Archaeologists have found the earliest evidence yet of Jews on the Iberian Penninsula. An excavation of a Roman villa in Portugal has revealed a marble slab, probably from a tombstone, with a Hebrew inscription dating to 390 CE.
The slab has the Biblical name "Yehiel" along with other letters that have not been deciphered yet. The inscription took a while to translate because archaeologists were expecting to find Latin and didn't recognize the script.
There is documentary evidence of Jews in the area as early as 300 CE, but the earliest physical evidence up until now dated to the 5th century.