Drachenwald Crowns Permit Same Sex Pair Entry in Their Crown List

On Saturday March 22, 2015, in a surprisingly quick reversal, Their Majesties Macarius and Izabella of Drachenwald changed a decision barring their subjects Hi Lady Hilkka Susinen & Lady Leonet de Covenham from entering their Crown Lists.

After receiving a “tremendous flow of information” from both their subjects and many beyond the borders of their kingdom, Their Majesties reconsidered their original position and welcomed the women into Their Crown List for Spring Crown in Drachenwald.

The initial ban and quick response encapsulate the current state of flux regarding opinion on same sex pair entry in SCA practice. Queen Izabella, in a missive posted to Her kingdom list, shared that She and the King had based their original decision on three factors: the belief that same sex pair entry would deviate from historical practice and re-enactment; the belief that, because the women candidates were friends and not a romantic couple, it was not an issue of LGBT rights; and the implied guidance in Corpora was that the “ground rule” for Crown Lists banned same sex entry.

Their Majesties’ decision to reject the women’s letter of intent was shared for discussion by Lady Leonet on Inspirational Equality, a Facebook group which has nearly 2000 members. Within a day, Their Majesties were flooded with responses from all over the world.

Many of the letters dispatched to Marcarius and Izabella addressed the first two factors mentioned above—historical precedent and legal protection of LGBT rights. Baron Giles of Gyldenholt, (known for being appointed with his husband as the first same sex Barons in the society) has compiled a reference listing nearly forty well-documented historical examples of reigns in European countries shared by two people of the same sex, some of which continue in effect to this day (see below).

Other petitioners invoked modern British Equalities Law, (which applies to the site in England where the Crown List will be held), and prohibits the agents of non-profit clubs with open membership from enacting discriminatory policies. (See link below.)

In the end, however, Their Majesties Drachenwald made it crystal clear that on consideration, neither of these factors represented an obstacle for them. They made no further mention of concerns regarding historical accuracy, and stated that They had no wish to contravene LGBT rights (They explained that They had not seen the issue as such, knowing that the two women were friends and not a couple).

The Queen, in Her letter to the Drachenwald populace, explained simply that as new royalty, They had looked to Corpora for guidance, and, “In this case, we decided to follow the ground rule, instead of going for the exception:
The Kingdom Law Each competitor in the Crown Tournament must be fighting for a prospective consort of the opposite sex unless the Crown has elected to permit a competitor to fight for a prospective consort of the same sex." (The full text of the Queen’s letter is attached).

After receiving and considering the appeals of Their populace and others, Their Majesties reconsidered and publicly accepted the letter of intent to entry from Hikka and Leonet. They also publicly committed to reviewing and amending those parts of Drachenwald law and gender-linked award traditions still incompatible with same sex rule.

Admiration for Their Majesties’ willingness to receive the petitions of their populace and readiness to reconsider their stance was immediate and widespread among supporters of equal access to Crown Lists. Baron Giles voiced this sentiments of many when he wrote to Them, “It is never easy to change your mind on a decision that has been made public, and it is doubtless harder when a flurry of controversy fills social media. We applaud and commend Your decision; it was the right thing to do, and we honor Your courage in doing it.”

This Crown List is not, in fact, the first time that Lady Hilkka has championed Lady Leonet in a Drachenwald Crown Level List—they have entered twice before, in the Insulae Draconis Principality Coronet List in 2013 and 2014. In this gesture of welcoming a same sex pair, Their Majesties Macarius and Izabella join their grandparents, King ThorvadR and Queen Tofa of Drachenwald, who presided over the Spring Crown in A.S. XLVII (2013) list in Nordmark (Sweden) where Lady Ekaterina fought for the honor of Lady Nadiana.

Their Majesties also join the rulers of the Kingdoms of the Outlands, An Tir, Caid, the East, Artemesia, Calontir, Locach, and Ealdormeare, as well as the principalities of Insulae Draconis (Drachenwald), Tir Righ (An Tir), Cynagua (West), and the Mists (West), who have all welcomed same sex pairs into their Crown Lists since the Board of Directors of the SCA added a codicil to Corpora in April 2013 allowing individual Crowns to allow same sex pairs into their lists at their discretion. (Note that Crown and Coronet Lists are both considered “Crown Lists” in the eyes of SCA governing documents, and both are covered by the requirements set out in Corpora regarding rules of Crown List entry.)

According to the records kept by the Inspirational Equality advocacy group, since that Corpora change in April of 2013, same sex pairs have entered Crown Lists twenty-nine times, with twenty-six of those being unique pairs (one pair entered twice and Leonette and Hilkka thrice). Of those twenty-six unique pairs, fourteen were female and twelve were male. Additional pairs of women have publicly announced their plans to enter spring Crown Lists in the coming weeks in Caid and the West.

Four belted fighters have taken part in these entries. The first was Lady Bolverk, (KSCA) of An Tir, (fighting for Mistress Bronwen Elgar). Lady Bolverk has been active in working for same sex inclusion since meetings of the Board of Directors in the early 1980s.

The second was Duke Skeggi of An Tir, who publically stated that his championing of his Master of Fence, Don Andrew Williams, was a show of support for the principles of Inspirational Equality, as well as a gesture of support for the fencing community.

The third was Sir David of Aragorn of the Mists (West Kingdom), who entered as the inspiration of his Squire Nikolai. “I was very honored to be fought for in the Lists for the very first time,” Sir David affirmed, “my squire needed someone to fight for and I was honored to have him represent me on the field.”

The Fourth and most recent was Sir Asoph, husband of the then queen of Ansteorra, who fought for his friend Master Lucais in Ansteorra’s January Crown, 2015. The Ansteorran Royalty further demonstrated their commitment to equality at that time by removing reference to “of the opposite sex” from Ansteorran law regarding prospective consorts. According to the Ansteorran bard Ermegerd, who was present for this announcement, “the hall erupted in vocal and physical expressions of joy.”

The manner of entry in all of these cases makes it clear that the entrants were not attempting to “game the system,” or start a “superduke dynasty” as some had feared during the discussion of this change to SCA law and custom two years ago. Rather, all fighters in same sex pairings, including belted fighters, entered with highest honor and regard for the gravity of the Office. Pictures of same sex pair entrants to Crown Lists around the Known World can be viewed on the Inspirational Equality Facebook page (link below).

This small but steady flow of same sex Crown List candidates around the Known World demonstrates that lifting the ban on same sex pair entry fills a real need. Similarly, the rapid and widespread response to the initial decision to reject the Drachenwald pair shows that the issue continues to resonate powerfully with a large and vocal segment of SCA membership. Finally, Their Majesties’ quick reconsideration in light of historical evidence and modern law, suggests that the opinions of SCA leadership are becoming more flexible and receptive as modern sentiment regarding gay rights continues to shift.

The modern political landscape is indeed experiencing a sea change in opinion and legal practice regarding same sex pairings. At the time of this writing, 24 of 50 European countries, including nearly all of the European countries where the SCA has a strong presence (generally the more westerly European nations) allow some form of gay marriage or civil union. Gay Marriage was passed in New Zealand in 2013 and in Australia, it was approved and then repealed in 2013. Due to recent shifts in national opinion, it is likely to be on the new Parliament’s agenda this year. In the United States, 37 states, parts of Missouri, and Washington D.C. grant the right for same sex partners to marry. A recent CNN/ORC poll found that a 63% supermajority of the American public support the right to marry.

Although these shifts in the marriage equality landscape do not directly impact the issue of access to Crown Lists in the SCA, opinion on the two issues appears to be correlated. For example, opinion on Same Sex entry in Crown as measured by the 2010 SCA census closely tracks with modern data on same sex marriage by state. Comments gathered by the board throughout this process, and informal tracking of conversations on kingdom and local on-line discussion groups anecdotally suggest that SCA opinion has continued to shift towards support for Crown List inclusion since the 2010 census.

These events and changes starkly reveal that current Corpora wording may no longer accurately reflect either the opinion of the majority of the SCA membership or the legal requirements of modern anti-discrimination legislation in countries around the world as currently interpreted and applied. Furthermore, the implied “default rule” of same sex couple exclusion, as highlighted by Her Majesty Izabella, runs the risk of memorializing official SCA sanction for a position that even our Crowned Rulers do not endorse.

The Drachenwald incident is not the first time the Corpora wording has unintentionally caused confusion and frustration. Mistress Katerine le Roux d'Anjou reports that in 2014, the Seneschal of Ansteorra published the Rules of the List for January Crown by quoting Kingdom law verbatim. In response, their Majesties Lochlan and Michelle hastened to clarify on the Ansteorran list, “To all: Her Majesty and I did not approve the list of requirements posted earlier. They may have been pulled from Kingdom Law but they do not reflect Our wishes or Our intent. Same sex couples will be allowed to enter Our Crown Lyst provided they are individually suitable to us. They will be held to no different standard than any other couple.” In fact, as described above, the husband of the sitting queen himself entered the list with a same sex inspiration, and the Crown changed Ansteorran law so that such a situation could not arise again by accident. Not all kingdoms have proactively changed their laws, however, and this incident, may be a harbinger for the potential for unintended harm and confusion due to current Corpora wording.

The Inspirational Equality group feels that, because the current wording requires action to indicate a stance of inclusion, it places an undue burden on already busy Royalty to make a statement contrary to default Corpora each time a Crown List is announced. More problematically, in a world where same sex marriage rights and other legally enshrined protections for both gender and sexual orientation are rapidly becoming the norm, it places the SCA in the position of appearing to condone discrimination.

Interestingly, as modern anti-discrimination laws are applied more broadly and rigorously, the SCA appears to be potentially vulnerable on grounds of discrimination in two categories—first, in terms of sexual orientation (because banning same sex couples denies them the “equal access and enjoyment” of publicly available services that is protected under law in many jurisdictions) and second, in terms of gender discrimination (because a man fighting for a women is allowed while a woman fighting for that same woman can be disallowed based on her status as a woman, all other qualifications being the same).

For this reason, the Inspirational Equality (IE) group is preparing a brief to submit to the Board of the SCA on the April 18 meeting of the Board of Directors. The brief outlines recent events both in the SCA and in modern legal precedents concerning protections for both gender and sexual orientation in a number of countries in which the SCA operates.

The IE brief requests the formation of a committee of inquiry similar to the committees that have recently been formed to research the creation of new peerages. It asks the board to put forth, for a period of public comment, a revised version of Corpora IV.B.1 stating simply "Each competitor in a Royal List must be fighting for a prospective consort.” The IE group feels that not only would such wording reduce the legal exposure of the SCA for appearing to endorse discriminatory practices, it would reduce confusion and more accurately reflect the wishes of the majority of both SCA membership and Reigning royalty.

The IE group is sponsoring a petition in support of the brief to be submitted to the board that can be found here: http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/board-agenda-inspirational-equality.

The Inspirational Equality Facebook community can be found here: https://www.facebook.com/groups/InspriationalEquality/

Supporting Documentation: Letter from Her Majesty Izabella as publicly posted on the Drachenwald online discussion list

Hi Lady Hilkka & Lady Leonet, members of the populace of the Kingdom of Drachenwald

Our recent publication of the list of participants in the forthcoming crown tournament has resulted in a tremendous flow of communication, both direct to us and as various discussions over the social media. Needless to say, we have not had the possibility to follow everything of the latter. The response has been both in support and against our decision.

Especially as a first-time Royalty, it is sometimes difficult to make decisions. It is even more difficult to make good ones. In this case, we decided to follow the ground rule, instead of going for the exception:
The Kingdom Law "Each competitor in the Crown Tournament must be fighting for a prospective consort of the opposite sex unless the Crown has elected to permit a competitor to fight for a prospective consort of the same sex."
It seemed the right way to take.

We did not consider this as a GLBT equality issue, since in our understanding the ladies are a couple of friends who decided to participate together. The same ruling would have been made in any similar case, for example if two dukes would have sent in a letter of intent together. We are supportive of the rights of gay and lesbian people in our Society.
 As King and Queen we had the right to do the decision. However, as King and Queen we should always put what is best for Kingdom before our own personal wishes and interests.

Therefore we have decided to reconsider the not yet accepted letter of intent to enter the Lists at the forthcoming Crown Tourney.
Since the Kingdom Law itself is not fully compatible with a possibility of a reign with two Kings or two Queens (Kingdom Law 11.02 - 11.04) we are also looking into making required changes to the Law so it would completely support such a reign.
We are truly sorry for the bad feelings our decision has created, it was never our intention to hurt anyone.
Macarius, Rex Izabella, Regina

Note of further clarification published in the comments on the above public post:

We allow these Ladies to participate if they want. Is what we are saying. Please, give apologies to my lack of English skills and be not able to comment the text above. We also do not comment matters in here internet about the official matters because this is not our official channel. In this case under this harsh accusations about our personal email and our words we decided to make open statement. Please, I am not wishing any open conversation under our statement about what we have done or not or what any other part should do. Sleep well in the lands of our beloved Drachenwald.

from Baron Giles (permission granted to share)

Same-Gender Rulers In Europe:

In Medieval France a paréage or pariage was a feudal treaty recognising joint sovereignty over a territory by two rulers, who were on an equal footing, pari passu… On a familial scale, paréage could also refer to the equal division of lands and the titles they brought between sons of an inheritance. Such a power-sharing contract could be signed between two secular rulers or, most usually, by a secular and an ecclesiastic ruler, as in the case of the most famous, the Acte de paréage of 1278 that founded a legal basis for the Principality of Andorra, signed by the comte de Foix and viscomte de Castellbo and the Bishop of Urgel. The Count and the Bishop were to receive taxes in alternate years, to appoint local representatives to administer justice jointly, and should forbear to make war within Andorra, where each might levy soldiers, nevertheless.  (from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Par%C3%A9age#cite_note-1 , citing Whittlesey, Derwent (June 1934). "Andorra's Autonomy". The Journal of Modern History 6 (2): 147–155.  JSTOR article available via http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/236113)

c. 971 - 931 BCE  Realm:  Judah & Israel  Rulers:  David & Solomon








c. 971 - 931 BCE

Judah & Israel



At least one coregency is explicitly documented in the Bible: the coronation of King Solomon occurred before the death of his father David.  David ordered the crowning of Solomon, and after the coronation said “Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, who hath given one to sit on my throne this day, mine eyes even seeing it.'”1 Kings 1: 43-48  David continued to reign for some time, and counseled Solomon prior to his death, recorded in 1 Kings 2: 1-10


c. 700 BCE – 221 BCE


Agiad king

Eurypontid king

It was also found in Sparta with two Kings.  The state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontids families (Sparta and Lakonia By Paul Cartledge),  both supposedly descendants of Heracles and equal in authority, so that one could not act against the veto of his colleague.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sparta  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Kings_of_Sparta



Roman Empire

Gordian I

Gordian II

Proclaimed emperor, whilst Pro-consul in Africa, during a revolt against Maximinus. Ruled jointly with his son Gordian II, and in opposition to Maximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectively legitimised by the accession of Gordian III.  April 238 AD.  Committed suicide upon hearing of the death of Gordian II.



284 - 305 ad

Roman Empire



Proclaimed emperor by army after death of Numerian, and in opposition to Carinus; adopted Maximian as senior co-emperor in 286 AD.  … neither Diocletian nor his co-emperor, Maximian, spent much time in Rome after 286, establishing their imperial capitals at Nicomedia and Mediolanum (modern Milan), respectively.



161 ad – 169 ad

Roman Empire

Lucius Verus

Marcus Aurelius

Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius; Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius until death


161 – 169

Roman Empire

Marcus Aurelius

Lucius Verus

Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius; Co-emperor with Lucius Verus until 169 AD



Roman Empire

Marcus Aurelius


joint emperor with Commodus (his Natural son)  from 177 AD


198 – 217 AD

Roman Empire



co-emperor with his father Septimus Severus from 198 AD; with Severus and Geta from 209 AD until February 211 AD; co-emperor with Geta until December 211 AD


238 AD

Roman Empire

Pupienus Maximus

Balbinus, later  Gordian III

Proclaimed joint emperor with Balbinus by the Senate in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Balbinus and Gordian III


249 – 251 AD

Roman Empire


Herennius Etruscus



251 – 253 AD

Roman Empire

Trebonianus Gallus




930 - 933


Harald Fairhair

Eirik Bloodaxe

Norway:  Eirik Bloodaxe was the co-monarch with his father Harald Fairhair from 930–933  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_I_of_Norway



1278 – Present


Bishops of Urgell

Counts of Foix (later Kings of France, then Presidents of France)

The Principality of Andorra, in the Pyrenees Mountains on the FrenchSpanish border, was established in 1278 by the Treaty of Joint Suzerainty between the Catalan Bishop of Urgell and the Occitan Counts of Foix, whose descendants inherited Navarre in 1479 and then the French monarchy in 1589. These Princely rights and the duumvirate have been continued under the executive heads of the various monarchies in France, most recently under the French Republics. Hence even today, France's elected head of state also becomes the Co-Prince of Andorra, the other Co-Prince still being the Bishop of Urgell.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Co-Princes_of_Andorra)



San Marino

Captain Regent

Captain Regent

The Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti) of San Marino are elected every six months by the country's Grand and General Council. The pair serve as heads of state and government. Normally the Regents are chosen from opposing parties. They serve a six-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October every year.   The practice of dual heads of government is derived directly from the customs of the Roman Republic, equivalent to the consuls of ancient Rome.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Marino)



the Italian principality of Capua-Benvenuto



The New Cambridge Medieval History notes, "On one occasion, very briefly in 939-40, this meant that there were no less than four persons using the princely title: Landulf I, two of his sons and his younger brother, Atenulf II.")


688- c. 988


Justinian II

Abd al-Malik

In 688 the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II and the Arab Caliph Abd al-Malik reached an unprecedented agreement to establish a condominium … over Cyprus, with the collected taxes from the island being equally divided between the two parties. The arrangement lasted for some 300 years, despite the fact that in the same time there was nearly constant warfare between the two parties on the mainland.

This agreement lasted until 965 when Emperor Nikiforos Fokas regained Cyprus completely for the Byzantines.




1218 – 1231


Valdemar had a son, Valdemar, whom he elevated as co-king at Schleswig in 1218. Unfortunately, Prince Valdemar was accidentally shot while hunting at Refsnæs in North Jutland during 1231.




Eiríkr Hákonarson

Sveinn Hákonarson from

Eiríkr Hákonarson was the co-regent with his half-brother 1010–1012 . 



1012 - 1015


Håkon Eiriksson

Sveinn Hákonarson

Hakon co-regent with his grandfather from 1012–1015 . 


1045 - 1047


Harald III Hardrada

Magnus the Good






1067 1069


Magnus Haraldsson

Olaf III the peaceful

co-monarchs;  sons of Harald III Hardrada





1093 – 1094


Håkon Magnusson

Magnus Barefoot



1130 – 1135


Magnus the Blind

Harald Gille

co-monarchs  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_IV_of_Norway



1136 – 1161


Sigurd Mouth

Øystein Haraldsson (til 1157) and Inge Hunchback, (till 1161)

Three brothers;  shared the throne after their father's death in 1136. Each brother was on the throne until his death. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigurd_II_of_Norway







Henry II

Henry the Young King

 Henry, the second (and then oldest surviving) son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was crowned king by the Archbishop of York. He is generally known as Henry the Young King; since he died before his father, he never reigned alone.






Guy was removed from the regency and his five-year-old son, King Baldwin's nephew and namesake Baldwin, was crowned as co-king in November.





Robert II


Hugh (II) Magnus of France (French: Hugues le Grand) (1007 – 17 September 1025) was co-King of France under his father, Robert II, from 1017 until his death in 1025.



1326 - 1330

Germany (Kingdom of the Romans)

Frederick I the Fair of Austria

Louis the Bavarian

coregency of the Kingdom of Germany (cited in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coregency and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_of_the_Romans )




Counts of Holland

Prince-bishops of Utrecht,

Countship of Friesland (West Frisia), since 1165 under Imperial administration, was from 1165 to 1493 a joint condominium of the Count of Holland and the Prince-bishop of Utrecht, then again till 25 October 1555 under Imperial administration  (Mentioned in Wiki Coregency article;  unable to find other documentaton.)


1200 – 1499(?)

City of Maastricht

bishops of Liège

dukes of Brabant

Co-dominium :  Shortly after 1200 the city received dual authority, with both the bishops of Liège and the dukes of Brabant holding joint sovereignty over the city.   The city of Maastricht was under the joint jurisdiction (parage) of the duke of Brabant and the prince-bishop of Liègehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maastricht


?? – 814



Anulo, Hemming,


Reginfrid or Ragnfrid (died 814) was a co-King of Denmark from 812, when Hemming I died, to 813, when he and his brothers were ousted by the sons of the previous king, Gudfred.[1] He was probably a son of Halfdan, a Danish leader who became a vassal of Charlemagne in 807, and brother of Anulo (died 812), Hemming (died 837), and Harald Klak (died c.852). He was probably related to the Danish king he succeeded. On Hemming's death only Reginfrid and Harald were present in Denmark and they had to recall their brother Hemming from Francia. In 813 the sons of Gudfred invaded the kingdom and drove out the three co-rulers. Only Reginfrid tried to regain the kingdom, but was killed in an attempted invasion in 814, as recorded in the Annales regni Francorum.



345 - 361


Rev II

Mirian III

Rev II was a prince of Iberia who functioned as a co-king to his father Mirian III, the first Christian Georgian  ruler.







Offa had Higbert consecrate his son Ecgfrith of Mercia co-king with him.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synod_of_Chelsea  Ecgfrith (died December 796) was a King of Mercia who briefly ruled in the year 796. He was the son and heir of King Offa of Mercia and his wife Cynethryth. In 787, Offa had Ecgfrith crowned as co-ruler. He succeeded his father in July 796, but despite Offa's efforts to secure his son's succession, it is recorded that Ecgfrith ruled for only 141 days. Since Offa died either on July 26 or July 29, this would mean that Ecgfrith died either on December 14 or December 17.  Ecgfrith was the first Anglo-Saxon king to receive a Christian consecration as part of his coronation  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecgfrith_of_Mercia


??  - 664




Diarmait mac Áedo Sláine, Co-king of Tara, died 664.  Áed Sláine himself is said to have been High King jointly with Colmán Rímid of the northern Cenél nEógain branch of the Uí Néill, following the death of Áed mac Ainmuirech.



? - 529





Baderic, Baderich, Balderich or Boderic (ca. 480 – 529), son of Bisinus and Basina, was a co-king of the Thuringii. He and his brothers Hermanfrid and Berthar succeeded their father Bisinus. After Hermanfrid defeated Berthar in battle, he invited King Theuderic I of Metz to help him defeat Baderic in return for half of the kingdom. Theuderic I agreed and Baderic was defeated and killed in 529. Hermanfrid became the sole king.



1151 – 1155




At Easter 1151, Hugh crowned William , son of Roger II , co-king at Palermo http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_(Archbishop_of_Palermo)






Conrad  named Henry as co-king in March 1147 and had him crowned on 30 March in Aachen. Henry was groomed for the succession. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Berengar


813 - 814

Acquitaine, HRE



Charlemagne crowned his son Louis the Pious as co-emperor of Francia  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious






An 891 entry of the Annales Fuldenses mentions Sigifrid killed along with his co-ruler Godafrid. Their deaths are also mentioned in the "Gesta quorundam regum Francorum". The name of the co-ruler suggests he was also a member of the family line. [2]  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Klak)


Pictish co-kings  (can’t find any documentation for these)

‎510 - 522 Galan Arilith / Galanan Erilich
728 Alpin I & Drest VII of Atholl

Post period:

Ivan V of Russia  born Sept. 6, 1666, Moscow, Russia — died Feb. 8, 1696, Moscow) Nominal tsar of Russia (1682 – 96).When his brother Tsar Fyodor III died, Ivan, a mentally deficient chronic invalid, was proclaimed coruler with his half brother Peter I, with Ivan's sister Sophia as regent. After Sophia's overthrow in 1689, Ivan was allowed to retain his official position, though he never participated in governmental affairs, devoting the bulk of his time to prayer, fasting, and pilgrimages.


David of Aragon's name was misspelled Aragorn. My deepest, red-faced apologies.

--Ariel de Courtenay

Sign the petition!

The Inspirational Equality petition for BoD time is at http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/board-agenda-inspirational-equality