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Longhouse, Anglo-Saxon coin found at destroyed Pictish fort

History Blog - Wed, 2017-07-26 23:02

Burghead Fort near the town of Lossiemouth in Moray, northeastern Scotland, was a major power center in the early Pictish kingdom of Fortriu. Between 6th and 9th centuries, the promontory fort at the site of the modern town of Burghead dominated the region. It was the largest of its time, three times larger than any other fort in Scotland. It is also the oldest known Pictish fort.

Its true origin and great historical significance wasn’t understood in the early 19th century. The fort was believed to be Roman, “the Ultima Ptoroton of Richard of Cirencester and Alta Castra of Ptolemy,” as Major-General William Roy labelled it in his drawing of the floor plan and sections of what was left of the fort in 1793. You might think that its purported Roman origin and association with the 2nd century writer Ptolemy who was believed to have described it in his Geography would be sufficient to ensure some degree of preservation, but you would be wrong. More than half of the fort’s surviving remains were destroyed when the town of Burghead was built between 1805 and 1809.

The orgy of destruction was entirely undeterred by the exceptional discovery of as many as 30 symbol stones engraved with realistic line art of bulls. Now known to be rare Pictish stones, most of them were casually reused as construction materials in the quay wall of the new harbour and are considered lost. Today only six of the Burghead Bulls survive, two in the Burghead visitor centre, the rest in the Elgin Museum, the National Museum of Scotland and the British Museum. All that’s left of the Pictish fort above ground are some lengths of the earth and rubble inner ramparts and a snippet of one of the outer ramparts on the southern side. A subterranean ritual well in a rock-cut chamber discovered during utilities work in 1809 is the most intact remnant of the fort.

Archaeological digs at Burghead began in the late 19th century (less than a hundred years from “who cares?” obliteration to desperately seeking antiquity). They usually focused on the perimeter of the structure — the inner and outer ramparts, the defensive wall — and while the occasional artifact was found, the fort was generally considered to have been gutted beyond recovery by the construction of the town and harbour.

University of Aberdeen archaeologists have been excavating the site since 2015 and this season has seen remarkable discoveries: evidence of a Pictish longhouse and a late 9th century Anglo-Saxon coin of Alfred the Great. Pictish architectural remains are rare and there are major lacunae in our understanding of Pictish buildings. The longhouse gives archaeologists a unique opportunity to study the Picts’ living spaces within a great fort. The coin not only helped establish the dates for the occupation of the longhouse, but it is from a key transitional period when Viking raiders began savaging Pictish territories and would ultimately bring about the demise of Pictish kingdoms.

Dr Gordon Noble, Head of Archaeology at the University of Aberdeen, said: “The assumption has always been that there was nothing left at Burghead; that it was all trashed in the 19th century but nobody’s really looked at the interior to see if there’s anything that survives inside the fort.

“But beneath the 19th century debris, we have started to find significant Pictish remains. We appear to have found a Pictish longhouse. This is important because Burghead is likely to have been one of the key royal centres of Northern Pictland and understanding the nature of settlement within the fort is key to understanding how power was materialised within these important fortified sites.

“There is a lovely stone-built hearth in one end of the building and the Anglo-Saxon coin shows the building dates towards the end of the use of the fort based on previous dating. The coin is also interesting as it shows that the fort occupants were able to tap into long-distance trade networks. The coin is also pierced, perhaps for wearing; it shows that the occupants of the fort in this non-monetary economy literally wore their wealth.

“Overall these findings suggest that there is still valuable information that can be recovered from Burghead which would tell us more about this society at a significant time for northern Scotland – just as Norse settlers were consolidating their power in Shetland and Orkney and launching attacks on mainland Scotland.”

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

A Note from the Polling Clerks

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-07-26 14:41

The following is a message from Duchess Avelina Keyes, with regard to the recent changes to the way that polls are sent out to members of the East Kingdom Polling Orders.

Hey folks,

A few notes on the polling process. Here in the East, the polling job is split between two people, Duchess Katherine Stanhope and me.

I handle the software side of the polls. I maintain the awards recommendation form and I put together the polls that the Royalty want.

Duchess Katherine handles distribution.

Each Order has *two* lists. One, the “Discussion list” is for Companions of the Order to discuss candidates and other issues pertinent to the Order. The second is the polling distribution list. That is where Duchess Katherine sends the polls. It is possible to sign up for one and not the other. To sign up for those lists, please visit this link:

lists.eastkingdom.org/EmailLists.html

Now, for the polls themselves.

Yes, there is a two step process now. This is to prevent anonymous viewing of the polls. The link you get from Duchess Katherine is a “registration” link. Those records who and what email address requested the poll. That info goes into a token table and a unique URL to the poll is generated for *you* and sent to the email you provided. Once you get the poll, yes, you must enter your personal info again. That is because the token table and the data from the polls go to two separate places. The Royalty like to know who has replied to their polls and a way to contact folks if they have questions. That’s why we ask for it in the polls.

I’ve gone into the system to look for errors. A common error I am seeing is that you are spelling your email address wrong. Maybe dropping a vowel in your name, or typing “gmaol” instead of “gmail”. Also, fake email addresses won’t work. If you enter b@b.com as your email, and you don’t actually have access to that account, you won’t get your unique link.

And, a huge shout out to Baron Mael Eoin mac Echuid for checking out the back end delivery issues.

I’m here to answer your questions. Please contact me via email at web_pollingadmin@eastkingdom.org

Yours,

Avelina


Filed under: Announcements, Tidings Tagged: polling lists, polling orders, pollings

Pennsic for Youth

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-07-26 14:25

A guide from Mistress Leonete D’Angely, East Kingdom Chancellor Minor and Pennsic Youth University Coordinator

What Can I Do At Pennsic?

So you are in the 11-17 age range, and you are going to Pennsic. Maybe you are super excited.  Maybe you are going because Mom and Dad said so. Maybe you wait all year to be able to fight twice a day.  Maybe you aren’t so sure there is anything that interests you in this SCA thing. Either way, there is so much for your age group to do at Pennsic. This is a basic overview of some of the options. There is no way I could fit all of the activities into one article, so please check the Pennsic University Schedule and your site book for more ideas and options.

Martial Activities

Armored and Rapier Combat are the two main activities where youth cannot generally participate alongside adults. We do have Youth Rapier and Youth Armored Combat! These activities require special equipment. There may be some for loan, but you would need to check in at that activity. You should bring your parent/guardian with you at least the first time and then ask about the specific rules from there.  

Youth Armored Combat – (ages 6-17) 8/3-8/10  Most Days 8:00AM – 10:30AM and 3:00PM – 5:00PM. Check the schedule for special tourneys or cancellations.

Youth Rapier – (ages 6-17) 8/6-8/10 9:00AM – NOON

Archery – Range is open with some exceptions from 8/2-8/4 11:00AM – 3:00PM, 8/5-8/9, and 8/11 9:00AM – 5:00PM.  There is a family range geared towards those under 14, but youth are also welcome to shoot at the other ranges. There is a youth specific tournament on 8/8 at NOON.

Thrown Weapons – Range is open 8/2-8/10 9:00AM – 5:00PM. Youth Tourney is 8/9 at 10:00AM.

Performance

Enjoy acting, singing, or improv at home? These activities are for you. Some of them are a weeklong commitment, though.

Youth Reader’s Theater – Geared towards 14 and under, staged reading of A Bag Full of Fables. Rehearsals 8/3 and 8/4: 12-2, performance 8/4 at 6pm in the Performing Arts Tent.

Commedia dell’Arte – Fancy way of saying Medieval/Renaissance Improv. Geared for 10-17 year olds. Rehearsals 8/6-8/10: 9:00AM-10:00AM, 8/11 12pm-1, Performance at 6:00PM in Performing Arts Tent.

Youth Choir – 8/6-8/9 NOON – 1:00PM. Geared for those gentles aged 12-19. There is a children’s choir as well for the younger set. Performance is the evening of Thursday, 8/10.  

Classes

Want to learn something new? The only classes off limits to those under 18 are classes that are clearly marked as such, usually because they involve alcohol, mature topics, or are in private camps. Youth are welcome at all other Pennsic University classes.  However, we have organized a set of classes geared specifically towards youth and teens. You can find them by searching YouthU or TeenU on the PennsicU website. There are a ton of classes, but here are a few highlights:

Do a martial activity? Play a sport at home? Learn some strategies for increasing your strength and endurance with Teen Training (8/4 10:00AM – 11:00AM) Bring a towel or yoga mat.

Learn about service and getting what you want out of events with Retaining 101 (8/2 11:00AM – NOON) , Youth Ideas Matter (8/6 2:00PM – 3:00PM), and I Want to Help At Events (8/7 3:00PM – 4:00PM),

Want to learn how to make your voice carry? Interested in reading scrolls? These classes are for you! Public Speaking for Teens (8/3 10:00AM-11:00AM), Tournament Heraldry and List Running (8/6 1:00PM– 1:30PM), and Voice Heraldry (8/10 NOON – 1:00PM)

Volunteering

Pennsic Runs on volunteers, and there are a lot of places where youth are welcome to help. Volunteer Point is open 9:00AM-2:00PM daily at the Town Hall next to the ice store. They can help match you with volunteer opportunities appropriate for your age and skills.

Other Events of Note

Youth A&S Display: This is a non-judged display open to all youth. It is located at Family Point, on Monday, August 7th. Set-up from 9:00AM-10:00AM; items on display from 10:00AM – NOON; clean-up from NOON – 12:30PM. Submission forms for entries will be available online and at Family Point.

EK Teen Party – Monday, August 7th from 7:00PM – 10:00PM in EK Royal. Open to all gentles 13-17

Aethelmearc Teen/Tween Party– Saturday, August 5th, 6:00PM-9:00PM. Open to those 10+.

I hope that this list of activities helps you discover something new this Pennsic!

*Note* Activities and Times are subject to change. Any mistakes are entirely the fault of Leonete. This is not an exhaustive list of all activities, and my apologies if I have left anything out.

NO PROGRAMS, ACTIVITIES OR EVENTS TAKING PLACE AT WAR ARE INTENDED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE PROPER ADULT SUPERVISION OF MINORS.

Sources:

Pennsic U: http://thing.pennsicuniversity.org
Pennsic 46 Website: http://www.pennsicwar.org/penn46/
Pennsic 46 Family Activities page: http://www.pennsicwar.org/penn46/ACTIVITIES/familyschedule.html
Pennsic Youth Choir: https://sites.google.com/site/kwcpennsicchoir/home/pennsic-choir/pennsic-youth-choir
Aethelmearc Teen/Tween Party: https://aethelmearcgazette.com/2017/06/21/teentween-party-at-pennsic


Filed under: Pennsic, Youth Activities Tagged: pennsic 46, Youth, youth arts, youth combat, youth service

Court Report: The Scarlet Guard Inn

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2017-07-26 12:15

From the Scrolls of the Reign of Timothy and Gabrielle, King and Queen of Æthelmearc, as recorded by Dame Kateryna ty Isaf, Jewel of Æthelmearc Herald with the assistance of Lord Ronin O’Conall at The Scarlet Guard Inn in the Shire of Hornwood on June 10, Anno Societatis LII.

Their Majesties called forth the children present and asked Lord Robert Hazelet to take up the toy chest and lead the children on a merry chase. The children were instructed, once they caught Lord Robert, to take one toy each, beginning with the youngest child present. Having been given a count of ten, the chase commenced.

Their Majesties invited before Them, the Emissaries from the Kingdom of Meridies in attendance. Baron Griffin, speaking for the group presented gifts to Their Majesties including a reviled hat from the opponents of the Penguins of BMDL currently vying for a Cup from Lord Stanley to the merry hissing of the court.

Their Majesties invited Master Denys the Decadent before Them. Master Denys spoke of his pilgrimage to Scotland and presented Their Majesties with gifts from his travels.

Master Denys presenting a gift to Their Majestes. Photo by Lord Mikus Magellus.

Their Majesties then invited Master Juan Miguel Cezar to bring forth the Marshals of the varied shoots of the Scarlet Guard Inn, who then named those who had bested the fields in the archery competitions of the day.

Master Juan Miguel gives out prizes. Photo by Lord Mikus Magellus.

Their Majesties called for Chebe to present himself before Them. As a skilled archer working with the Hael Hounds, making his own bow and arrows as well as meads and ales, They felt he was a worthy deserving recognition and therefore Awarded him Arms making him a Lord of the court. The Scroll was created by Baroness Graidhne ni Ruaidh.

Their Majesties called Thalia la Papelone to attend Them. Speaking of her quiet service and continued work with the archery community, They Awarded her Arms, thus making her a Lady of the court. The scroll was illuminated by Mistress Cori Ghora and calligraphed by Mistress Liadain ni Chleirigh na Coille.

Their Majesties called forth Baron Edward Harbinger and Master Juan Miguel. They spoke of the rank of Master Bowman and how it was achieved through dedication to the art of the bow. Their Majesties then called forth Lady Ghaliya bint Yusef. Having attained the rank of Master Bowman, it was Their pleasure to witness this title conferred upon Lady Ghaliya. Furthermore, They felt it right to induct her to the Order of the Golden Alce for her tremendous dedication to the sport. They invited before them Mistress Ysabell Graver and Master Jacapo di Niccolo who presented her with the Golden Alce medallion originally worn by Master Jacapo before Lady Ghaliya’s birth and then worn by Mistress Ysabell. The scroll was created by the hand of THLady Anlaith ingen Trena.

Their Majesties called forth Lady Kathryn Täntzel. Seeing her work as both a seamstress and as a feast cooking assistant along with her creation of archery targets to enliven the hunt, They inducted her into the Order of the Sycamore. Scroll by Mistress Gillian Llwelyn of Ravenspur.

Their Majesties then called forth Lord Cyrus Augur. For his study of period fencing technique and his teaching of this knowledge, They inducted him into the Order of the Sycamore. Scroll by Freiherrin Helena Muetzhasen.

Their Majesties call for Lady Rachaeldis of Swansmere to attend Them. As the Mum to Sylvan Vulcani, she helps in archery, fencing marshalling and bringing lost cousins into the SCA with grace and inspiration. For all this, Their Majesties inducted her into the Order of the Keystone. Scroll by Lady Felice de Thornton.

Their Majesties thanked Hornwood for hosting the Scarlet Guard Inn as it allows them to showcase the skill of the archers of Aethelmearc and enjoined the populace to take up the bow to strike fear into our enemies at Pennsic War. This day, They advised, They sought to find a new champion for Their court and indeed Master Jacapo di Niccolo had surpassed all this day. Having done so, Their Majesties saw fit to name him Their Archery Champion.

Maestro Jacopo is named Kingdom Archery Champion again. Photo by Lord Mikus Magellus

Their Majesties asked that all scribes who contributed to the scrolls given during the courts today stand and be recognized.

Her Majesty asked Lord Alfonso to attend Her. Her Majesty advised how she was delighted by the archery targets created for the event and was advised Lord Alfonso volunteered to create them all in the two weeks before the event while finalizing all the classes he was teaching at University. This moved Her to name him Her inspiration of the day and bestowed upon him the Golden Escarbuncle for his selfless devotion.

Lord Alfonso receives a Golden Escarbuncle. Photo by Lord Mikus Magellus.

There being no further business this day, Their Majesties’ court was thus concluded.


Categories: SCA news sites

New imaging approach reveals hidden text from two eras

History Blog - Tue, 2017-07-25 23:02

In the Middle Ages, old manuscripts were recycled for their valuable vellum and parchment pages. The writing was washed or scrubbed off and the leaves filling with new content. Because so many ancient works have been lost, scholars have for centuries attempted to recover the original texts from these medieval palimpsests, often using caustic materials that damaged the pages in the long term. Nowadays researchers have much better options thanks largely to a panoply of imaging technologies that have been a godsend to the study of palimpsests, revealing erased and overwritten text that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synchrotron imaging is better than Superman because it can see through lead boxes.

Some of the recycled parchments pose greater challenges than others. With the introduction of the printing press to Europe in the 15th century, the demand for bookmaking materials soared. Not only were medieval manuscripts cannibalized for their pages, but the bindings were reused to bind newly printed books. This was a common practice well into the 18th century, so there are a lot of old printed books out there with fragments of medieval and ancient texts hidden in the binding. Scholars knew there might be literary treasures in there, but were stumped by the difficulty of accessing and reading binding materials.

Now researchers at Northwestern University have made a breakthrough. It was a book from the university library’s collection that inspired the new approach. It’s an edition of the Works and Days by the Greek poet Hesiod that was printed in Venice in 1537. Northwestern acquired it in 1870 and out of the 30 known surviving copies of the edition, this is the only one that still has its original slotted parchment binding, a widely used technique in Venice from 1490 to 1670 in which slots were cut into the binding parchment to match the shape of the book spine.

Slotted parchment bindings often used recycled parchments. The ink was usually removed for aesthetic purposes, to make the outside surface of the parchment a uniform color. In this particular book, the ink on the interior parchment surface was not removed. Iron gall ink is acidic and over time, speeds up the oxidation and decay of the parchment.

The Northwestern librarians noticed the slotted parchment binding in the Hesiod and realized its significance. They also saw the faintest hint of text on the book board. Researchers from the Northwestern University-Art Institute of Chicago Center for Scientific Studies (NU-ACCESS) examined the binding in greater detail and found evidence that the writing on the book board had been removed, likely by the bookbinder, by washing or scraping. His efforts weren’t entirely effective, much to our advantage. Over time the gall ink that wasn’t removed had degraded the parchment and the writing began to re-emerge. NU-ACCESS researchers found two columns of text plus marginalia were very dimly visible through the parchment on the front and back covers of the book.

The writing wasn’t legible with the naked eye, so scientists Marc Walton and Emeline Pouyet turned to imaging, starting with visible light hyperspectral imaging. The writing became a little clearer, but it still couldn’t be read. X-ray fluorescence imaging gave the team new information about the chemical composition of the ink, but again, it wasn’t able to bring the ancient text out of hiding. They were going to need a bigger boat, to paraphrase Jaws, and the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) was that boat.

[T]he bright x-ray source and fast detection system allowed for a full imaging of the main text and marginalia comments in the entire bookbinding. When the researchers sent the more clearly imaged writing to [Northwestern history and religion professor Richard] Kieckhefer, he immediately recognized it as sixth-century Roman Law code [the Institutes Justinian], with interpretive notes referring to the Canon Law written in the margins.

Walton and Pouyet hypothesize that the parchment originally might have been used in a university setting where Roman Law was studied as a basis for understanding Canon Law, which was a common practice in the Middle Ages. The legal writing was then possibly covered and recycled because it was outdated as society had already struck down the Roman laws to implement church code.

It was an exciting find, but the NU-ACCESS team had greater ambitions. Synchrotrons aren’t exactly a dime a dozen, and most researchers don’t have access to the powerful (and expensive) equipment. Even if they do, rare old books in delicate condition can’t always be shipped to a synchrotron facility. For conservation reasons, they often can’t be shipped anywhere at all. Walton and Pouyet turned to Northwestern’s computer scientists to seek a cheaper, more readily available technology that would be able to read challenging palimpsest texts trapped in bookbindings.

“There is a vast number of wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum, and each wavelength has its advantages and disadvantages,” said [Aggelos] Katsaggelos, the Joseph Cummings Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. “Some of them can penetrate deeper into the specimen, some of them have better resolution, and so on.”

Using a machine-learning algorithm developed by his team, Katsaggelos discovered that not one imaging technique but a fusion of two would yield the best results. His team combined visible hyperspectral imaging, which includes wavelengths within the visible light spectrum to provide high spatial resolution, with x-ray fluorescence imaging, which provides high intensity resolution. The algorithm informed the researchers of the relative contribution of each modality to produce the best image.

“By combining the two modalities, we had the advantages of each,” Katsaggelos said. “We were able to read successfully what was inside the cover of the book.”

Katsaggelos’ data fusion image was so clear that it rivaled an image of the main text produced by the powerful x-ray beams at CHESS.

Walton and Pouyet plan to take this show on the road. They want to examine books in museums and other institutions using the combination of hyperspectral imaging and x-ray fluorescence to read hidden texts on pages and bindings. You can read the team’s publication of their results in the journal Analytica Chimica Acta here.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Living The Dream

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2017-07-25 16:37

We all have different reasons for why we enjoy being a part of the SCA. Sometimes it’s difficult to put into words. Raiya Corsiglia, from Caid, has showcased those feelings in her film, “SCA – The Dream,” using no words at all. She is most graciously allowing it to be shared.

 

 

 


Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: SCA video

A Recipe for Pickled Mushrooms

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2017-07-25 00:09

by THFool Dagonell the Juggler.

 

From The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Opened (1669)

 Original Text:

PICKLED CHAMPIGNONS 

Champignons are best, that grow upon gravelly dry rising Grounds. Gather them of the last nights growth; and to preserve them white, it is well to cast them into a pitcher of fair-water, as you gather them: But that is not absolutely necessary, if you will go about dressing them as soon as you come home. Cut the great ones into halves or quarters, seeing carefully there be no worms in them; and peel off their upper skin on the tops: the little ones, peel whole. As you peel them, throw them into a bason of fair-water, which preserves them white.

 Then put them into a pipkin or possnet of Copper (no Iron) and put a very little water to them, and a large proportion of Salt. If you have a pottle of Mushrooms, you may put to them ten or twelve spoonfuls of water, and two or three of Salt. Boil them with pretty quick-fire, and scum them well all the while, taking away a great deal of foulness, that will rise. They will shrink into a very little room.

 When they are sufficiently parboiled to be tender, and well cleansed of their scum, (which will be in about a quarter of an hour,) take them out, and put them into a Colander, that all the moisture may drain from them. In the mean time make your pickle thus: Take a quart of pure sharp white Wine Vinegar (elder-Vinegar is best) put two or three spoonfuls of whole Pepper to it, twenty or thirty Cloves, one Nutmeg quartered, two or three flakes of Mace, three Bay-leaves; (some like Limon-Thyme and Rose-mary; but then it must be a very little of each) boil all these together, till the Vinegar be well impregnated with the Ingredients, which will be in about half an hour. Then take it from the fire, and let it cool.

 When the pickle is quite cold, and the Mushrooms also quite cold, and drained from all moisture: put them into the Liquor (with all the Ingredients in it) which you must be sure, be enough to cover them. In ten or twelve days, they will have taken into them the full taste of the pickle, and will keep very good half a year. If you have much supernatant Liquor, you may parboil more Mushrooms next day, and put them to the first. If you have not gathered at once enough for a dressing, you may keep them all night in water to preserve them white, and gather more the next day, to joyn to them.”

 Notes: 

Champignon is the medieval term for white button mushrooms.  “Of last night’s growth” means ones that weren’t there the previous night.  I chickened out and got packages from the grocery store.  Pipkins and Possnets are small cooking pans.  A pottle is an archaic unit of measure equal to a half gallon.  Twenty or thirty cloves???  Um, no.  Just no.  By liquor, he means the pickling liquid, not alcohol. Supernatant liquor is liquid over a solid residue.  I didn’t realize the term was that old!  

One pottle of mushrooms = 1/2 gallon = 1892.7 grams

One package of mushrooms = 12 ounces = 340 grams = ~20% of a pottle

 

From: Elinor Fettiplace’s Receipt Book (1605)

 Original Text:

TO PICKLE MUSHROOMS

Take your Buttons, clean ym with a spunge & put ym in cold water as you clean ym, then put ym dry in a stewpan & shake a handfull of salt over ym, yn stew ym in their own liquor till they are a little tender; then strain ym from ye liquor & put ym upon a cloath to dry till they are quite cold. Make your pickle before you do your Mushrooms, yt it may be quite cold before you put ym in. The pickle must be made with White-Wine, White-Pepper, quarter’d Nutmeg, a Blade of Mace, & a Race of ginger.”

 My translation:

Take your Buttons, clean them with a sponge and put them in cold water as you clean them, then put them dry in a stewpan and shake a handful of salt over them, then stew them in their own liquor till they are a little tender; then strain them from the liquor and put them upon a cloth to dry until they are quite cold. Make your pickle before you do your mushrooms, so it may be quite cold before you put them in. The pickle must be made with white wine, white pepper, quartered nutmeg, a blade of mace, and a race of ginger.

 Notes:

Again, the liquor is not alcohol, but the pickling liquid.  Nutmeg and mace both come from the same plant, Myrstica fragrans.  Nutmeg is the seed, mace is the lace-like peel.  A blade of mace is about 1/6 of the entire peel, so call it about a 1/2 teaspoon.  A race of ginger is one piece of root.  

 

Modern Redaction using both recipes:

  • 3/4 cup water (12 tablespoons)
  • 2 tablespoons salt
  • 36 oz. fresh mushrooms (3 12-ounce packages)
  • 1 quart white vinegar
  • 2 teaspoons white pepper
  • 3 whole cloves (not 30!)
  • 1 whole nutmeg, broken (place in baggie, wrap in towel, hit with hammer)
  • 1/2 teaspoon powdered mace
  • 3 bay leaves
  • 1 small ginger root, peeled and sliced

 In a small saucepan, combine water, salt, and peeled mushrooms.  Simmer for 15 to 20 minutes.  It looks like there’s not enough liquid.  You just need enough to keep the mushrooms from scorching until they start to tenderize.  They will give up half their weight as liquid.  When the mushrooms are tender, strain them in a colander over a second saucepan.  Don’t throw away the liquid, it makes a great mushroom broth for homemade soup!  If you use commercial mushrooms, there won’t be any scum to deal with.  In a third saucepan, combine the vinegar, pepper, cloves, nutmeg, mace, bay leaves, and ginger root.  Bring to a boil.  Let everything cool.  Place the mushrooms in a clean jar, pour the pickling liquid over them, and seal.  Let marinate for two weeks.  


Categories: SCA news sites

Oldest part of Charlemagne’s canal is even older, dig finds

History Blog - Mon, 2017-07-24 23:04

The Fossa Carolina (Karlsgraben in modern German) is named after Charlemagne, King of the Franks, future Emperor of the Romans, who according to contemporary Carolingian sources commissioned its construction in 793. About two kilometers (1.2 miles) long, the canal was meant to link the Swabian Rezat river in Treuchtlingen to the Altmühl river in Weissenburg, Bavaria. The Rezat is in the Rhine basin and the Altmühl is a tributary of the Danube, so the ultimate idea behind the canal was creating a navigable water route that would allow easy boat travel between the Rhine and the Danube.

Whether it was a practicable solution in real life was a whole other ball of wax. According to the Revised Royal Frankish Annals, Charlemagne was “persuaded by self-styled experts that one could travel most conveniently from the Danube into the Rhine if a navigable canal was built between the rivers Rezat and Altmühl.” Reliable canal-linked fluvial transport was immensely important to Charlemagne in 793. He had been forced to end his 791 campaign against the Avars south of the Danube when his cavalry was stricken by the Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. The deadly mosquito-borne illness killed 90% of Charlemagne’s horses and other equines — war steeds, travel mounts, pack animals — in a matter of days. The few equines that survived a bout of EEE would have been severely disabled, suffering from brain damage and neurological symptoms that made it impossible for them to perform their usual duties of combat and transportation.

This was a logistical headache of brain-shattering proportions. Without horses and mules, the army’s supplies, weapons, armour and assorted gear had to be carried by people, at least some of it by horseless cavalrymen, to the Danube where it was loaded on boats. Charlemagne’s forces were so hobbled by the mass death of its equines that he wasn’t able to go on campaign for two years, and Charlemagne fought every year of his kingship, missing only four in total.

If the canal worked as planned, fluvial transportation — faster, cheaper and not subject to epidemics — would make it possible for Charlemagne to get back to his military campaigns against the Avars and rebellious Saxons, a war on two fronts that would have been enormously facilitated by a canal linking the Rhine and Danube. He would have been able to use large boats, not pack animals, to move equipment and supplies down the Danube in a new campaign against the Avars the next year. In addition, the actual digging of the canal required few horses, a big plus in a time of such equine scarcity.

It was such an important project that Charlemagne took up residence in Weissenburg in the fall of 793 to oversee construction of the canal. He personally saw to the hiring of a large team of builders. Under his direct supervision, the crew dug a moat 2,000 feet long and 300 feet wide. Again according to the Annals, canal constructed ended abortively, defeated by the marshy ground and constant rainfall which caused “what the workmen dug during the day, fell back in at night.” Other chroniclers claim the canal was in fact completed. Either way, Charlemagne’s attention was diverted to more pressing matters: fresh revolts in Saxony and attacks on Narbonne and Carcassonne by Umayyad Emir Hisham I of Córdoba.

Today there is little left of the most important infrastructure projects of the Middle Ages. There’s a water-filled moat about 350 meters (1148 feet) long in Treuchtlingen. Earthen embankments almost 4,000 feet long and more than 30 feet high also survive, created by the soil dug out of ground during the early construction of the canal. Over the past five years or so, archaeologists have discovered the northernmost section of the structure which is not visible above ground.

That section, which was fortunate enough to be forgotten and/or ignored for 1,200 years, has proven archaeologically invaluable. A team of researchers from German universities and the Bavarian State Office for the Protection of Monuments have discovered that the canal is older than the Royal Annals recorded. The question of when construction of the Fossa Carolina began has been a fraught one among historians for a century. The Alemannic Annals claim that canal construction began in 792, which would mean that Charlemagne’s stay in Weissenburg was a visit to an ongoing building site, not a new one he was personally supervising.

In 2013, timber pilings were discovered in the northernmost section that were dendrochronologically dated to the late summer or early fall of 793. A follow-up excavation in 2016 went even further, digging two trenches across two of the northern canal sections. The team unearthed numerous structural elements, including large oak pilings lining the canal walls that were in an excellent state of preservation thanks to the high groundwater level and a deposit of sediments immediately after construction.

The team was able to date more than two dozen timbers using dendrochronological analysis, an incredible bounty for high precision absolute dating. Tree ring analysis can pinpoint dates down to the year, sometimes even the month, and the youngest of the canal timbers tested date to the late spring or early summer (probably May) of 793. This was freshly cut wood. It hadn’t been stored for a few months before use in the canal.

This shows that the construction work at the Karlsgraben started several months earlier than was previously known. The description in the sources that the command for the construction of the canal has already taken place in 792 is thus significantly more likely. For the first time, the historical and political framework conditions of the decision to build the canal can now be clarified. The new dating also shows that Charlemagne visited a construction site, which had already begun several months earlier in the late summer/autumn of 793, and was by no means the “first spade”. […]

In the coming months, the new dates will be analyzed in detail and combined with numerous other results from the interdisciplinary research group. Due to the precise and different dates the researchers expect for the first time indications for the construction direction of individual channel sections and organizational details of the large construction site. New results are also to be expected regarding the completion or non-completion of individual construction sections.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Quilts made by men at war to go on display

History Blog - Sun, 2017-07-23 23:20

Three years ago, St. Paul’s Cathedral in London restored and displayed a hand-made altar frontal that had been by intricately embroidered by 133 convalescing soldiers during World War I. Sewing was considered a highly effective form of occupational therapy for soldiers because it could be accomplished while seated, improved manual dexterity and mental focus. The notion of occupational therapy was birthed in the crucible of World War I which left so many men physically and psychologically disabled, but it was a new name for an old practice.

Soldiers and sailors have been stitching masterpieces of the sewing crafts for hundreds of years. It was a longstanding tradition that during lulls in fighting, while prisoners of war or over extended hospital visits, they would hand-stitch quilts, wool work seascapes and embroider their own uniforms. Sailors maintained ships’ sails as part of their duties and therefore had basic sewing skills. Soldiers didn’t have the same job requirement, so if they knew how to sew it was either fortuitous or professional; i.e., they had been tailors in civilian life and were often employed as regimental tailors in the military.

Some of the earliest surviving examples were made in the 18th century using the intarsia technique in which fabric pieces are cut in precise shapes and sewn together so that no seams show. These types of quilts are so difficult to produce that it’s likely they were created by professionals. The imagery is often related to the wars being fought and national identity — comrades, the fatherland, traditional folk tales, etc. The quilts produced in wartime by military men of all levels of stitchcraft experience often used uniform pieces, blankets and random snippets of whatever other textiles they could get their hands on to create geometric designs of dazzling intricacy.

The American Folk Art Museum in New York is putting on the first US exhibition of quilts made by fighting men in wartime from uniform fabric. Most of the quilts on view in the War and Pieced exhibition come from the private collection of Australian quilt expert, historian Dr. Annette Gero. Others are on loan from public and private collections. Many of them have never been publically displayed before.

Immigrant tailors, such as Hungarian-born Michael Zumpf, introduced the intarsia technique into Great Britain. Two masterworks, exhibited to great acclaim in London during the late nineteenth century, feature minutely detailed representations of British military and political leaders, and members of the House of Commons. These elaborate pictorial panels were made using popular etchings of those subjects as templates.

Perhaps the best-known quilts that were made by soldiers and regimental tailors are the complex geometrics fashioned from felted military uniforms. Hand-stitched by nineteenth-century British soldiers, sailors, and regimental tailors during periods of conflict in the Crimea, South Africa, and India, some of these mosaic-like quilts contain as many as twenty-five thousand pieces of fabric. They were once called “convalescent quilts,” it was believed they were made as occupational therapy by wounded soldiers recovering in hospitals. Quilts pieced in simple geometric patterns may indeed have been made in such circumstances, but it is now recognized that the most elaborate quilts were most probably stitched by tailors and soldiers to pass the time and stay out of mischief, to give as gifts to loved ones at home, or were made upon a soldier’s return.

“In the context of war, quiltmaking becomes a life-affirming testament to bravery, loyalty, and an act of redemption for darker human impulses enacted under dire circumstances,” says Stacy C. Hollander[, chief curator of the American Folk Art Museum]. “Memory and experience are fragmented and brilliantly reconstructed through tiny bits of cloth. The uniforms, associated with the best and worst of humanity, are thus transformed into testaments of sanity and beauty, even as the highly organized geometry grants the soldier an illusion of control over the predations of war in which he has both participated and witnessed.”

War and Pieced will run at the American Folk Art Museum from September 6th, 2017, through January 7th, 2018. Next year the exhibition will travel to the International Quilt Study Center & Museum at the University of Lincoln-Nebraska where it will run from the May 25th through September 16th, 2018.

But enough of my yakking. This post is all about the cornucopia of quiltly goodness and there’s so much more bounty to enjoy I had to put it after the jump to keep load times from going insane.

Colonial Soldier’s Intricately Pieced Quilt
Artist unidentified
India
c. 1890
More than 25,000 tiny tumbling blocks, hexagons, and diamonds, constructed using heavy woollens from military uniforms, with metallic thread and sequins; hand-embroidered and hand-embellished
95 x 76″
Laura Fisher’s Fisher Heritage, New York City.

King George III Intarsia Quilt
Artist unidentified
United Kingdom or Germany
Dated 1766
Wool, possibly from military uniforms, with embroidery thread; intarsia, hand-appliquéd and hand embroidered
106 x 100″
Collection Sevenoaks Museum, Kent County Council, United Kingdom

Soldier’s Quilt with Incredible Border
Artist unidentified
India
c. 1855–1875
Wool from military uniforms, with beads; hand-applied beadwork, layered-appliqué border
82 x 88″
The Annette Gero Collection
Photo by Tim Connolly, Shoot Studios

Holy Roman Empire Intarsia Quilt
Artist unidentified
Prussia or Austria
1846–1851
Wool, with embroidery thread; intarsia, hand-appliquéd and hand-embroidered
120 x 120″
International Quilt Study Center & Museum, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (2011.068.0001)

Prussian Army Intarsia Quilt
Samuel Sadlowski (dates unknown)
Prussia or Silesia
Dated 1806
Wool from military uniforms, with embroidery thread; intarsia, hand-appliquéd and hand-embroidered
50 x 69″
The Annette Gero Collection
Photo by Tim Connolly, Shoot Studios

Sailor’s Quilt
Artist unidentified
Region unknown
Late nineteenth century
Wool felt, probably from military uniforms, with embroidery thread; hand-appliquéd and hand embroidered
90 x 70″
Laura Fisher’s Fisher Heritage, New York City

Artist unidentified
India
c. 1860–1870
Wool, with beads; inlaid, hand-appliquéd, hand-applied beadwork
63 x 63″
The Annette Gero Collection
Photo by Tim Connolly, Shoot Studios

Anglo-Zulu War Army Quilt
Artist unidentified
South Africa or United Kingdom
Late nineteenth century
Wool from military uniforms, with embroidery thread; hand-embroidered, pointed and pinked edges
88 x 85″
The Annette Gero Collection
Photo by Tim Connolly, Shoot Studios

Regimental Bed Rug
Sergeant Malcolm MacLeod (dates unknown)
India
c. 1865
Wool, mostly from military uniforms, with embroidery thread; inlaid, hand-embroidered
95 x 63″
The Annette Gero Collection
Photo by Tim Connolly, Shoot Studios

Soldier’s Quilt
Artist unidentified
Probably India
c. 1850–1880
Wool, probably from military uniforms, with embroidery thread, rickrack, and velvet binding; inlaid,
layered-appliqué, hand-embroidered
67 x 66″
Collection American Folk Art Museum, New York
Gift of Altria Group, Inc., 2008.9.1
Photo by Gavin Ashworth

Soldier’s Mosaic Quilt
Jewett W. Curtis (1847–1927)
United States
1880–1890
Wool
90 x 70″
International Quilt Study Center & Museum,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln (2016.033.0001)

Army Uniform Quilt from the Napoleonic Era
Artist unidentified
Region unknown, possibly Prussia
Late eighteenth/early nineteenth century
Wool, probably from military uniforms; Silesian pieced
69 x 55″
The Annette Gero Collection
Photo by Tim Connolly, Shoot Studios

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Royalty Retainers Urgently Needed for Pennsic

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sun, 2017-07-23 15:07

Lady Elena. Photo by Jinx.

Pennsic is shortly upon us, and I am in search of gentles to help attend Their Majesties Timothy and Gabrielle. They will need retainers beginning Thursday of Peace Week and continuing through closing ceremonies on Friday of War Week.

Each shift is an hour long and every willing gentle is welcome – whether you’d like to retain for one hour on one day, or return multiple times over the course of the war. As always, new retainers are very welcome!

If you wish to sign up in advance (really encouraged!), please get in touch with me. I can be reached via Facebook message (Elena de la Palma) or via email.(elenadelapalma@gmail.com)   You can also sign up by coming to Æthelmearc Royal (at the corner of Brewer’s and St. Lawrence, right next to Pennsic University) at any point during Pennsic – even after the War starts, more hands will always be needed!

And finally, we will need many hands for some of the bigger events like Opening Ceremonies, Æthelmearc Court, the Known World Party, and Closing Ceremonies. Your help will always be welcome – simply come to Æ Royal before the event and let us know you’d like to help!

 Generous Æthelmearc, you have been so gracious in attending Their Majesties these past months. I am humbled with gratitude as I think ahead to Pennsic, and to the many gentles who will give of their time to ensure Their Majesties’ comfort. Truly, there is no place like home!

 Want to get in touch about retaining for Their Majesties at Pennsic?

Elena de la Palma, Head Retainer


Categories: SCA news sites

Battle of Five Armies

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2017-07-23 07:34

Greetings,

The Shire of Quintavia has discovered gold and more in our hills, and, while the Barony of Smoking Rocks has graciously “guarded” our mining operations for the last year, Quintavia has many neighbors who may wish to “liberate” us from this arrangement.

The following is a partial understanding of the goings on that have happened in and around the Shire of Quintavia.

February 13th, AS L, Carolingian Service University, Baron Colin of Carolingia and Citizen Ulrich von der Insel of Bridge begin plotting an alliance for the upcoming event.

March 12th, AS L, Black Rose Ball, Clothilde and Ulrich usurp Baron Eloi, taking control of the Barony of the Bridge. Word of the growing tensions in the Central Region is overheard in Royal Court.

AS LI – gold is discovered in Quintavia

September 3rd, AS LI, Smoking Rocks Baronial Investiture, the Dread Baron Richard Leviathan leads his forces to seize control of Quinatvia’s gold mines, allegedly in an attempt to block Carolingia from doing the same.

September 17th, AS LI, Falling Leaves in Exile, Carolingia pledges to overthrow Smoking Rocks’ intolerable interference.

February 18th, AS LI, Ice Weasel 12, Quintavia pays tribute to Smoking Rocks.

March 11th, AS LI, Novice Schola & Birthday Feast, Bergental pinky swears to come to Quintavia to combat Smoking Rocks’ aggression.

What’s more, our miners have recently discovered a magnificent stone that glows with an inner light.

There shall be competitions and Melees in all of the combat arts(Heavy List, Fencing, Archery, and Thrown Weapons), A&S challenges for artisans, War Points specifically encouraging Youth participation, and even a riddle contest.

In addition,  Dancing and Feasting (Please pre-reg!) will be had by all.  Finally the Shire of Quintavia invites one and all into a party at their encampment the Friday night of the event.

The site does have tenting facilities, please Pre-Reg to ensure spaces.

As part of the event Households in about Quintavia have issued challenges with the winners receiving renown for there the Baronies.

House Fiori – Quintavian Colors Challenge

The Defender of Quintavia shall be chosen from among those residents who present anything green and white, or green, or white. This is to represent the shire colors. Hurrah for the green and white!! Long may our banner wave!

House Lochleven – Practical Garb

Duke Edward and Mistress Cassandra wish to see your practical garb. Whether for smithing, nursing, cooking, plowing, or viking, show off your plain, stained, efficient, or comfy garb.

House Thorgeir – Viking Embellishment

Countess Svava encourages one and all to engage in Viking Embellishment, whether in trim, embroidery, carving, or storytelling.

House Darostur  – Flamingus:

“We of House Darostur. enjoying the finer things in life, such as decorative lawn ornamentation, inflatable creatures, and nylon structures invite the populace to expound on their appreciation of the most noble of birds found throughout our fair Shire and the Known World…the Noble Flamingo. Such expressions of wonder and thoughtfulness will be judged using the arcane and dubious methodology that this Noble House is best known for. Creativity and flair should be used to great affect and will indeed be remarked upon by all of the Household.”

Bring your finest flamingo festooned forms for display Saturday and earn your Barony the Darostur War Point (and maybe some gracefully awkward prizes).

House Viborg is sponsoring a Dirty Dozen Largess challenge!

Each entrant must make 12 items of largess to be given to the Crown. There is no limit on the number of entries. These can be sets of the same item (12 pairs of earrings) or a suite of items to showcase the breadth of an artist’s talent.

More information can be found at the event website, including the pre-reg form.

http://fivearmies.eastkingdom.org/

All are invited to come support the Shire’s neighbors in their bids to see which Barony shall earn the right  to bear the Arkenstone!

This event is co-sponsored by the Shire of Quintavia, the Barony of Carolingia, and the Barony of Bergental, please do come.


Filed under: Announcements, Events, Tidings Tagged: Bergental, Carolingia, events, Quintavia

Smiley found painted on 3,700-year-old pitcher

History Blog - Sat, 2017-07-22 23:43

A team of Turkish and Italian archaeologists have discovered what may be the first known smiley face in the ancient city of Karkemish in Turkey’s southeastern province of Gaziantep near the border with Syria. The terminally cheery curved line topped by two dots was painted on the side of pitcher around 3,700 years ago.

“The smiling face is undoubtedly there (there are no other traces of painting on the flask) and has no parallels in ancient ceramic art of the area,” [excavation leader Dr. Nicolo Marchetti of Bologna University] said. […]

The unusual pitcher in question was originally off-white in colour and features a short thin neck, wide body and small handle. Found in a burial chamber, it was used for a sweet sherbet-like drink, and dates back to 1,700 BC.

Archaeologists only realised the smile was there when the pot was taken to a lab for restoration work, Turkish news agency Anadolou reported.

Occupied from the 6th millennium B.C. until it was abandoned in the late Middle Ages, the remains of Karkemish were first discovered and excavated in the late 19th century. Some illustrious figures — T.E. Lawrence, Leonard Woolley, Gertrude Bell — participated in later digs before and after World I. Even with this long history of archaeological exploration, the site still had much to reveal. The joint Turkey and Italian team has been excavating Karkemish every year since 2011. The smiley pitcher was found this season, which began on May 2nd, and it was not the only important discovery.

The team also unearthed 250 bullae, clay tokens impressed with seals that would be attached to legal and commercial documents as proof identity and authenticity. The seals were found in the late Bronze Age layer and date to the Hittite Empire in the 13th century B.C. when Karkemish was the seat of the Hittite viceroy who controlled the entire region. Among the 250 bullae are the seals of some of the highest ranking individuals in the Hittite administration of the city, most notably that of Taya or Tahe, prince and “charioteer of the goddess Kubaba.” Researchers are excited by the great number of bullae recovered because they hope the seals will reveal new information about the people, trade and administrative systems of Karkemish during its most prosperous period.

Another exceptional find made in the same area of the city is a large basalt relief of two rampant griffons. It was carved at the end of the 10th century B.C. during the reign of the Neo-Hittite king Katuwa who was better known for his construction and sculptural endeavors than his prowess on the battlefield. The griffon relief is believed to be one of a pair with a relief of a winged bull discovered during last year’s excavation. Archaeologists found significant architectural remains as well, including the remains of a massive fortress and a grain silo, both dating to the end of the Neo-Assyrian period, around 1100 B.C.

Seven season of digs will soon come to a culmination when the site is opened to the public for the first time next year. Karkemish is in a militarily sensitive area and access has long been restricted. The Turkish Minister of Culture and Tourism announced earlier this month that on May 12th, 2018, the site will open its doors as the Karkemish Ancient City Archaeological Park. The smiley jug will go on display at the nearby Gaziantep Museum of Archaeology.

There is a whole new sense of urgency and meaning behind the excavations and the upcoming archaeological park. On the Syrian side of the border, the civil war has taken an unbearably onerous toll on its rich ancient history. While some of the most precious and beautiful archaeological remains in the world have been brutalized by ISIS and other belligerents in this quagmire from hell, excavation and conservation of ancient material culture has continued undeterred just over the border in Turkey.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

From the Æthelmearc Gazette: Paladin’s Pantry at Pennsic

East Kingdom Gazette - Sat, 2017-07-22 21:27

Reprinted from the Æthelmearc Gazette

PALADIN’S PANTRY RIDES AGAIN!

Dear Gentles,

Have you ever found yourself with more to pack at the end of Pennsic then you did when you set out from home, only to find that your vehicle seems to have shrunk? Is your kitchen area full of boxes of cereal, pasta, jars of peanut butter, and jugs of bottled water you can’t remember buying?

Never fear! The annual Paladin’s Pantry Food Drive is here to help by conveying your camp’s extra food and drink to a local food bank. Just drop any unopened foodstuffs or beverages (no alcohol, please) at one of our handy collection points:

  • Æthelmearc Royal (N04) Next to Pennsic University
  • Atlantia Royal (N40) Near the Gothic Abbey
  • Northshield Royal (E02) Across from Soalr Showers
  • Trimaris Royal (W17) Runestone and Great Middle Highway
  • Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands (N10) Central Serengeti
  • Barony of Bhakail (N11) Corner of Brewer’s and Fletcher
  • House Sable Maul (N29) Count Jehan’s Bounty
  • Puffin’s Rock Inn (N01) Next to Great Hall
  • Barony of Blackstone Mountain (E04)
  • Venshavn (E24) Next to Wulfden’s Back Door
  • Clan Blue Feather (E12) Slope of Horde Hill
  • House Akeru Thunder (E17) Hill Road
  • The Lusty Wench Tavern (E17) Across from Chalk Man Pub
  • The Chalk Man Pub (E17) Hill Road and Good Intentions
  • House Finisterre (B09) Far West Side
  • House Iron Lance (W13) Base of Runestone Hill
  • Maison Rive (Merchant Space 23) Across from Cooper’s Store
  • Offices of the Pennsic Independent –Top of Runestone Hill
  • Herald’s Point (Low Road, next to playground)

In addition, this year the program will be collecting used tents, sleeping bags, cots, and rain gear, (especially those in child sizes), which will serve no one in a dumpster, to benefit the homeless.

Exercise your charity, lighten your load, and help members of the community that has made us so welcome over the years!

Please direct any questions to Lord Alexander of Ayr (301.401.2045) or Master Morien MacBain (304.283.5640).

Paladin’s Pantry: We put the “large” in “largesse”!


Filed under: Pennsic

Court Report: Æthelmearc War Practice

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-07-22 16:28

From the Scrolls of the Reign of Timothy and Gabrielle, King and Queen of Æthelmearc, as recorded by Dame Kateryna ty Isaf, Jewel of AEthelmearc Herald with the assistance of Lord Arias Beltran del Valle,   Misty Highlands Herald, Master Liam Mac An TSaoir, Sycamore Herald, Drotin Jǫrundr hinn Rotinn, Golden Alce Herald and Master Fridrikr Tomasson, Gullskel Herald at War Practice in the Canton of Steltonwald on May 20, Anno Societatis LII.

The Court of Their Majesties, Timothy and Gabrielle was opened upon the Fencing Field:

As Their Majesties, Timothy and Gabrielle, accompanied by Their Heirs, Gareth
and Julianna, observed the fencing melee They asked for the crowd to assemble. They discussed the pride They found in the tremendous forces assembled. They spoke of the joy They had in creating the first of the Masters of Defense and asked the members if they felt there was anyone missing from their rank. The Masters of Defense advised Their Majesties that there was such a lack. So counseled, Their Majesties called forth Emily of Dunvegan and asked she sit vigil and play her prize at a date of Their choosing so that she may be so elevated to this Order. Scroll calligraphed by Isabella Montoya upon wording by Mistress Gabrielle Winter.

At the Court in the Afternoon:

Their Majesties, Timothy and Gabrielle, accompanied by Their Heirs, Gareth
and Julianna, invited The Baron and Baroness of BMDL, Brandubh and Hilderun, to Their court.

Their Majesties invited Mistress Arianna Winthrope to speak regarding Their Youth Combat Championship. Mistress Arianna advised that there were two Youth who were victorious in their divisions, Fox and Katrina. Their Majesties being so advised did invest both Fox and Katrina as Their Youth Combat Champions. The outgoing Youth Combat Champions, Karl and Timothy of Arindale the Younger, were thanked for their service.

Fox and Katrina invested as Kingdom Champions. Photo by Lady Aine ny Allane.

Their Majesties called forth Evelyn of Stormsport. For her work in helping with pre-cook for feasts, serving feast and especially her assistance with the Queen’s Tea, Their Majesties inducted her into the Order of the Silver Buccle. The scroll by Lady Edena the Red.

Their Majesties also called forth Alva Halfdansdottir. For her work as a List Runner at Crown Tournaments, kitchen assistance and serving at the Queen’s Tea, Their Majesties inducted her into the Order of the Silver Buccle.

Their Majesties called forth the rest of the children present. They asked the children to assist with singing Happy Birthday to someone before Lord Robert MacEwin took the toy chest and ran from the court. The children were instructed to take one toy each, beginning with the youngest child present.

Their Majesties called Meisteren Fredeburg von Katzenellenbogen forth to be serenaded with the appropriate aforementioned song. Upon completion They asked her to remain a moment while the children departed. Once the children had left They asked her take a knee while the Order of the Master of Defense were invited before Their Majesties. Their Majesties advised Meisteren Fredeburg that she should present herself at a future date of Their choosing to sit vigil and play her prize so that she may be inducted into this most noble Order. Scroll calligraphed by Isabella Montoya upon wording by Mistress Gabrielle Winter.

Their Majesties invited to Their court His Majesty, King William of the MidRealm. His Majesty William thanked Their Majesties for a rousing day of fighting and advised that although He will take the field at Pennsic to oppose the armies of Æthelmearc, He yet counts Their Majesties as friends. Their Majesties presented Him with a gift basket in appreciation of His visit.

King William of the Middle. Photo by Lady Aine ny Allane.

Their Majesties invited to Their court His Majesty, King Quilliam of Ealdormere. His Majesty Quilliam remarked on how enjoyed His day and looked forward to clashing with the might of Æthelmearc upon these very fields in the Pennsic War to come. Their Majesties presented Him with a gift basket to return home with and thanked Him for His visit.

Their Majesties gave leave to Their Excellencies of Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands to hold Their court.

Upon the completion of the Baronial court, Their Majesties invited before them Edelvrouw Lisbet de Keukere to discuss the Scarlet Apron competition this day. Edelvrouw Lisbet advised that there was a strong showing of competitors and was pleased to announce the populace choice was La Connectsion Frances and the Winners of the Scarlet Apron were Team Pel/Laurel comprised of Mistress Myfanwy ferch Rhiannon and Master Alastar Scott MacCrummin.

The Scarlet Apron is awarded to Master Alastar and Maistres Myfanwy. Photo by Lady Aine ny Allane.

Their Majesties invited before Them Mistress Yvianne de Castel d’Avignon. Touched by her teaching of the tournament and hospitality in the galleries They rewarded her years of dedication her by adding her to Their Court as a Baroness. They asked Sir Aengus to attend Them so that he might present the Coronet to mark her station. The scroll was a work by Baroness Ekaterina Volkova.

Their Majesties called forth Baron Friderich Swartzwalder, Kingdom Deputy Earl Marshall for Combat Archery. They asked if he felt it was time to step down from the post he had held with great diligence and he advised that he agreed and had found a suitable replacement in Mistress Zoe Akropolitina. Their Majesties asked Mistress Zoe if she was willing to take on this role and having assented They received her oath of service.

Mistress Zoe swears fealty as Kingdom Combat Archery Marshal. Photo by Lady Aine ny Allane.

Their Majesties next demanded the presence of the Wild Hunt. Countess Elena and Don Po came forward to announce the results of the Wild Hunt throughout the year and bestow gifts upon the winners. In third place was Lord Robert Hawkesworth, second place THLady Gytha Oggsdottir and first place went to Lord Ru Cavorst.

Lord Ru Cavorst collects his prizes as winner of the Wild Hunt. Photo by Lady Aine ny Allane.

Their Majesties called forth Duncan MacCoulagh and Isabella of Steltonwald. For Duncan’s work in the archery community and blacksmithing, Their Majesties Awarded him Arms and made him a Lord of the court. For Isabella’s interest in cooking, help in the kitchens and with whatever tasks need done, Their Majesties Awarded her Arms and made her a Lady of the court. Both scrolls were created by Countess Anna Leigh.

Their Majesties called before Them Jack Falleinwell. His Majesty commented on how He could not help but smile at this gentleman’s name, since as a small lad, the great and intelligent hound Lassie had often been known to call for Him to find a gentle with this very last name. Their Majesties advised that such a man must be mighty indeed and found that his extensive work at the Pennsic Wars did indeed make him a mighty helper for the Pennsic staff and especially mayor. Having been advised of such accomplishments They conferred upon him the title of Lord and Awarded him Arms.

Their Majesties called forth Illyria of Delftwood and for her beautiful work on garb and accessories and her generously donated works for largess and fundraisers They Awarded her Arms making her a Lady of the court. Scroll by Lady Genevote Nau d’Anjou.

Their Majesties called Charlotte Starke to attend Them. For her work in crafting lovely garb and fencing bucklers and her participation in fencing They made her a Lady of the court by Awarding her Arms. Scroll by THLady Mary Elizabeth Clason with wording by Mistress Gabrielle Winter.

Their Majesties called forth Mathias Al Tabai. Because of his helpfulness including willingness to become an exchequer and his fencing acumen, Their Majesties saw fit to make him a Lord of the court with an Award of Arms. Scroll was created by Elspeth of Wormwald with wording by Mistress Gabrielle Winter.

Their Majesties called Salvador Moro de Medici to come before Them. For his skill both on the Heavy and fencing fields and his willingness to teach others, They Awarded unto him Arms, thus making him a Lord of the court. Scroll by THLady Felice de Thornton.

Their Majesties requested Lady Rebekah Whytebull come before Them. Praising her work as tolner, kitchen staff, water bearer and watching the children of the Realm, They noted her gentle and quiet smile was always a staple of her work. Seeing fit to recognize such work for the betterment of the Kingdom, They inducted her into the Order of the Keystone. Scroll was created by Lady Elena Modarovavnuka.

Their Majesties called forth Lady Alysoun of the Debatable Lands. They remarked upon her beautiful work as a scribe, delicious brews, and lovely voice. Knowing her to be an anchor of the Debatable Choir, They found it right to induct her into the Order of the Sycamore. Scroll created by the hand of Mistress Arianna of Wynthrope.

Their Majesties called before Them Lord Theowulf fitz Renault. Remarking upon his regular attendance at musters and notable prowess They adjudged him to be a dedicated fighter and saw fit to induct him into the Order of the Golden Alce. Their Majesties directed him to note that this scroll had been created by the hands of Countess Aidan in the 50th year of the society and while the date was incorrect, They could not in good conscience alter or amend what was likely the last scroll Her Excellency had produced for the court. They enjoined Lord Theowulf to treasure the great gift bestowed upon him.

 

Their Majesties called forth Lord Nicolo Loredan da Venesia. Noting that he had served for several years as the exchequer of Silva Vulcani and worked diligently as a fencing marshal, They inducted him into the Order of the Keystone. The scroll was by THLady Elyse la Bref.

Their Majesties called forth Lady Takasukasa Riku. They advised They had seen how she was a stalwart of the archery community and a heavy weapons fighter of skill. Such a Samurai, should be given recognition befitting her accomplishments and so They inducted her into the Order of the Golden Alce. The scroll was created by Lord Sasson della Sancta Victoria.

Their Majesties invited before them Sir Arnthor inn sterki. For his tireless promotion of heavy weapons fighting and siege weapons, for his work as Regional Army commander, his service as Deputy Warlord and Shire Knight Marshal, Their Majesties inducted him into Their Order of the Keystone. The scroll was limned by Baron Caleb Reynolds and calligraphed by Baroness Graidhne ni Ruaidh.

Their Majesties invited before Them Maestro Augusto Giuseppe da San Donato. They noted how he creates clever thrown weapons targets. They remarked upon his creations such as the Rhydderich Hael gate and the fire ring and box for the Kingdom. Having seen the beautification of Their Kingdom done by his hands, They inducted him into the Order of the Sycamore. Scroll was created by Baroness Rosamund von Glinde.

Their Majesties invited before them Lady Vivienne of Yardley. Their Majesties then called forth the Order of the Fleur d’Aethelmearc to attend Them. Speaking of how the works of art created with pen and brush grace many halls and homes in Their Kingdom and how her ability is recognized throughout the Kingdom, They were moved to induct her into the Order of the Fleur d’Aethelmearc upon this day. The scroll was limned by Master Caoinlean n Seachaidh, also known as Tower, and calligraphed by Mistress Antoinette de la Croix.

Their Majesties called before them Baroness Anna Eisenkopf. Their Majesties advised They had been counseled that an order was missing a member. Their Majesties then called for the Most Noble Order of the Pelican to attend Them. They advised that her work as Mistress of the Lists, at crown tournaments and Pennsic, as well as at smaller events had been seen for many years. Her support for the Thrown Weapons community was known to all. She was never seen idling for an event when hands were needed. For all this, They would have her sit vigil upon a date of her choosing to contemplate induction into the Order of the Pelican. The scroll was by the hand of Baroness Graidhne ni Ruaidh.

Their Majesties were asked for a boon from Mistress Morgana bro Morganwg of Ealdomere. She asked that Their Majesties consider Brehyres Gwendolyn the Graceful as worthy of the Laurel Leaves and peerage for her gifts of song heard throughout the Known World. Assenting to her request, Their Majesties called Brehyres Gwendolyn forth. Accompanied by song as always, she presented herself unto Their Majesties. They asked her if having heard the counsel of her peers and bards, she agreed to proceed. Having her answer They called forth the Most Noble Order of the Laurel to attend Them.

Brehyres Gwendolyn is asked if she will accept elevation to the Laurel. Photo by Lady Aine.

From the Kingdom of the West, the words of Duke Frederick of Holland speaking as a Royal Peer were read by Countess Margerite Eisenwald. From the Kingdom of Ansterorra, Sir Kenneth MacQuarrie of Tombermory speaking for the Order of the Chivalry were read by Count Jehan de la Marche. From the Kingdom of Æthelmearc, speaking for the Order of the Master of Defense, the words of Maestro Orlando di Bene del Vinta were read by Mistress Illadore de Bedegrayne. From the Kingdom of Trimaris, the words of Master John Lyttleton speaking for the Order of the Pelican, were read by Countess Caryl Olesdattir. From the Kingdom of Ealdormere, Mistress Morgana bro Morganwg spoke finally for the Order of the Laurel. All these bards, accomplished in every aspect of the Society, spoke to the depth of impact that Gwendolyn has had upon the bardic arts throughout the Known World.

With joyful hearts, Their Majesties received this wise council and agreed that Gwendolyn should be recognized as a member of the Order of the Laurel and so elevated her to that noble station with the Laurel leaves to mark her forevermore a peer. A cloak to warm her during bardic circles deep into the night was laid upon her shoulders. The ancestral fruitcake of the Order of the Laurel was presented to her. She was further advised that her name and arms will be added to the book of the Order of the Laurel ennobled in Æthelmearc. There were two scrolls in process of creation, one with words by Master Fridikr being limned by Lady Raven Whiteheart and the other by Lady Emer nic Aidan of Ealdormere.

Their Majesties asked that all scribes who contributed to the scrolls given during the courts today stand and be recognized.

Her Majesty asked Lord Tassin to come before Her. She spoke of how there is a great deal of work that goes on behind the scenes and is rarely noticed unless it is not done. Her Majesty was moved to recognize Lord Tassin as Her inspiration of the day and bestowed upon him the Golden Escarbuncle because of all he had done to ensure the Kingdom encampment was built from the ground up, including the driving of well over a hundred stakes for the pavilions.

Lord Tassin receives a Golden Escarbuncle. Photo by Lady Aine.

There being no further business this day, Their Majesties’ court was thus concluded.​


Categories: SCA news sites

Shire of Hunters Home- Demo Report

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-07-22 16:13

On July 1st, the Shire of Hunters Home met for a day of fighting in Venango County. First we offered a fighting demo for the Utica Festival Days, offering the audience a chance to pick their heroes and receiving free snow cones when their fighters won.

Later that afternoon, the Shire participated in Franklin’s Independence Day Parade, themed “Fairytales and Fantasy”. Franklin may have expected a normal march down their main drag known as Liberty Street, but what they got was a series of fighting bouts, with a melee topping the excitement. The crowds went wild and the fighters made it look good. To top off a great day the Shire won third Place for best presentation!

Maggie Rue

Click to view slideshow.
Categories: SCA news sites

Britain’s first Roman fleet diploma goes on display

History Blog - Fri, 2017-07-21 23:33

The first complete Roman fleet diploma ever found in Britain has gone on display at Durham University’s Museum of Archaeology. The inscribed copper alloy plaques record the rights granted an honorably discharged sailor after many years of loyal service. The recipient of the fleet diploma, one Tigernos, is Britain’s first named sailor.

Roman Military Diplomas were the physical proof of rights granted to non-citizen soldiers to mark their honourable discharge on retirement after 26 years of service. This diploma was issued by the emperor Antoninus Pius (AD 138-191) to Tigernos, a native of Lanchester, Co. Durham, in around AD 150. The diploma granted him and his descendants Roman citizenship and the legal right of marriage. To earn the diploma he had served in the Classis Germanica -the Roman fleet in Germany, most likely for 26 years, before being honourably discharged on his retirement.

It was discovered in February of last year by metal detectorist Mark Houston near Longovicium, the Roman fort in Lanchester, County Durham. Houston found the plates about eight inches below the surface in a spot where his detector had signalled loud and clear. He saw the tell-tale green of copper and cleaned around it, revealing a small stack of copper plates. He had no idea what it was at first, or even that it was ancient. He thought it might be the remains of a motorcycle battery or some other old piece of machinery.

So Houston dug them up, took them home and cleaned them. It was only when he put them on the window sill where the sunlight streamed over them that he saw there were letters engraved on the copper sheets. He took a closer look through a magnifying glass and realized it was Latin. Understanding that what he thought were old motorcycle parts could be ancient artifacts, Mark Houston contacted the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) and reported his discovery. PAS experts and Dr. Roger Tomlin from Oxford University have been studying and conserving it ever since.

The thin sheets of copper alloy were originally two rectangular plates stitched together by metal wires threaded through holes in the plates. Over time, the two rectangles corroded and broke into eight fragments, so some areas of the inscription are damaged, missing or illegible. Researchers are still working out as much of the inscription as they can, but what they’ve already been about to transcribe and translate paints a detailed picture, listing names of military cohorts, commanders, governors and consuls as well as the recipient and his father.

The Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, son of the deified Hadrianus, grandson of the deified Trajanus conqueror of Parthia, great-grandson of the deified Nerva, pontifex maximus, in his 13th year of tribunician power [150 A.D.], twice acclaimed Imperator, four times consul, father of his country, has granted to the cavalrymen and infantrymen of the Germany Army Dutiful and Loyal (PF) who have served in the 4 alae and 14 cohorts which are called Noricorum, Sulpicia CR, Africorum Veterana, I Thracum, I Flavia Hispanorum, I Latobicorum et Varcianorum, I Pannoniorum et Dalmatarum, II Civium Romanorum (CR), I Raetorum, VI Brittonum PF, II Asturum PF, I Classica PF, III and VI Breucorum, I Lucensium PF, II Varcianorum, VI Raetorum, IV Thracum, and are in Lower Germany under Salvius Iulianus, who have served 25 years, likewise soldiers of the Fleet 26 years, and have been honourably discharged, whose names are written below, Roman citizenship to those who do not have it, and the right of legal marriage with the wives they had when citizenship was given to them, or with those they later marry, but only one each.

The 13th day before the Kalends of December [November 19] in the consulship of Gaius Curtius Justus and Gaius Julius Julianus.

To Velvotigernus son of Magiotigernus, a Briton, ex-private soldier of the German Fleet Dutiful and Loyal which Marcus Ulpius Ulpianus commands.

I love the “only one wife each” stipulation.

There are only 800 Roman fleet diplomas known to exist, and most of them are incomplete because the children of the recipient would break off pieces to use as proof of their citizenship. Because this is the only complete example found in Britain, it is of enormous archaeological and historical import. Even so, the plates fell through a loophole in the UK’s Treasure Act: the only complete Roman fleet diploma ever discovered in Britain is not made of precious metal, therefore it’s not official treasure and the finder can dispose of it as he wishes. This is the same loophole that allowed the spectacular Crosby-Garret helmet to be sold to the highest bidder at auction instead of in a museum. Thankfully in this case the finder agreed to sell the diploma plates to the Museum of Archaeology at Durham University and split the proceeds with the landowner.

As of July 20th, Velvotigernus’ fleet diploma is on permanent display the museum’s Palace Green Library.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

BOD Seeks Nominations for Committee Members

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-07-21 21:14

The Board of Directors is seeking nominations from the populace for individuals to serve as members of the following Board Committees:

Youth Activities Committee
Mission: Completion of design and implementation of YAFA programs.

Risk Management Committee
Mission: to oversee insurance, legal, and related matters.

If you are interested in serving on any of these Committees, please send a letter of interest, together with your SCA and mundane resumes to Richard Sherman (rsherman@director.sca.org).

If you would like additional information, or have any questions about the Committees or the nomination process please contact Mr. Sherman or the Corporate Office.


Filed under: Announcements, Corporate

Paladin’s Pantry at Pennsic

AEthelmearc Gazette - Fri, 2017-07-21 19:31

PALADIN’S PANTRY RIDES AGAIN!

Dear Gentles,

Have you ever found yourself with more to pack at the end of Pennsic then you did when you set out from home, only to find that your vehicle seems to have shrunk? Is your kitchen area full of boxes of cereal, pasta, jars of peanut butter, and jugs of bottled water you can’t remember buying?

Never fear! The annual Paladin’s Pantry Food Drive is here to help by conveying your camp’s extra food and drink to a local food bank. Just drop any unopened foodstuffs or beverages (no alcohol, please) at one of our handy collection points:

  • Æthelmearc Royal (N04) Next to Pennsic University
  • Atlantia Royal (N40) Near the Gothic Abbey
  • Northshield Royal (E02) Across from Soalr Showers
  • Trimaris Royal (W17) Runestone and Great Middle Highway
  • Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands (N10) Central Serengeti
  • Barony of Bhakail (N11) Corner of Brewer’s and Fletcher
  • House Sable Maul (N29) Count Jehan’s Bounty
  • Puffin’s Rock Inn (N01) Next to Great Hall
  • Barony of Blackstone Mountain (E04)
  • Venshavn (E24) Next to Wulfden’s Back Door
  • Clan Blue Feather (E12) Slope of Horde Hill
  • House Akeru Thunder (E17) Hill Road
  • The Lusty Wench Tavern (E17) Across from Chalk Man Pub
  • The Chalk Man Pub (E17) Hill Road and Good Intentions
  • House Finisterre (B09) Far West Side
  • House Iron Lance (W13) Base of Runestone Hill
  • Maison Rive (Merchant Space 23) Across from Cooper’s Store
  • Offices of the Pennsic Independent –Top of Runestone Hill
  • Herald’s Point (Low Road, next to playground)

In addition, this year the program will be collecting used tents, sleeping bags, cots, and rain gear, (especially those in child sizes), which will serve no one in a dumpster, to benefit the homeless.

Exercise your charity, lighten your load, and help members of the community that has made us so welcome over the years!

Please direct any questions to Lord Alexander of Ayr (301.401.2045) or Master Morien MacBain (304.283.5640).

Paladin’s Pantry: We put the “large” in “largesse”!


Categories: SCA news sites

Date Change for Pennsic First Authorizations

AEthelmearc Gazette - Fri, 2017-07-21 08:29

The last date to authorize in heavy combat for Pennsic has been changed to Saturday, July 22, per the Pennsic website here.

You have two more days!

Note: The Æthelmearc Authorizations Clerk, THLady Ursula of Rouen, says if you authorize this weekend, she cannot guarantee that you’ll receive your authorization card before Pennsic, so you should plan to bring the paper copy with you. To speed processing, you can scan your paperwork, including the signed waiver, and email it to her at ursula.of.rouen@gmail.com.

Fighters at Pennsic. Photo by Lady Àine ny Allane.


Categories: SCA news sites

9-year-old boy trips over Stegomastodon tusk

History Blog - Thu, 2017-07-20 23:01

Nine-year-old Jude Sparks was hiking with his family in the desert of Las Cruces, New Mexico, last November testing walkie-talkies with his younger brothers when he tripped on something and fell. He thought it looked like petrified wood at first, but its shape seemed more animal than plant. Could it be that classic of desert art, the cow skull? That’s what his little brother Hunter thought. Jude’s parents thought it looked more elephant-like. They looked it up when they got home and none of the elephant skulls they found online matched the object Jude had stumbled on, so they emailed a photo of the find to Peter Houde, professor of biology at New Mexico State University (NMSU), in the hope he might be able to identify it.

Houde recognized it at a glance as the fossilized skull of a Stegomastodon, a large elephantine animal that roamed North America in the Pliocene era about five million to 28,000 years before the present. This particular specimen is approximately 1.2 million years old, and even though it’s from one of the more common species of extinct elephants that inhabited the area, as far as Houde knows it’s only the second complete Stegomastodon skull discovered in New Mexico.

Jude had tripped over one of its tusks and faceplanted in front of the lower mandible. He could see the second tusk a little ways away. It was an incredibly fortuitous stumble, because the fossil had only recently been exposed by heavy rains. Had it been exposed to the elements any longer, it would have crumbled to dust. Houde saw to it that the exposed fossils parts — the jaw and both tusks — were removed to NMSU’s Vertebrate Museum for their protection. After securing the permission of the landowner (the exact location of the find is being kept under wraps at his request) and the hardening chemicals necessary to preserve the fossil in situ, Peter Houde and a team of professors and students excavated the rest of the skull this May. The Sparks family was given the opportunity to join in the excavation, which is going to be hard to top as family excursions go.

Houde applauded the Sparks family’s decision to do the right thing in contacting him about their find. He encourages others who might come across fossils to reach out to an expert rather than try to dig it up on their own.

“As you can imagine, when people find out about these things, they might be tempted to go out there and see what they might find themselves and tear up the land or they might hurt themselves,” Houde said. “To be quite honest, all these fossils from this area are radioactive and especially for children, not something you would want in your home.”

Houde estimates the jaw weighs about 120 pounds and the entire skull as little as a ton. And while the skull may appear to be strong, it is quite delicate.

“The upper part of the skull is deceiving. It’s mostly hollow and the surface of the skull is eggshell thin,” Houde said. “You can imagine an extremely large skull would be very heavy for the animal if it didn’t have air inside it to lighten it up just like our own sinuses. That makes the thing extremely fragile and the only thing holding it together is the sediment surrounding it.

“In fact when the sediments are removed from the sides of them, they start to fall apart immediately and literally fall into tiny, tiny bits. It has to be done carefully by somebody who knows how to go about doing it. It is a very deliberate process that takes a little bit of time.”

The team spent a week excavating the skull, brushing it with the hardening chemicals to make it possible to remove it without damaging the delicate fossil. Once it was fully exposed, the skull was coated with a layer of plaster and reinforced with wood braces for support. It was raised by a tractor onto a flatbed truck and transported to New Mexico State University.

In the NMSU laboratory the skull will be studied, analyzed and reconstructed. The process is a painstaking one and it will likely take years before the complete skull is pieced back together and stabilized so it can be put on public display.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History