Rare evidence of medieval trepanation found in Spain

Trepanation, the practice of drilling holes into the skulls of living beings for medical or religious purposes, was rarely performed in the Middle Ages, but the discovery of two skulls in Spain, dating to the 13th or 14th centuries, has made experts scramble for an answer.

The skulls of a man and a woman were found near Gormaz in Soria, Spain by researchers from the universities of Oviedo and Leon. One survived the surgery, and one did not.