transylvanian Saxons, were invited in to help defend the country against frequent incursions from the East. For several centuries the state administration was based on the alliance of the following three nations: the Hungarian nobles, the Szeklers, and the free peasants and tradesmen of the autonomous Saxon territories. Romanians in Transylvanian territory were first mentioned in historical documents from the 13th century, where they were referred to as Vlachs.

Important Dates in Hungarian History
http://www.pages.drexel.edu/undergrad/ds22/history.htm
(Site Excerpt) 5th century The Hungarian tribes left the area of the Urals. They passed along the Volga and the Caspian Sea. After several hundred years of wandering, they reached the Carpathian Basin. 896 Under the leadership of Arpad, the Hungarian tribes settled in the Carpathian Basin. They drove out part of the residents and absorbed the other part.