Studying the Kingdom of Jerusalem

This week Dame Aoife shares links dealing with the history and social customs of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Greetings everyone. This week's Links List will focus on the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Not only the history of that time and place, but also the food, the architecture, the archaeology, and the heraldry. I hope you enjoy this Links List about a beautiful city and it's turbulent period of Rulership---one we see echoed today in the headlines.

Several of these sites will give you a pop-up window that asks you to install a Hebrew Font---clicking cancel will take you to the site without installation, which won't effect your viewing of the pages. A Windows INstallation CD is necessary to install the Hebrew Font, if you wish to do so.

Please share this Links list wherever it will find an audience and feel free to use it to update you web pages, etc...

Sincerely

Dame Aoife FInn of Ynos Mon
Riverouge
Aethelmearc

Jerusalem: Christian Architecture through the Ages copyright January 2000
Focus on Israel

http://www.israel.org/mfa/go.asp?MFAH0gn30
(SiteExcerpt) Building in Jerusalem also made repeated re-use of older stone work and architectural elements. Herodian- and even Hasmonean-cut stones can be found in buildings of the Byzantine, early-Islamic and Crusader periods; and a stone-carved rosette window from a Crusader church is incorporated in the 16th century Ottoman fountain opposite the Bab al-Silsila (Gate of the Chain) entrance to the Haram esh-Sharif (the temple Mount).

Byzantine & Medieval Studies Sites
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/medweb/
A tremendous list of links, anyof which hinge upon the history of Jerusalem.

The Walls and Gates of Jerusalem by Jacqueline Schaalje
http://www.jewishmag.com/65mag/jerusalemgates/jerusalemgates.htm
(Site Excerpt) In the struggles between Moslems and Crusaders a series of new walls were built and destroyed before the present walls were undertaken by the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66). He was a tireless conqueror, whose campaigns took him to Europe, Persia and Iraq, and when he started his Jerusalem project he was still embroiled in war. But Jerusalem's walls were crumbling and Suleiman deemed strong walls essential against possible threats from Europe and local Bedouin tribes.

Medieval Sourcebook:
Roger of Hoveden:
The Fall of Jerusalem, 1187

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/hoveden1187.html
(Site Excerpt) 1187 In the same year, Saladin, king of Babylon, with an immense multitude of his Turks, on pretext of the disunion which existed between the king and the earl of Tripolis, entered the land of Jerusalem; on which the brethren of the Temple and of the Hospital went forth against him with a great multitude of people, and on an engagement taking place between them, the army of the Pagans prevailed against the Christians, on which the latter betook themselves to flight, and many of them were slain and many taken prisoners. On the same day also, being the calends of May, sixty brethren of the Temple, and the Grand Master of the Hospital, together with sixty brethren of his house, were slain.

Gerusalemme Liberata ("Jerusalem Delivered") First Book Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #13
http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Tasso/1book.html
(Site Excerpt) THE ARGUMENT
God sends his angel to Tortosa down,
Godfrey unites the Christian Peers and Knights;
And all the Lords and Princes of renown
Choose him their Duke, to rule the wars and fights.
He mustereth all his host, whose number known,
He sends them to the fort that Sion hights;
The aged tyrant Juda's land that guides,
In fear and trouble, to resist provides.

Map: Jerusalem during the Crusades
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/jlem-colmap.jpg

Medieval Sourcebook: Fulk of Chartres: The Capture of Jerusalem, 1099
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/fulk2.html
(site Excerpt) The final act of the First Crusade was Christian attack on Jerusalem, which was captured on July 15, 1099. Fulk of Chartres, the author of this account, participated in the storming of the city and in the bloody massacre which followed.Chapter 27: The Siege of the City of Jerusalem On the seventh of June the Franks besieged Jerusalem. The city is located in a mountainous region, which is lacking in rivers, woods, and springs, except the Fountain of Siloam, where there is plenty of water, but it empties forth only at certain intervals. This fountain empties into the valley, at the foot of Mount Zion, and flows into the course of the brook of Kedron, which, during the winter, flows through the valley of Jehosaphat. There are many cisterns, which furnish abundant water within the city.

Medieval Jerusalem copyright Lynn Harry Nelson Emeritus Professor of Medieval History The University of Kansas
http://www.ukans.edu/kansas/medieval/108/lectures/first_crusade.html
(Site Excerpt) European society had survived the raids of the Magyars, Vikings, and Saracens, and its economy and society were recovering quickly. There was a new spirit of adventure apparent in the art, literature, an actions of the western Europeans. This was manifested at least partly in an increased popularity of pilgrimages -- journeys to visit distant holy places to worship there and view the relics of the saints. This was a religious activity, but the many of the pilgrims clearly enjoyed themselves like tourists in any age.

Eating in Jerusalem in the Medieval Crusader Period
http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/Food/crusadefood.html
(Site Excerpt) There is no doubt at all, however, that the Muslims had the upper hand in culinary matters. The Crusaders found a culinary paradise here, a remnant of the glorious Arab heritage of the courts of the caliphs in Baghdad and of the Persian kings. Arab and Egyptian cooks quickly found their place in the kitchens of Frankish high society in Jerusalem, Ramle and Acre, teaching the knights some of the pleasures of the East. The high gastronomic culture was enriched by an elaborate tradition of music, dancing and literature accompanying the meal, which turned it into a true banquet.

Brown University: "Viking" Pilgrimage to the Holy Land
fram! fram! cristmenn, crossmenn, konungsmenn!
(Ol�s saga helga, ch. 224.) copyright Jessica A. Browner

http://etext.virginia.edu/journals/EH/EH34/browne34.html
(Site Excerpt) "Viking pilgrimage"--the phrase seems a contradiction. For three centuries, from circa A.D. 750-1050, the political and economic life of the Northern world was dominated by Scandinavian military activity and trade, but it was as Vikings that the Norsemen became known to the peoples of the Christian world, who depicted them as reavers and slayers of unparalleled ferocity. The piratical phase of Viking activity, however, was relatively short-lived, and was followed by a more restrained colonization phase. When the Scandinavians first began to settle in the West in the latter part of the ninth century, they came into sustained contact with Christianity and its clergy, and it became inevitable that the barbarian Northmen, with their primitive beliefs in outmoded gods and with their lack of writing and literacy, would be greatly influenced by the higher Christian civilization which they now encountered at such close quarters. Not surprisingly, the conversion of the Viking peoples and their integration into the Western European Christian community has influenced decisively the historiography of the Northern world.

Jerusalem in the Early Muslim Age Copyright 1995-2002, Snunit.
http://jeru.huji.ac.il/ee1.htm
(Site Excerpt) The Arab conquest of Jerusalem was bloodless. Tradition has it that the Patriarch Sophronios surrendered the city to Omar, the commander of the Arab forces. In return the Patriarch was granted a writ of privileges which guaranteed the right of Christians to maintain their holy places and pursue their customs unhindered. At the end of the 7th century Jerusalem was recognized as the third holiest city in Islam, after Mecca and Medina, and as a destination for pilgrimage. The Temple Mountwas identified by Muslims as the place Muhammed reached in his Night Voyage and from which he ascended to heaven.
See also: Early Muslim Sites http://jeru.huji.ac.il/moslems_sites.htm
Early Muslim Food http://jeru.huji.ac.il/moslems_food.htm
Costumes of the Early Muslim Age Period
http://jeru.huji.ac.il/moslems_costume.htm
Prominent people of the early Muslim Age
http://jeru.huji.ac.il/moslems_characters.htm

The Crusader and Ayyubid Period (1099-1250 CE)Copyright 1995-2002, Snunit
http://jeru.huji.ac.il/ef1.htm
(Site Excerpt) On 15 July 1099 Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders after a five week siege and the victors proceeded to massacre the city's Muslims and Jews. After 460 years of Muslim rule the Crusaders restored Jerusalem to Christian hands, and declared the city the capitalof the Kingdom of Jerusalem.The city's populations underwent a significant change. Western culture now took center-stage, with French the day-to-day language and Latin the language of prayer.

Medieval Sourcebook: The Taxes of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/taxesjlem.html
(Site Excerpt) The following is a list of taxes of the kingdom of Jerusalem. The list of articles taxed forms an excellent index of the character of the commerce conducted by the Mediterranean powers of the time. 1. The old duties command that one should take at the custom house for the sale of silk for every hundred Besants, 8 Besants and 19 Karoubles, [Henceforth the coins are indicated by B and k] as duty. 2. For the duties oil cotton the rule commands that one should take per hundred, 10 B. and 18 K. as duties. 3. For the duties of pepper the rule commands that one should take per hundred, 11 B. and 5 K. as duties. 4. For cinnamon the rule commands that one should take per hundred 10 B. and 18 K. as duties. 5. For wool the rule commands that one should take per hundred B., 11 B. and 10 K. as taxes.

Medieval Sourcebook: Latin Kings of Jerusalem
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/latinkings.html
(Site Excerpt) KINGS OF JERUSALEM 1099-1100 Godfrey of Bouillon 1100-1118 Baldwin of Le Bourg1118-1131 Baldwin II1131-1143 Fulk of Anjou....

Factmonster: Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of Copyright 2003, Columbia University Press
http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/history/A0826210.html
(Site Excerpt) Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of, feudal state created by leaders of the First Crusade (see Crusades) in the areas they had wrested from the Muslims in Syria and Palestine. In 1099, after their capture of Jerusalem, the Crusaders chose Godfrey of Bouillon king; he declined the title, preferring that of defender of the Holy Sepulcher, but with his election the kingdom may be said to have begun. His brother and successor, Baldwin I, took the royal title.

The flag of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem copyright Santiago Dotor
http://flagspot.net/flags/crus-kj.html
(Site Excerpt) The Crusaders flag/arms of Jerusalem that became known in heraldry simply as Jerusalem cross has 5 crosses: one large cross potent and 4 crosslets, the crosses are yellow and the field is white. One thing the flag is famous for is breaking the "no metal on metal" rule. But I recently discovered that a variant of this flag was used as a civil ensign as late as this century.

Map: Christian States in Syria: Fordham University
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/crusaders2.jpg

About.com: The Jerusalem Cross Copyright 2004 About, Inc
http://christianity.about.com/cs/artgallery/p/jerusalemcross.htm
(Site Excerpt) The Jerusalem Cross was first used as a coat of arms for the Latin Kingdom in Jerusalem. During the Crusades, it was referred to as the "Crusaders Cross." The four small crosses are symbolic of the four Gospels proclaimed to the four corners of the earth, beginning in Jerusalem; the large cross symbolizes the person of Christ.More Symbols of Christianity:

Crusader: A Conspiracy in the Kingdom of Jerusalem By Tom Houston
http://www.justadventure.com/reviews/Crusader/Crusader.shtm
(Site Excerpt) The prelude to our story begins in the year 1180, a time between the second and third Crusades, at the Fiefdom Dun-Le-Roy in France, where the violent Lord Arthaud has incurred the wrath of the King of France by burning the fief's monastery to the ground and killing its occupants because they balked at paying his taxes.The king, Philippe Auguste, is displeased and, under pressure from the Roman Catholic Church, decides to punish Arthaud and strip him of his rights by attacking his fortress. Arthaud's defenses quickly collapse under the might of the Royal Army of France. Philippe judges that death would be too kind for such rebellion and instead chooses to have Arthaud placed alive in a crypt-like tomb, where he will remain for three years.

Les Hospitaliers de Saint-Jean-de-J�usalem (no page attribution)
http://www.insolite.asso.fr/templiers/hospitaliers.htm
This site is entirely in French but has a lovely photo of Krak des Chevaliers, the crusader's Castle.

Krak Des Chevaliers
http://vialupo.jcldb.com/lawrence/krak1.html
Also in french, but this site offers a tour of the castle.

Recommended Reading:

The Leper King and his Heirs : Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem by Bernard Hamilton ISBN: 052164187X
Secular Buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem An Archaeological Gazetteer byDenys Pringle ISBN: 0521460107
Knights of the Holy Land, The Crusader Kingdom Jerusalem. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 1999.