A genetic map of Europe

A genetic map of Europe constructed by Dr. Kayser, Dr. Oscar Lao and others from Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands, shows where 23 populations live in Europe and the genetic relationships between them. (graphics)

Dr. Kayser believes that the "pattern of genetic differences among present day Europeans probably reflects the impact of three ancient migrations:" the first 45,000 years ago when the first modern humans entered Europe from the south; the second 17,000 years ago by people returning from southern refuges; and the third around 10,000 years ago when people brought agricultural technology from the Middle East.