Feed aggregator

Unicorns, Selfies and How to Joust like a Knight: News for Medievalists

Medievalists.net - Thu, 2015-11-05 10:22
The latest medieval news we discovered in our online ramblings...

[View the story "Unicorns, Selfies and How to Joust like a Knight: News for Medievalists" on Storify]

Our picture of the week is by Juha Remes on Flickr, showing Great Tower of Scarborough Castle and panoramic view to the headlands in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom.

Check out his Flickr page to see more.
Categories: History, SCA news sites

The Sylvan Kingdom has a New Arts and Sciences Champion

AEthelmearc Gazette - Thu, 2015-11-05 08:45

This event report was submitted by Thomas Byron of Haverford, Crown Prince of Æthelmearc.

On October 31, AS 50, as the Hallows raised themselves for a night of freedom, the artisans of Æthelmearc joined the good gentles of Angel’s Keep for a day rich in the sharing of knowledge. Their Royal Majesties, Tindal and Etain, had called for a competition to decide who would stand as the Arts and Sciences Champion of Æthelmearc, and 18 of the Kingdom’s finest artisans heeded the call.

The site itself was majestic, and the people of Angel’s Keep are rightfully proud of the glory (and acoustics!) of the immense chapel in which Court was held. The warmth of the Shire was evident in the care shown to visitors who had traveled from far away (as well as a delicious lunch with many vegetarian options). There were so many wonderful people to meet and talk to that one had to set aside time to focus on the arts!

Photo by Prince Byron.

The centerpiece of the event was a novel format for an A&S competition, devised by Master Fridrikr Tomasson and Mistress Orianna Fridrikskona. Instead of a static display left out for judging, each artist was seated at a table on which their work was displayed, and there were chairs arranged on the opposite side of the table for the judges and the populace. Not only was this advantageous for judges, who could clarify any points of uncertainty, but it was also inviting for those who had never entered an A&S display. Instead of getting lost in advanced documentation, I was able to speak to the artisans on a level that was meaningful to me, and I could maximize what I learned from each of them. The greatest difficulty was tearing myself away from a table to try to ensure that I saw every entry (I must admit, I failed to see them all – I couldn’t bring myself to leave the fascinating conversations).

Their Majesties enjoy an opportunity to learn from the artisans of Æthelmearc. Photo by Master Fridrikr Tomasson.

But in case that wasn’t enough to keep the populace sated with artistry, there was a separate A&S display in the lunch room, with more amazing work that could easily have been part of the competition. This was a good venue for those who could not remain with their work throughout the event. After hours of judging (and teaching and learning), Their Majesties called the judges to their chambers to help Them decide upon a new Champion. The Royalty also had an opportunity to choose their own personal favorite entries.

The winners of the competition were announced in Their Majesties’ Court that evening. The new Kingdom A&S Champion is Elskja Fjarfell of the Dominion of Myrkfaelinn. Her display on medieval soaps showed so much more than just the cake of soap – she discussed the dead-ends that she encountered in her research; the chemistry behind the techniques; the subtle differences in methods that produced starkly different results; and the variations that were used in period. She also had a ewer ready in case you wanted to test the different soaps on your own hands! Elskja’s presentation was so popular that she won the Populace’s Choice in addition to the overall Championship.

His Highness discusses the finer points of soap-making with Elskja Fjarfell, Æthlemearc’s new A&S Champion. Photo by Hrolfr Fjarfell.

Her Majesty chose to particularly recognize Baron Artemius Andreas Magnus for his work on stained glass (and his stories from museums and glassworks). His Majesty, guided not only by His taste buds but also His respect for research on animal husbandry, chose as His favorite Lady Cassandra Mattis for her work on prosciutto. I was also honored to choose a favorite, as I was moved by the liturgical slippers made by Mistress Gillian Llewelyn. They are easily worthy of being showcased in a museum. Along with these gentles, THLady Solveig Throndardottir was called into Court to receive praise for her research into medieval Japanese cookbooks, which has become unrivaled as a canonical reference on the subject.

All of the artisans whose work was on display amazed me, as they had accomplished things that I could never even aspire to. But I also consider myself a winner, as my love of learning about all subjects medieval was rekindled at this wonderful event.

List of Entrants:

Abigail Kelhoge – Medieval Toddler’s Clothing
Artemius Andreas Magnus – Stained Glass Project
Cassandra Mattis – Messisbugo’s perduti recipe (1577)
Edith of Winterton – Thread after the Thorsberg trousers
Edward Harbinger – Silver jewelery
Elska Fjarfell – Medieval Soap Making
Felice de Thornton – Illuminated scroll blanks
Fridrich Fluβmüllner – Wood blocks for decorating clothing
Gillian Llewelyn – Embroidered Liturgical Sandals
Helene al Zarqa – Hats
Jasper Longshanks – Medieval leather pouches
Jocelyn of Hartstone – Stained glass
Lasairfhiona inghean Aindriasa – A variety of tarts
Madoc Arundel – 14th century great ale
Margarita Carpintero – Perfumes
Miklos Magdolna – Research paper on the Irish Travellers
Renata Rouge – 15th century Embroidered badge
Solveig Throndardottir – Medieval Japanese Recipe Project

Honorable and Noble Judges:

Bedwyr Danwyn
Bryn ni MacRose
Christina inghean Ghriogair
Ekaterina Volkova
Felicity Flußmüllnerin
Fridrikr Tomasson
Honnoria of Thescorre
Jon Blaecstan
Katja Davidova Orlova Khazarina
Liadin ní Chléirigh na Coille
Matilda Bosville de Bella Aqua
Othindisa Bykona
Rhiannon y Bwa
Robert l’Etourdi
Svana in kyrra

Categories: SCA news sites

Lost Oswald the Lucky Rabbit film found in BFI archive

History Blog - Wed, 2015-11-04 23:39

Not one to be outdone by the National Library of Norway, the British Film Institute has discovered a lost Walt Disney film starring Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. Unlike Empty Socks, the short found last year in NLN’s subarctic bunker archive of nitrate films, there wasn’t even a 25-clip of Sleigh Bells known to survive. No part of Sleigh Bells has been seen since it made its original release in 1928.

The six-minute animation was found in the BFI National Archive in Berkhamsted by a researcher searching the online catalogue. He recognized the name of the film as one thought lost. The print entered the BFI archive in 1981 as part of a collection of movies from a recently shuttered Soho film studio. It was titled and dated 1931, but had no references to Disney or Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. The title was generic enough to not ring any bells (pun intended) and the BFI doesn’t have the manpower to watch every one of the one million films in its archive, so it was just duly catalogued and socked away in storage.

In the movie Oswald skates and plays ice hockey on a lake accompanied by his interspecies lady friend, a cat named Ortensia who looks a little like Felix the Cat in a hat and skirt. It was drawn and animated by Ub Iwerks (Ub did all of the drawing for Disney’s early characters; Walt had limited artistic talent) and Walt Disney under contract with Universal Studios which had hired the pair to get a piece of the lucrative cartoon pie. The Oswald films were Universal’s first animated pictures and while Disney had had some success with the combination of live action and animation in the Alice Comedies series, Oswald was his first big hit.

Unfortunately for Disney, Oswald wasn’t really his, not by law. He belonged to Universal and once the character proved to be a success, Charles Mintz, the producer of the Oswald pictures, wasted no time in planning Disney’s ouster. He stealthily poached all of Disney’s employees except for Ub Iwerks who was loyal to Walt and refused the job offer. Iwerks warned Disney of Mintz’s machinations but Disney handwaved away his concerns. It was only in the spring of 1928 when Disney went to New York to renegotiate his contract that he finally realized Iwerks was right. Not only was Mintz not offering to increase Disney’s take on the popular cartoons, he told him he had to make more films for 20% less money. Mintz had no need to accommodate him since he had an experienced Oswald team ready to go without Disney.

Walt and Ub walked away and were all the better for it since the next idea they came up with was Mickey Mouse. Mintz’s production company took over making Oswald the Lucky Rabbit cartoons for Universal until karma struck. The next year, Universal president Carl Laemmle fired the Mintz-Winkler studio and handed Oswald to Walter Lantz, a director Mintz had hired. Lantz produced Oswald cartoons until 1943 when the character was all but retired. He would go on to invent Woody Woodpecker.

In 2006, the Walt Disney company reacquired the Oswald the Lucky Rabbit property from NBC Universal. They were delighted, therefore, at the rediscovery of Sleigh Bells. Walt Disney Animation Studios restored the print and made a new film print of it as well as digital copies. The restored cartoon will be screened for the first time at BFI Southbank on December 12th, 2015, as part of It’s A Disney Christmas: Seasonal Shorts, a program of holiday-themed films from the late 1920s to the present.

Here’s a brief preview of Sleigh Bells released by the BFI:

Here’s a news story about the find that has some views of the film and its canister which look to be in surprisingly good condition.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Museo dell’Opera del Duomo reopens in Florence

History Blog - Tue, 2015-11-03 23:22

After more than 20 years of planning and execution and 45 million euros spent, the Museo dell’Opera del Duomo (the Museum of the Works of the Cathedral) in Florence reopened to the public on Thursday. More than 750 artworks — paintings, textiles, architectural models, sculptures — are on display in a completely redesigned space that finally allows the museum to exhibit monumental pieces from the exterior and interior of the Duomo, the Baptistery of San Giovanni and Giotto’s Campanile (bell tower). The Museum of the Works now houses the largest collection of Florentine sculptures from the Middle Ages and Renaissance in the world, statues and reliefs in marble, bronze and precious metals by such towering figures as Lorenzo Ghiberti, Donatello, Luca della Robbia, Antonio Pollaiolo, Andrea del Verrocchio, Antonio del Pollaiolo and Michelangelo Buonarotti.

More than 200 of these works have never before been on public display before because exhibition space was so limited. The acquisition in 1998 of the Theater of the Intrepids, an 18th century playhouse built on the site of Renaissance artists’ workshops that had once belonged to the Opera, allowed the museum to more than double its space. Because the theater had long since been gutted and was being used as a parking lot, there was nothing of historical or architectural interest to preserve. This allowed the architects to restructure the old museum and the theater, fusing them together into a single logical space. There are now more than 6,000 square meters (64,600 square feet) of room for the masterpieces from the history of the construction of this great church to spread out and breathe in 25 rooms over three floors. To accommodate monumental pieces that were made to be viewed from afar, several large halls were created ranging in size from sixty to a hundred feet long with ceilings twenty to fifty feet high.

The flexibility afforded by the theater large, empty theater building solved the museum’s thorniest problem: how to properly exhibit the elements of the Duomo’s original facade designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in the late 13th, early 14th century. Arnolfo’s facade was incomplete at the time of his death (sometime between 1302 and 1310), covering only the bottom third of the church. Standing next to the multicolored marble facades of the Baptistery and Campanile, its whiteness where finished and roughness where unfinished were much criticized. Over the years various contests were launched to find a solution but they came to naught. Finally in 1587, the Medici Grand Duke ordered the court architect to demolish the facade and replace it with a brick veneer painted in Mannerist style. In 1688 that was repainted with fake columns and architectural details on the occasion of the wedding of Grand Duke Ferdinand to Violante Beatrice of Bavaria. That paint job was faded to all but nothingness by the mid-19th century. The white, green and red marble facade we know today is shockingly recent, designed by Emilio de Fabris to coordinate with the other striped structures in the complex and constructed between 1876 and 1886.

The Opera managed to keep most of the facade, despite the inexplicable lack of care taken to preserve the works during demolition, in its store rooms. It also kept in its archives the only surviving drawing of Arnolfo’s original facade: a 17th century copy of a sketch drawn by Bernardino Poccetti in 1587 just before demolition. When the Museo dell’Opera opened in 1891, the monumental figures from the facade couldn’t possibly fit. The best it could do was exhibit a little wooden maquette of the facade while more than 100 original pieces — 40 statues, 60+ architectural features — stagnated in storage.

The lofty spaces of the theater gave the museum the opportunity to do something extremely cool about the facade: reconstruct the whole damn thing indoors. Using the Poccetti sketch as a guide, architects recreated the 14th century facade along one wall of the 1,500-square-foot great hall. The sculptures and reliefs were positioned in their original locations, with a few select pieces of particular importance being brought down to the museum floor so visitors can actually see them while plaster copies were put in their original places.

Across from the reconstructed Arnolfo facade is another monumental installation: the Baptistery facade. The famous Gates of Paradise, Ghiberti’s gilded bronze panels depicting scenes from the Old Testament in high relief that once graced the east wall of the Baptistery, the north door, an earlier work by Ghiberti made to match the first doors by Andrea Pisano, and said Pisano doors, all extensively restored, are installed in the facade, topped by the monumental sculptures that topped them in the 16th century. (Copies of the doors now take the brunt of the weather and pollution in the Baptistery itself.)

Other rooms are dedicated to important works and history, like Donatello’s Penitent Magdalene (1455), Michelangelo’s unfinished and all the more beautiful for it Bandini Pietà (ca. 1547–1553), and the two intricately carved choir lofts that once stood above the doors of the sacristies inside the Duomo, one by Luca della Robbia (completed in 1438), the other by Donatello (completed in 1439). These masterpieces of early Renaissance sculpture were removed by order of groomzilla Grand Duke Ferdinand because he considered them too passe’ for his fashionable wedding. He replaced them with massive Baroque choir lofts.

The great dome of the cathedral designed and built by architect, artist, goldsmith and inventor Filippo Brunelleschi also get its own hall. It houses original wooden models of the cupola and lantern and, incredibly, some of the pulleys and gear Brunelleschi devised to get construction materials 170 feet off the ground. I haven’t been able to determine if the 9-foot scale model of the dome discovered under the floor of the theater during construction in 2012 has been integrated into the museum as was discussed at the time.

(Speaking of Brunelleschi’s dome, you have to watch this documentary about its construction. Master masons from the United States go to Florence and join in a project to build a scale model of the dome to see if they can figure out how he did it. It is absolutely riveting viewing. It’s fascinating to see Brunelleschi’s genius brought to life by masters who clearly feel the noble history of their craft with every brick they lay.)

Basically, this is a whole new museum. If you’ve been to the Museo dell’Opera before, you have all the reason you need to get back there stat because its previous incarnation bears no resemblance to its current splendor.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Authorizations Clerk Calls for Letters

AEthelmearc Gazette - Mon, 2015-11-02 15:51

To the most sylvan Kingdom of Æthelmearc and her most noble populace does your Authorization Clerk send warm greetings!

The time has come for my first term in office to come to a close. As such, I am putting a call out for letters of intent for those that might be interested in pursuing the office of Kingdom Authorizations Clerk. I fully intend on begging Their Royal Majesties for another term, but in compliance with Kingdom Law, am requesting letters from interested parties to be submitted no later than December 31, 2015. The next term will begin at Kingdom 12th Night on January 9, 2016 and lasts for two years(01/2016-01/2018). The office of Authorizations Clerk is a tedious, yet rewarding office. It falls under the Kingdom Earl Marshal and works very closely with all marshals, fighters, fencers, and riders of our ferocious army. On average the office requires between 3-15 hours of work per week, with very serious peaks prior to large events, especially Pennsic. Skills required for the office are primarily Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word, with a healthy dose of people skills and handwriting deciphering thrown in for good measure. The main responsibilities for the office of Authorization Clerk include: 1. Creating and distributing all Æthelmearc authorization cards 2. Maintaining electronic and paper files of all authorizations(for 4 years) 3. Ensuring that the Kingdom Earl Marshal has access to fighter database if needed 4. Reporting to the Kingdom Earl Marshal at regular intervals (quarterly) with copies being forwarded to the Kingdom Marshal of Fence, Chancellor of the Youth Martial Academy, Youth Fencing Provost, and others as requested. This report should include the following: total number of current adult and youth authorizations in the kingdom, number of authorized rattan, number of authorized rapier, number of authorized equestrian, number of authorized youth, any other information upon request.   I am available to discuss any questions you may have about the office via email(ursula.of.rouen@gmail.com) or phone(540-287-1748). Letters of intent should be sent to the following gentles, Their Royal Majesties (ae.king@aethelmearc.org, ae.queen@aethelmearc.org), His Grace, Duke Christopher (aethelmearc.seneschal@gmail.com), Her Grace, Duchess Tessa (tessathehuntress@yahoo.com) and myself (ursula.of.rouen@gmail.com) no later than December 31, 2015. Yours, Ursula
Categories: SCA news sites

Crown Tournament Schedule

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2015-11-02 15:08

A message from His Majesty concerning the schedule for this weekend’s Crown Tournament


Greetings all,

Given the exceptionally large number of entrants in next weekend’s Crown Tournament, and the sunset time of approximately 4:30, Her Majesty and I plan to close the tournament check-in at 10:30, and begin the procession shortly thereafter. Accordingly, we are asking all combatants and consorts to arrive as close to the 9AM site opening as possible.

We expect a grand day to determine Our heirs and appreciate all the hard work and cooperation that will go into the occasion.

In Service to the East,

Brennan Ri

Filed under: Announcements

Royal Collection restorers find hidden pooper

History Blog - Mon, 2015-11-02 11:45

A painting in the Royal Collection has been hiding a man captured in the moment of answering a call of nature for more than a hundred years. A Village Fair with a Church Behind by 17th century Dutch painter Isack van Ostade is a vibrant, bustling scene of peasants exploring market wares in a fictional village under the shadow of an unrealistically large church. Restorers were cleaning the oil-on-canvas work in preparation for an upcoming exhibition when they found that a shrub in the bottom right corner was a relatively recent overpainting. When they removed the bush, they found a man popping a proverbial squat, trousers down, head bent in concentration.

Here is the painting before cleaning:

Here it is after cleaning:

The canvas entered the Royal Collection in 1810 when it was acquired by the future King George IV, then the Prince of Wales. It hung in Carlton House, the Prince’s London home. Exhibition curator and surveyor of The Queen’s Pictures Desmond Shawe-Taylor notes that the notoriously dissipated “George IV loved that kind of thing … Being a man of the world, [he didn't] mind a few rude jokes.” His successors were not quite so enamored of toilet humor. Restorers believe the rustic pooping fellow was probably painted over the last time the canvas was restored in 1903, after it was moved to the Picture Gallery at Buckingham Palace.

The modification took place two years into the reign of Queen Victoria’s son, Edward VII, who was himself was no stranger to bawdiness. Dubbed Edward the Caresser by Henry James, he was a regular at a number of exclusive Parisian brothels, particularly Le Chabanais where he kept his custom-made sex chair. He wouldn’t have had any direct involvement in the pooper cover-up. It was likely a curatorial decision to bring the painting in line with the proprieties of a time when the mere discussion of a much-needed women’s public lavoratory took five years because council members couldn’t even talk about bodily functions without terminal monocle popping. Displaying a painting of a man dropping a deuce next to a church, no less, would have been cause for great consternation. Another ribald Dutch painting bought by George IV, A Village Revel by Jan Steen (1673), was altered around the same time when a man’s naked buttocks on the tavern sign were covered with a bull’s head.

Desmond Shawe-Taylor again:

“Dutch artists often include people or animals answering the call of nature partly as a joke and partly to remind viewers of that crucial word ‘nature’, the inspiration for their art. Queen Victoria thought the Dutch pictures in her collection were painted in a ‘low style’; two years after her death perhaps a royal advisor felt similarly.”

The painter of A Village Fair with a Church Behind, Isack van Ostade, was born in Haarlem in 1621. He was trained by his older brother Adriaen who had a strong influence on his early works. Once he struck out on his own in 1642, Isack shifted his focus from the rustic interiors that characterized his brother’s work to peasant genre works set in a detailed but fictional landscape. He specialized in winter scenes and crowded exteriors, like the series of paintings he did of people milling about outside roadside inns. His signature touch in these busy scenes full of people and animals was a white horse, unmissably luminescent in the center left of A Village Fair with a Church Behind. Isack died at the tragically young age of 28. His short life was a prolific one; he completed about 400 paintings in the decade he had.

The painting is one of 27 Dutch 17th and 18th century works from the Royal Collection that will be on display in Masters of the Everyday: Dutch Artists in the Age of Vermeer, an exhibition exploring the quotidian captured in rich detail by artists like Jan Steen and Johannes Vermeer. The exhibition runs from November 13th, 2015, to February 14th, 2016, in the Queen’s Gallery at Buckingham Palace.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #4: A Day in the Life of a Minor Fifteenth-Century Provençal Noblewoman

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2015-11-02 11:04

Our fourth A&S Research Paper comes to us from Baroness Ysabella de Draguignan, of the Barony of Dragonship Haven, and is drawn from her study of historical household management; here, she describes for us how one of her days might have progressed. (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

A Day in the Life of a Minor Fifteenth-Century Provençal Noblewoman

Baronne Ysabella de Draguignan was born 21 November 1375 in St. Saveur le Viscomte, Normandy, France, born to Nicolas de Villarquemada (d. 1380) and Bernice de Clarens (d. 1386). Her siblings include Iago (older brother, d. 1380), Esther (older sister), Adhemar de Villarquemada (older brother), Jean-Claude (older brother), and Guillaime (older brother, d. 1401).

Chateau de Lespinasse (the model for Draguignan). Photo copyright Comite Regional de Developpement Touristique d’Auvergne.

She was educated at Rouen in upper Normandy until she was sixteen. Her elder brother, Jean-Claude, arranged a marriage to Baron Gerard D’Aigues-Mortes in 1396 when she was then twenty, which united the largest southern and northern salt-making families and created a regional monopoly on salt. They have two children; Lillian and Michel. Ysabella was granted the title of Baronne de Draguignan by the King in 1403.

Ysabella’s Day
Beginning Work
Afternoon Leisure
And So To Bed
Appendix (Recipes)

Dawn: Ysabella wakes up each morning around 6am, says a Kyrie, rolls over, and arises from her down-stuffed mattress. She pulls the tapestried cloth of her canopied bed aside, stands and moves to wash her face with fresh water her maid has brought in this morning. She brushes her hair with a mixture of powdered herbs, and anoints her face with a cerotum (ointment made with oil and wax) to lighten her complexion and keep it safe from the sun. She then makes her cheeks red by powdering them with powdered red sandalwood. As she does this, she perhaps recites another prayer if she is feeling particularly devout. Her favorite is the following:

Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, eterrne Deus, ui me ad principium huius diei pervenire fecitsti, tua me hodie salva virtute ut in hac die ad nullum declinem moretale peccatum, ne ullum incurram periculum; sed semper ad tuam justiciam et voluntatem faciendm omnis mea action tuo moderamine dirigatur. Per Christum.


Lord God Almighty and Eternal Father. Who has allowed me to reach the beginning of this day, by Your holy power, protect me from all danger, so that I may turn away from any mortal sin, and that by Your gentle moderation my thoughts may be directed to do Your holy justice and will. Through Christ amen.

She prays for the success of Pope Clement VII, (who resides in Avignon and whom she firmly believes is the true Pope) and for the safe return of her husband Gerard D’Aigues-Mortes from business travel. She also prays for her brother Adhemar’s conquest over the English, whom she hates with a passion that is very nearly zealous. (The Hundred Years War is well underway.)

Her maid, Maria de la Parra, who is a daughter of an affineur d’argent (gold refiner), helps her dress and arranges her hair with a silk veil. She adds an enameled bronze pendant in the shape of a trefoil to represent the Christian Trinity. Each lobe of the trefoil is outlined in green and red enamel. In the upper right lobe is a green ‘Y’ and in the bottom lobe a red ‘D’, the monogram of her name; in the third lobe sits a red dove to represent the Holy Spirit.
Back to Top

Tri-lobed bronze pendant, French, 14thC. (Image courtesy Phoenix Ancient Art S.A., Geneva, Switzerland)

Breakfast: As she walks to the small hall to eat with the rest of the house, she verifies that the chambermaids have swept the halls and entry way where people might gather. Although breakfast was not as common as it is today, it is the custom of her family to partake and she had brought this tradition with her when she moved south, even if the clergy frown on it. She also refuses to allow meals in private unless ill, or in the field, but requires her entire household to consume their meals together.

Breakfast consists of a fish, such as herring, with garlic sauce, cheeses, and watered wine. She does not eat wheat or rye because her physician, Marque Roumain, has determined the cause of her illnesses were because both were hot and humid, and affected her humors, whereas rice and millet where cold and dry. (It is now thought that the Baronne Draguignan suffered from celiac disease.)
Back to Top

Beginning Work: After breakfast she takes her ladies in waiting with her on her daily rounds. These young women were all from wealthy families who, through this connection, hoped to be well married. The ladies in waiting include Maria, her maid, and Armanda, the daughter of one of the avocets (lawyers), Luc de Clerc, who is in the estate’s employ. Her other ladies in waiting are Bornazela, the daughter of a silk-hat maker, and Willelma, a book-seller’s daughter.

Her first daily visit is to instruct Dame Ramunda the Beguine on the tasks and priorities of the day, and it is Ramunda’s responsibility to ensure successful resolution of those matters. Ramunda would then speak with the head steward of the house, Jehan, as to what needed to be accomplished for the day.

On this particular day, however, Jehan needs to speak with Ysabella herself, to determine which animals will be slaughtered, smoked or salted on the feast day of Saint Martin le Miséricordieux (November 11th). That meat will be necessary to get them through the winter. The winters have become far colder than previous, and the older generation enjoys telling their Northern mistress this, along with tips and ideas on how to thrive in the new climate.

As there are two estates, Draguignan and Aigues-Mortes, and her husband was often absent for long periods of time, it is important that Ysabella understand the administrative duties of the estates. She knows the value of her estates, their expenditures, and the relevant law, in order to conduct business and form contracts with merchants.
Back to Top

Correspondence: Often, she becomes angry regarding these matters, and she writes her brother of her troubles, to vent her frustrations with someone she trusts. On this day, she writes the following:

A lady (Christine de Pisan) writing in her chamber. (London, British Library, Harley MS 4431, 004r)

I pray that you are well. I pray to God our glorious Father for your victory in Aquitaine. I know the Holy Mother will protect a most-beloved brother. May your men be strong and follow your orders properly.

Oh my brother how thankful I am of your hand in my education, and my husband’s willingness to continue it, or I would not have been better at dealing with the workmen. I do forget their coarse and lying natures since it is not in my nature to be so!
My good husband was away from his estate in Aigues-Mortes while this took place, having business in Avignon…

As directed by you I made certain that Master Jehan found good men, who do not curse or were of an indolent nature. I also made certain my husband’s clerk Luc wrote a proper contract first and had them make their mark so there would be no change of price afterwards, as is often the case: When they come to your home yelling to all that you are a liar and false!

A deal was made and even though some money was given in exchange for service, every excuse was made to put off the labor. First Master Jehan was told the laborer must measure again the space. But, it took a week to do so. Then after, Luc suggested that a date of completion be added to the contract, to which the workers agreed.

However when this day drew near a fellow came to Jean to inform him that wood could not be got!

There were no horses to pull, or wagons to carry as far away as Avignon and as south as Marselha, which you know is only a day’s walk.

I demanded a man come and tell me every day of the progress. Which, you may not be surprised, hurried the progress along. The man came at length, began work, ate lunch, and then left shortly after!

This happened every day for three days in a row, with no work on the Sabbath, coming back Monday and briefly Tuesday, on which he demanded his pay.
Back to Top

Dinner: Dinner is a large meal and served at midday. Again, she requests her household to join her in this meal unless detained in some other matter. But the reason for missing the meal has to be sufficient! She is fairly strict about that, unless you are working far in the fields—it is unreasonable to request workers to travel in for midday meals, but they will be present at supper. Dame Ramunda is responsible for working with the cook to dispatch meals for these workers during the day, and the men and women who take them their meals will also sit and eat with them to ensure continuity in her custom.

As people come to the table they wash their hands with scented water poured from an aquamanile or pitcher over a basin.

Dinner consists of several courses:

First Course. Norse pasties, Cameline-flavored meat soup, beef marrow beignets, roasted large Provençal figs topped with bay leaves, cress and herring with vinegar.

Second Course. Carp, poached plaice, Lombard tarts, venison and small bird pasties

Third Course. Frumenty, venison, glazed meats, fish in aspic, fat geese and fat capon a la dodin.

Fourth Course. Hippocras and wafers to finish
Back to Top

Afternoon leisure: Her life is not all work; being a noblewoman awards her far more leisure time than many women. Although she can embroider, it is well known that she does not enjoy it. She often spends time in her gardens watching her children play. A favorite game of theirs is called Salt Post (freeze tag), where the person who was tagged is turned to salt, much like Lot’s wife of the Old Testament.

Children riding stick horses. (Blumen der Tugend, Hans Vintler; Österreichische Nationalbibliothek ; cod. s. n. 12819 ; fol. 137v)

She enjoys playing Jeu de Volant and let her children join in on many occasions. (Jeu de Volant is an early version of badminton and is played without a net, using small rackets, called battledores, and a shuttlecock that is a cork with feathers at the top.) Ysabella has a shuttlecock trimmed with peacock feathers (to match her heraldry!) made by her keeper of fowl.
Back to Top

Supper: Supper is a lighter meal in the evening which again is taken by the whole household, including the field hands and kitchen staff that may have been absent earlier at dinner.

Today, supper consists of hericot of mutton, rice topped with fried almonds, compote topped with white and red comfits, and hippocras and wafers to finish.

Evening: After supper the family spends time playing cards, or her favorite game, astronomical tables (a seven player variant of backgammon), and listening to music before evening prayer and bed. Her children play with small knights, horses, and poppets made from clay.
Back to Top

And So To Bed: The Trotula, a 12th century text concerning the health and wellbeing of women, was adamant that women bathe in warm water and herbs often, so a bath is drawn for her before her bed. She washes her hair with the ashes of burnt vine, chaff of barley nodes, and licorice wood, and sowbread that was boiled in water and strained. When she finishes washing her hair, she anoints it with oil made of colocynth, oil of laurel, henbane seeds, and orpament to keep her hair black and thick. She then combs her hair again with the same powder and rose water that she used in the morning.

Her sleeping chamber is swept and strewing herbs—costmary (tanacetum balsamita) and dried sweet woodruff (asperula odorata)—are laid across the floor to make the room smell sweet.

A lady in bed. (London, British Library, Harley MS 4431, 180v)

The prayer she recites in the evening is as follows:

O steadfast hope, Lady Protectress of all who place their trust in you, glorious Virgin Mary, I beg you now that in that hour when my eyes will be so heavy from the shadows of death that I will not be able to see the light of this world, or able to move my tongue to pray to you or call to you, when my miserable heart that is so weak will tremble for fear of the enemies from hell, and will be so anxiously frightened that all the members of my body will melt in sweat because of the painful anguish of death, then, most gentle and precious Lady, deign to look on me in pity and to help me, to have with you the company of angels and also the knighthood of Paradise, so that the devils, agitated and terrified by your succor , cannot have any glimmer, presumption, or suspicion of evil against me, or any hope or power of removing me from your presence. Rather, instead, most gentle Lady, may it please you then to remember the prayer that I make to you now, and receive my soul in your blessed faith, into your care and protection, and present it to your glorious Son to be to be vested in the robe of glory and accompanied to your joyous feast of the angels and all the saints.

She lays her head on her perfumed and herbed pillows and falls asleep.
Back to Top

Appendix (Recipes)

Recipes of above-mentioned items

Cosmetic Recipes

Hair powder:
“But when she combs her hair, let her have this powder. Take some dried roses, clove, nutmeg, watercress, and galangal. Let all these, powdered, be mixed with rose water. With this water let her sprinkle her hair and comb it with a comb dipped in the is same water so that her hair will be smell better.” –The Trotula

“A cerotum with which the face can be anointed every day in order to the whiten it is made thus. Let oil of violets or rose oil(rose otto) with hen’s grease be placed in a clay vessel so that it boils. Let very white wax be dissolved, then let egg white be added and let powder of well-powered and sifted white lead(DEADLY, substitute food grade titanium powder for mineral make up) be mixed in, and again let it be cooked a little. Then let it be strained through a cloth, and to this strained cold mixture let camphor, nutmeg, and three or four clove be added. Wrap this whole thing in parchment. We do not apply this in any fashion until the cerotum smells good. For this let the woman anoint her face, and afterward let her redden it thus.” –The Trotula

“Take the shavings of brazilwood (a mistranslations, probably actually red sandalwood) and let it be placed in an eggshell containing a little rose water, and let there be placed in the same place a little alum, and with this let her anoint some cotton and press it on her face and it should make her red.” – The Trotula

Scented hand washing water:
“Boil sage, then strain the water, and let cool until it is luke-warm. Or instead you can use camomile or marjoram, or rosemary: and cook with the peel of an orange. And also laurel leaves [bay leaves] are good for this.” – Le Ménagier de Paris

Cooking recipes

Garlic sauce for fresh herring:
Steep [garlic] in must or verjuice. – Viander de Taillevent

Norse pies:
Take cooked meat chopped very small, pine nut paste, currants, harvest cheese crumbled very small, a bit of sugar and a little salt. – Viander de Taillevent

Note that in Tournai, to make cameline, they grind ginger, cinnamon, saffron, and half a nutmeg; mix with wine, then take it out of the mortar. In a mortar, grind untoasted white breadcrumbs (Ysabella’s cook substitute toasted rice flour to thicken the sauce) that have been soaked in cold water, add wine, and strain. Then boil it all, and at the end add red sugar. – Viander de Taillevent

Lombard Tart (Lombardy custard):
Take good cream, and leaves of parsley. Take eggs, both the yolks and the white, and break the eggs into the cream, and strain through a strainer until the mixture be so stiff that be will stand up by itself. Then take marrow, and chopped up dates, and prunes. Layer the dates with the prunes and marrow in a pie shell and pre-bake a bit. Then take out of the oven. Take the egg and cream mixture and fill up the pie shell. Cast sugar on it, and salt. Then let it bake together until it be enough. If this is in Lent, leave the eggs and marrow out. Then serve.  – Austin, Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery Books

½ ounce “Duke’s powder” spice mixture, 1 quart wine, ½ measure wine

“Duke’s powder”:
1 ounce ginger root, 1 ounce grains of paradise, 1/12 measure galingale powder, 1/8 measure cinnamon powder, 1/12 measure nutmeg powder, ¼ measure cinnamon stick – Cindy Renfrow, A Sip Through Time

Hericot of mutton:
Cut meat into small pieces, bring to a boil, then fry it with bacon fat with cooked onions sliced thinly; thing with beef bouillion. Add mace, parsley, hyssop, and sage and simmer. – Le Ménagier de Paris

Cull it and wash it in two or three changes of warm water, until the water remains completely clear. Partially cook it, then strain and put on trenchers in dishes to drip and dry before the fire. When dry, cook with meat-fat broth and saffron until thickened, if it is a meat day. If it is a fish day, don’t add meat broth, but instead use almonds finely ground and not strained, then sugar it abundantly, with no saffron. – Le Ménagier de Paris
Back to Top


Austin, Thomas. (1888) Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books. Harleian MS. 279 & Harl. MS. 4016, with extracts from Ashmole MS. 1429, Laud MS. 553, & Douce MS 55. London: for The Early English Text Society by N. Trübner & Co.

Freeman, M., & York, N. (1971). Herbs for the mediaeval household: For cooking, healing and divers uses. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Getz, F. (1991). Healing and society in medieval England a Middle English translation of the pharmaceutical writings of Gilbertus Anglicus. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press.

Greco, G. (2009). The good wife’s guide (Le ménagier de Paris): A medieval household book. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Green, M. (2001). The Trotula: a medieval compendium of women’s medicine. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Renfrow, C. (1994). A sip through time: A collection of old brewing recipes. Pottstown, Pa.: C. Renfrow.

Renfrow, C. (1998). Take a Thousand Eggs or More. Pottstown, Pa.: C. Renfrow.

Santich, B. (1995). The original Mediterranean cuisine: Medieval recipes for today. Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Review Press.

Schaus, M. (2015). Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An encyclopedia. S.l.: Routledge.

Scully, T. (1988). Viandier of Taillevent: An edition of all extant manuscripts. Ottawa: Univ. of Ottawa Press.

Wilkins, S. (2002). Sports and games of medieval cultures. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Back to Top

Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

Bejeweled, gilded silver Tiffany bike on display

History Blog - Sun, 2015-11-01 23:45

The summer the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History opened a new wing dedicated to business and innovation. One section of it, the Patrick F. Taylor Foundation Object Project, explores how certain consumer goods — clocks, ready-to-wear clothes, refrigerators — both drove and embodied social change in the US. Bicycles, for instance, gave women a whole new independence of movement and helped support the Victorian dress reform movement which sought to liberate women from the restrictive fashions of the day and advocated less binding, less bulky, more practical garments for use in sports and activities like swimming or bicycling.

One of the pieces on display is a sparkling example of the roles innovation and fashion played in the bicycling craze of the late 19th century. It’s a Ladies Columbia Bicycle made in 1896 by the Pope Manufacturing Company at its Hartford, Connecticut, factory, then the largest bicycle factory in the world. It was a safety bicycle, so-called because unlike its predecessor the penny-farthing, it put pedals close to the ground for easier balance and stopping and had a chain-drive that allowed for much smaller wheels. By 1896 those wheels were inflatable pneumatic tires which gave a much smoother, faster ride than the boneshaker of yore with its hard rubber tires.

What makes this particular Ladies Columbia Bicycle stand out among the 60 bicycles in the Smithsonian collection is what happened to it after it came off the line at the Hartford factory: it was decorated with silver, gold, diamonds and emeralds by Tiffany & Co. Introduced in late 1895 for the Christmas shopping season, the Pope Manufacturing Company’s glamorous Tiffany Bicycle was more of a marketing tool than a big seller, and no wonder since it cost a prohibitive $500 before customization. In its newspaper ads to Tiffany Bike was used as a lure to induce potential buyers to visit the company’s local branch where a wide array of affordable models were available for purchase.

The Tiffany Bicycle in the Smithsonian belonged to Mary Noble Wiley of Montgomery, Alabama, wife of Spanish-American War veteran and United States Representative from the state of Alabama Ariosto Appling Wiley. The nickel-plated steel frame was decorated by Tiffany with floral and filigree designs in sterling silver covered with a thin layer of gold. The handlebars have ivory grips with silver bands and gold embossed designs. The lamp is sterling silver with a rock crystal lens. The wheel rims are made of bird’s eye maple. To keep Mrs. Wiley’s skirts from getting caught in the chain and wheel spokes, twine was tautly threaded over them. Mrs. Wiley’s initials — MNW — were monogrammed onto the front tube in gold and studded with 12 small diamonds and eight small emeralds.

Unfortunately we know very little about its creation and acquisition. Mary, known as Wiley gave it to her son Noble Wiley in 1915 to keep for his then-infant daughter Hulit to enjoy when she was old enough. Noble packed it away in a special bicycle trunk where it remained for 15 years until he had cause to unpack it and recall how awesome it was. He wrote a letter to Tiffany & Co in New York City asking for more information about it. That letter has survived, but alas any response he may have received has not. In 1950 he donated it to the Smithsonian Institution.

It was selected for display in the Object Project and earlier this year conservator Diana Galante cleaned and restored it to make it ready for its closeup. She found that years of polishing had eroded some of the gilding, exposing the silver beneath to tarnish. The original rubber tires, whose sulfurous fumes played a part in the tarnishing process, were cracked and misshapen, a decay that is all but unavoidable in the life cycle of century-old natural rubber.

After an initial cleaning to remove grime and old wax, the bicycle’s tarnish problem needed to be addressed. Galante used gentle abrasives to remove the corrosion returning the silver to its original shine. She coated the gilded areas were resin to keep them from tarnishing while on display. Visitors can see it now on display at the National Museum of American History in a custom enclosed display case (which will also help prevent tarnish while keeping this literal jewel of a bike safe), suspended in a mount specially designed to keep the rubber wheels from having to bear the weight of the bike.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Court Report: Endless Hills Investiture, October 24, A.S. L

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sun, 2015-11-01 19:09

Documented from the Scrolls of the Reign of Magnus Tindal and Etain II, Basileus Kai Æthelmearc: the Business of Their Court at Endless Hills Investiture in the Barony of Endless Hills, 24 October Anno Societatis L.  As recorded by Baron Malcolm fitzWilliam, Keystone Herald, with the assistance of Meisterin Felicity Flußmüllnerin.

In the morning, accompanied by Their Excellencies Gunnar and Barbary Rose, Baron and Baroness of Endless Hills:

Their Majesties gave leave to Their Excellencies to hold their Final Court.

At the conclusion of their Court, Their Majesties asked to have words with Baron Gunnar and Baroness Barbary Rose. Hearing that it was indeed their choice to retire to their estates and seek periods of rest and relaxation, Their Majesties summoned Lady Julianna Woolworth, Seneschale of the Barony, to attend them and report on the Election Process for successors. Lady Julianna reported that a successful election following the Laws, Rubrics and Rules of the Sylvan Kingdom of Æthelmearc was held and Lord Verdi Luftskyn and Lady Fiona ingen O’Fhaolain were elected to succeed Baron Gunnar and Baroness Barbary Rose. Hearing this Their Majesties removed the ancient coronets of the Barony from the heads of Lord Gunnar and Lady Barbary Rose and invited their friends and families to escort them to a place of comfort and repose.

Lord Verdi Luftskyn and Lady Fiona ingen O’Fhaolain called before Their Majesties.

Their Majesties then called Lord Verdi Luftskyn and Lady Fiona ingen O’Fhaolain to their Presence and asked them if they still wished to become the Keepers of Their Barony of the Endless Hills. Hearing that they did, Their Majesties accepted the Oaths of Fealty of Verdi and Fiona to Æthelmearc; the Crown and Their Heirs.

Lord Verdi Luftskyn and Fiona ingen O’Fhaolain swearing their oath of fealty.

His Majesty Tindal II invested Verdi Luftskyn with the Baron’s ancestral coronet and Her Majesty Etain II invested Fiona ingen O’Fhaolain with the Baroness’s ancestral coronet. Their Majesties presented Baron Verdi Luftskyn and Baroness Fiona ingen O’Fhaolain to their populace.

Now Baron Verdi Luftskyn and Baroness Fiona ingen O’Fhaolain of the Endless Hills.

In the evening, accompanied by Their Excellencies Verdi and Fiona, Baron and Baroness of Endles Hills:

Their Majesties gave leave to Their Excellencies to hold their First Court.

Inspired by the Silent Auction going on during the day, Her Majesty called on Lady Julianna Woolworth to present her with a token for the work well done.

Calling forth the “Future of Æthelmearc” and giving them into the custody of Baroness Anastasia along with toys, and games Their Majesties sent the children present out to amuse themselves.

Their Majesties called forward Maggie the Other and in recognition of her Gentle and Welcoming nature made her the newest Member of the Order of the Cornelian, Calligraphy and Text by Lady Abigail Kelhoge.

Maggie the Other, newest Member of the Order of the Cornelian.

Their Majesties called forward THL Nest ferch Rhys, who was presented Their Sigil in recognition of and in thanks for her maintenance of the Royal and Imperial Regalia, especially the Coronets and Crowns.

THL Nest ferch Rhys, presented with Their Majesties’ Sigil.

Their Majesties asked to have words with one who they believe is mis-named. After confirming that Elva the Evil is not really evil, Their Majesties granted her an Award of Arms and made her a Lady of the Court. Scroll is Forthcoming.

Their Majesties called forward one Alain Pyett a Fencer, Archer and Thrower, and in recognition of his hard work and dedication, he was created a Member of the Order of the Golden Alce. Scroll by Magge Il Foster.

Alain Pyett, newest member of the Order of the Golden Alce.

Their Majesties called Vile Von Dragon to have words with him. Confirming that he is a fencer and archer, and a Marshall in Training, they created him a Member of the Order of the Golden Alce. Scroll with Illumination by Chahagan and Wordsmithing by Jinx.

Vile Von Dragon created a Member of the Order of the Golden Alce.

Their Majesties called forth one Dorothea fitzWaryn to speak of words and numbers. After hearing her they knew she was indeed an Exchequer and Tollner, and created her a Member of the Keystone in recognition of her work for the Barony and the Kingdom. Scroll by Baroness Marianna Pietrosanti with words by Mistress Euriol.

Dorothea fitzWaryn, newly created Member of the Keystone.

Their Majesties called forward Kolfina Jodisdottir, who while new to the Barony and the Kingdom is already noted as an exemplar of the Clothing and accessory arts. In recognition of this Their Majesties created Kolfina a Member of the Order of the Sycamore. Scroll by Maria Christina de Cordoba.

Kolfina Jodisdottir, newest Member of the Order of the Sycamore.

Their Majesties asked someone to go into the kitchen and bring back Baron Ulrich Drachendonner so that they could have words with him. Their Majesties had realized that in many quiet ways he has come to be one of finest exemplars of the “Viking Persona” and in recognition would make him a Companion of the Sycamore. Scroll by Lord Ulf the Barelegged with words by Lord Cormac mac Gille Brigde.

Baron Ulrich Drachendonner made a Companion of the Sycamore.

Their Majesties asked to speak to one Perote Campbell, a friend, he spends much time travelling through Æthelmearc as a Feastocrat and marshal, supporter of peers and our Royalty. Therefore we will with the Advice and Consent of our Friends of the East make him a Baron of the Æthelmearc Court and Grant him Arms. Scroll by Master John.

Perote Campbell made a Baron of the Æthelmearc Court.

Their Majesties called forward Don Po Silvertop the Rogue to have words with him in recognition of all he does for His Barony, the Fencing Community, the Privateers of Æthelmearc, and the Schtick with which all and sundry are amused. Despite hearing denials Their Majesties created him a Companion of the Order of the Millrind. Wordsmithing by Baroness Helene al Zarga, Baron Fergus Atte Mede and Meisterin Felicity Flußmüllnerin, Scroll forthcoming.

Don Po Silvertop the Rogue created a Companion of the Order of the Millrind.

Their Majesties asked that Lord Gunnar and Lady Barbary Rose be found and brought into Court for conversation. After discussing their six years as Baron and Baroness of Endless Hills, Their Majesties made them a Baron and Baroness of the Court of Æthelmearc in recognition of their many years of service.

Lord Gunnar and Lady Barbary Rose made Baron and Baroness of the Court.

There being no further business, the Imperial Court was closed.

Categories: SCA news sites

Thanks For The Calendar Scribes

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2015-11-01 12:48

Today is the last day to order calendars or note cards created by the East’s scribes to support the costs of the travel and entertainment incurred by the royalty.  The project’s head, Baroness Lucie Lovegood, has sent out her thanks to the scribes whose work is featured.  “The success of this project is owed to the scribes who took the concept and brought it to life by producing amazing depictions of the beasts that continue to impress me. The calendar staff owes a huge debt of gratitude to them.  They put their talents to work for this project along with their love of their craft and their Kingdom.”

The scribes are:
Doña Camille des Jardins
Lord Aleksei Dmitriev
Mistress Rhonwen glyn Conwy
Baroness Cassandra Boell von Bayer
Mistress Sunniva Ormstung
Mistress Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova
Lord Vettorio Antonello
Master Harold von Auerbach
Duchess Thyra Eiriksdottir
Lady Lada Monguligin
Mistress Daryl Of Avalon
Lady Christiana Crane
Lord Alexandre Saint Pierre
Mistress Eleanor Catlyng

Orders can be placed online today at the project’s website or by emailing Baroness Lucie Lovegood. Calendars are $17+$3 shipping.  Note cards are $12 for a set of 6+$3 shipping.

Filed under: Arts and Sciences

New named pipe found at Jamestown

History Blog - Sat, 2015-10-31 22:54

Archaeologists at Historic Jamestown have discovered the tenth Virginia-made pipe with a name inscribed on the stem. It’s the first new named pipe found at the site since 2009, and in contrast to most of the earlier discoveries, the name is complete: William Faldo.

The stockholders of the Virginia Company were expecting to make a quick profit from their investment in the Jamestown settlement, but the struggling colonists could barely keep themselves alive, never mind send back the riches in minerals and trade goods the company had envisioned. They weren’t even self-sufficient, having clashed with the Powhatan tribes weeks after their arrival and being saddled with a surfeit of soft-handed gentlemen rather than farmers and laborers who could have been of practical use.

In January of 1608, eight months after the founding of Jamestown, the Virginia Company sent a supply mission that was woefully short of necessary provisions but long on new colonists. At least this time there were more laborers and tradesmen than gentlemen on board. Pipemaker Robert Cotton was one of them.

Tobacco was introduced to Europe by the Spanish in the 16th century but it was Sir Walter Raleigh who popularized it in England after Ralph Lane, first governor of Virginia, gave him a long-stemmed pipe and Virginia tobacco in 1586. By the time John Rolfe, future husband of Pocahontas, planted Virginia’s first commercial tobacco crop in Jamestown in 1612, smoking was widespread in England. Rolfe’s first crop was sold in London in 1614. Five years later, Jamestown was exporting 10 tons of tobacco to England a year. By 1639 it was 750 tons.

When Robert Cotton first arrived at Jamestown, there was no tobacco cash crop. His brief was to seek out new sources of clay and pipe production methods that would give the Virginia Company consumer goods they could actually make some money selling in England. The London pipemaking industry was supplied exclusively by Dorset white clay. If Virginia clay could supply a colonial pipemaking enterprise, the Virginia Company could break the Dorset monopoly.

While there are no surviving documents mentioning Robert Cotton other than the passenger list of the First Supply mission, archaeological evidence of his work has survived. Since 2006, archaeologists have unearthed more than 1,550 fragments of pipes made by Robert Cotton. They were found in a well, probably discards that failed during the manufacturing process. Cotton combined the tulip-shaped bowl of Virginia Indian pipes with English technology and decorative elements to create a unique design not found in any other early Virginia colonies. The Virginia clay wasn’t the pristine white of Dorset’s or fired at the same high heat, but Cotton’s handmade work (he did not use molds to make these pipes) was appealing and saleable.

Many were stamped with a diamond shape maker’s mark and fleurs-de-lis. A few of them were inscribed with the names of influential people stamped into the clay with printer’s type. Nine pipes were found with names or enough of a name to be identifiable, all of them officials of the Virginia Company or high-powered courtiers: Sir Charles Howard, lord high admiral of the English Navy, famed explorer and smoking trend-setter Sir Walter Raleigh, the Earl of Southampton, Virginia Company official and patron of Shakespeare whose name appears on two pipes, Lord De La Warr, owner of a huge quantity of Virginia Company stock and first resident governor of Virginia, Captain Samuel Argall, ship’s captain and lieutenant governor of Virginia, Captain Francis Nelson, ship’s captain of the Second Supply mission, Sir Walter Cope, antiquarian and Virginia Company official, Robert Cecil, Lord Salisbury, Virginia Company investor and King James’ secretary of state.

It’s unlikely these luminaries commissioned a Virginia pipe. Archaeologists believe the name stamping was a marketing device, a gift for investors to assuage their concerns attending Jamestown’s financial prospects. William Faldo, however, was not so illustrious a personage. He may have gotten his own named pipe because he was friends with the maker. His pipe was also found in a different location, a cellar rather than a well.

Faldo was a Swiss German member of the Society of Mines Royal who persuaded the Virginia Company that he could find silver mines in the colony. He arrived along with a group of German and Polish craftsmen in October of 1608 and quickly set out to find the mines. He was believed to have found a silver mine upstream of the falls of the James River, but before thoroughly exploring it he went back to England to secure an exclusive contract to work the mine. He returned with Governor De La Warr in 1610 after the Starving Time had driven the few survivors to abandon the Jamestown fort. De La Warr was very keen on securing that silver, so he ordered the settlers to stay put and rebuild Jamestown. The silver was never found and Faldo was killed by Appomattox Indians that same year.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Unofficial Court Report from Feste des Glaces

East Kingdom Gazette - Sat, 2015-10-31 12:37

Alisay de Falaise sent to Vigil to contemplate joining the Order of the Pelican. (Photo by Brunissende Dragonette de Broceliande.)

Ursion de Gui sent to Vigil to contemplate joining the Order of the Laurel. (Photo by Brunissende Dragonette de Broceliande.)


On October 24, 2015, Their Majesties Brennan and Caoilfhionn conducted Court in the Barony of Havre des Glaces, where they did the following business:

  • Their Majesties invited Their Excellencies of Havre des Glaces, Godefroi and Alisay, into the Court and presented them with gifts in thanks for their hospitality.
  • Their Majesties awarded Arms to Seten Kaldvind.
  • Her Majesty welcomed into Court the children who participated in the Children’s Service Initiative and gave them her tokens.
  • Their Majesties made gifts of toys to the children of the East.
  • Their Majesties awarded Arms to Tomodo Gassan, with a scroll by Mayuki Yuri and Kirsa Oyutai.
  • Their Majesties gave tokens of welcome to newcomers to the Society.
  • Their Majesties awarded Arms to Sunnifa í Hvalseyju, with scroll by Shadiyah al-Zhara and Arthur de Beaumont.
  • Their Majesties elevated Ursion de Gui to the Order of the Laurel, with a scroll by Robin dit Dessaint.
  • Cellach Dhonn inghean Mhic an Mhadaidh presented their Majesties with multiple bags of items for use as Royal largesse. The artisans involved in creating these items were: Cellach Dhonn inghean Mhic an Mhadaidh, Síle Dhubh inghean Mhic an Mhadaidh, Cacht Mhór inghean Mhic an Mhadaidh, Marguerite de Gui, Eikaterina Solov’eva Pevtsova, Eyda von Rothenberg, Maerwynn of Havre des Glaces, Penelope Cadorette, and Gæira Aggadóttir.
  • Cristoforo Donatello dei Visconti received a backlog scroll by Robin dit Dessaint for his work as Tailor to the Crown.
  • Their Majesties awarded Arms to Flavius Felix.
  • Their Majesties awarded Arms to Osc of the Harbors, with a scroll by Shadiyah al-Zhara and Arthur de Beaumont.
  • Their Majesties elevated Alisay de Falaise to the Order of the Pelican, with a scroll contained in a bound book created by Robin dit Dessaint.
  • Their Majesties gave tokens of appreciation and thanks to Kirsa Oyutai, who acted as their Court Herald and French translator for the day.

Reported by Mistress Alys Mackyntoich

[Edited to correct the last item of business.]


Filed under: Court Tagged: Havre des Glaces

The King Is Dead at Versailles

History Blog - Fri, 2015-10-30 22:07

The long, drawn-out, painful death of King Louis XIV of France was thoroughly documented and published in the memoirs of some of the men who witnessed it. It was so slow that the king himself took the opportunity to plan it out thoroughly, concerned about the state of his soul and the future of his realm which he had so materially damaged with endless warfare and extravagant spending. After he finally breathed his last, the elaborate funerary traditions of the monarchy kicked in, and the political ramifications of the succession — Louis outlived his legitimate sons and grandsons leaving his five-year-old great-grandson Louis, Duke of Anjou, as heir to the throne — had to be addressed. The death of any king was of great national and international import; the death of the Sun King more so that most.

The health of Louis XIV had been in decline for the last year of his life. Rumors abounded in the hothouse environment of the royal court at Versailles that his legs were dangerously swollen. In London wagers were laid on how long he would live. Head physician Guy-Crescent Fagon, who despite having basically bled to death Louis’ beloved grandson, granddaughter-in-law and great-grandson when they were struck with measles still held the full confidence of the king and his secret wife Madame de Maintenon, insisted there was nothing seriously wrong with Louis. The king’s head surgeon was not so complacent, but his appeals to Fagon and Mme de Maintenon went unheeded.

On August 11th, 1715, Louis felt a sudden intense pain in his left leg. Fagon chalked it up to sciatica and prescribed a purgative, but when the pain increased to the point where he couldn’t even walk the short distance to Mme de Maintenon’s chambers, Fagon was finally persuaded to call in consulting physicians. Mareschal was able to assuage the king’s pain by rubbing the leg with hot cloths, but the relief was temporary. The physicians arrived from Paris on August 14th. They felt the king’s pulse and after much discussion prescribed asses’ milk which they then unprescribed because in the hours they spent yammering the king’s pain had abated.

Mareschal continued to massage the leg because it was the only thing that made him feel better even if just for an hour, and on August 17th he saw that a red spot on the leg had developed into a sore. The surgeon now realized the king had gangrene, that only amputation could save his life. Fagon kept his head firmly embedded in the sand. More doctors’ consultations, more asses’ milk, a bath in spiced Burgundy wine and other useless treatments ensued until the leg’s blackened and swollen condition made it impossible for Fagon to deny that this was a surgeon’s issue and Mareschal took the lead.

He had a team of consulting surgeons brought in on August 25th. They took one look at the leg and knew it was just a matter of time. It was too late to amputate. Louis himself realized that he wasn’t bouncing back from this one. He asked Mareschal how long he had left to live and the surgeon told him he had maybe two days. The king began to put his affairs in order. He received the last rites from the Cardinal of Rohan, had the entire court pass before his bed to give their last farewells and brought the young dauphin in to give him the benefit of his final counsel. Reportedly Louis XIV told the soon-to-be Louis XV that he had loved war too much, that it was the ruination of the people, that he should not imitate his taste for expensive construction, that he should spend money alleviating the suffering of his people instead.

The Sun King died on September 1st, 1715, having reigned 72 years (54 if you subtract the regency) of his 77 years of life.

The next day his body was autopsied, a long-standing custom for members of the royal family. L’Ouverture (the opening), as the procedure was called, was performed on the state dining table before an array of courtiers and doctors. Mareschal did the honors. From the autopsy report:

The exterior of the left side was found gangrenous from the extremity of the foot to the top of the head; the skin peeling every where, but less on the right than on the left; the body extremely distended and bloated; the bowels much altered with inflammation, especially those on the left side; the large intestines extraordinarily dilated. The kidneys were fairly normal and natural; but in the left one was found a small stone similar to those the King had several times passed without pain while in health. The liver, spleen and stomach were in a normal condition, both externally and internally. The lungs, as well as the chest, normal; the heart in very good condition, of ordinary size; the terminals of the great vessels ossified. All the muscles of the throat gangrenous. On opening the head, the dura mater was found adherent to the cranium, and the pia mater marked with black areas along the falx; the brain sound, in natural condition, outside and within. The interior of the left thigh, where the King’s disease began was completely gangrenous in every part; all the blood in all the vessels totally disorganized, and very scanty in amount.

The opening concluded, Mareschal embalmed the body. As per a tradition begun with the death of Capetian monarch Philip the Fair in 1314, Louis’ body was divided in three parts, like ancient France had been under Caesar. His viscera were removed and placed in one reliquary, his heart in another and his body in a double coffin of lead and oak. The coffin was displayed for a week in Versailles’ Mercury Room. It left Versailles for Paris the evening of September 8th, arriving at Saint-Denis at dawn the next morning. The coffin was placed in the Bourbon tomb. The entrails were entombed at Notre-Dame. The heart went to the Church of the Jesuits.

The royal tombs and reliquaries of France were desecrated and destroyed during the French Revolution. Louis XIV’s heart was sold to an artist to use in the production of prized glaze called “mummie” made by macerating an embalmed human heart in alcohol and herbs. The artist, Saint-Martin, kept a chunk of the heart and returned it to the state after the restoration of the monarchy.

In honor of the 300th anniversary of Louis XIV’s death, the Palace of Versailles is putting on an exhibition dedicated to his final days, autopsy, funeral and the continuing significance of the ritual in the context of Revolution and Restoration. The King is Dead is the first exhibition dedicated to the monarch’s death.

The exhibition will bring together works of art and historical documents of major importance from the largest French and foreign collections, including ceremonial portraits, funeral statues and effigies, gravestones, the manuscript for the account of the autopsy of the king, coins from the Saint-Denis Treasury, gold medals, emblems and ornaments, and furniture of funeral liturgy. Some of the pieces on display have never been exhibited in public.

Exhibiting these masterpieces has required grand scenography effects. Scenographer Pier Luigi Pizzi was asked by Béatrix Saule, the exhibition’s Head Curator, to design the layout for this great Baroque show. Across the nine sections, visitors will discover a veritable funeral opera conducted by the artist.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

By the Pricking of My Thumbs: The Legitimate Study Of The Medieval Paranormal

AEthelmearc Gazette - Fri, 2015-10-30 18:28

As re-enactors, we try to represent the reality of day to day life in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. There are a few things we choose not to re-enact, however. It wouldn’t be any fun to reconstruct an inquisition, for instance, or to deal with the actual plague. One other thing we don’t really address as re-enactors is the adherence to medieval mystical beliefs. All of our modern tales of ghosts and goblins, our cinematic thirst for things that go bump in the night, are rooted in historical belief. Believe it or not, there is legitimate course of study in academia that looks to the very things we love to bring to light at Halloween. In addition to the pop culture interest in the occult, you can actually study medieval witchcraft and related theologies at several larger institutions of higher learning. Read on, to find out more about where and why we hold the All Hallows Eve, Day of the Dead, or All Souls Day beliefs; who was likely to be a candidate for Witchhood; as well as some of the spookiest medieval places on earth. Be prepared to be scared!


Witchcraft Across the World: East and Near East, and another site,  Shakespeare Studies: Shakespeare and Witches are two such examples of great sites to find real historic information about medieval witches and how they were viewed in society.

The Cambridge History of Magic and Witches in the West: From Antiquity to the Present is an academic treatise on witchcraft available for free on Google Books. Edited by David J Collins, S.J.

The Witch, the Weird, and the Wonderful is a site that is less dry academia, and more about the historic dark-romantic allure of witchcraft.

Werewolves and other Weird Creatures

History of the Werewolf Legend, which provided the picture above, gives a good account of the supposed first creation of a werewolf, from whom all werewolves are supposed to spring. Read this account to see where the story differs from modern werewolves. Hint: Wolves were not cute fur-faced snugglers in the Middle Ages. Don’t expect their were-cousins to be cuddlers, either.

Repentant Soul or Walking Corpse? Debatable Apparitions in Medieval England is a website that gives us a window in to the mind of those who were haunted in the middle ages. I know several folks who are modernly worried over the same question…

Scary Places

Legend has it that old bones were emptied into the underground catacombs, old burial grounds predating history, by the truckload during the last century. National Geographic’s pictorial essay on the catacombs makes the spooky even creepier. View it here. No amount of scientific photography explains the painstaking artistic arrangements of tibias, skills, and ulnas to be found down there in massive walls and pyres. Find out about the ancient and macabre Empire of Death, entrance pictured above, also known as the Paris Underground Catacombs, here. But don’t visit them on Halloween. Officials wisely keep the Catacomb tours closed during the spooky season.

Hampton Court, London, is the source of many English ghost stories. The Hampton Court Palace was widely used by Henry VII and the Tudors. Nowadays its famous neighbor, the BBC, uses the park frequently for their big celebrations according to a pair of my cousins, who work for the Beeb. Otherwise, Hampton Court is a tourist attraction that draws ghost hunters because of its many stories of spooky happenings. One such sighting is shown here. Is it real? Judge for yourself by viewing the pictures.

Most Castles boast a ghost. Some boast several. However, you can find some truly terrifying royal destinations by reading about the World’s Ten Scariest Haunted Castles.

Ephmera and Information, Including Halloween Tales

The Pagan and Wiccan communities have a very different view of Halloween. To view their slant on Halloween, see this history of the holiday called Samhain.

Click here to read about the practice of Magic in Anglo-Saxon England.

Historic songs and stories about Halloween can be found at this site.

Have you ever heard of Pagans baking seed bread for Samhain? Find out why at Munchies Vice, here.

Lastly, find out about ghostly doings at the webpage Paranormal Activity in Medieval Britain.

However you choose to spend your holiday, please remember to watch out for the kids who are trick or treating if you drive at dusk and later. And please, try not to steal too many of those Peanut Butter Cups out of the plastic pumpkin, when the kids finally settle in for the night!

Categories: SCA news sites

Vivat to Ailitha de Ainwyk, Drachenwald's newest Laurel

SCAtoday.net - Fri, 2015-10-30 09:45

I write to report the happy news that on Friday at Crown tourney their Majesties Thorvaldr and Timoe invited Lady Ailitha de Ainwyk to sit her vigil to consider joining the order of the Laurel, and asked for her reply at court the next day.

read more

Categories: SCA news sites

Don’t panic! It’s just The War of the Worlds.

History Blog - Thu, 2015-10-29 22:41

Seventy-seven years ago, Orson Welles’ Mercury Theater broadcast a radio play of H.G. Wells’ alien invasion classic The War of the Worlds. The next day was Halloween and the newspapers dutifully scaremongered, splashing sensationalized headlines on their front pages about the mass hysteria the radio program had provoked in the listening audience. There were reports of suicides, people being hospitalized for shock, heart attacks and thousands of terrified callers clogging the radio station’s phone lines. Almost all of those reports have proven unfounded, although it is true that more people than usual called the station, some complaining about the show being too scary, others complimenting the show for being so scary, still others wanting to know how they could help the victims of Martian violence.

One of the frightened listeners sued CBS for “nervous shock”, but the suit was dismissed. One man wrote to CBS claiming he had spent $3.25 of his savings for a bus ticket to flee the Martians and only heard it was play 60 miles later. He was saving up to buy a new pair of shoes, so he asked CBS to send him a pair of black men’s shoes, size 9-B. Welles sent him his new shoes, against the advice of CBS’ lawyer.

Orson Welles had already had success on radio in 1937 as the voice of The Shadow and on the stage with his innovative Mercury Theater company when CBS offered him a one-hour anthology series debuting in July 1938. This was prestige listening, adaptations of the great works of literature written and performed by a professional troupe of the New York theater. The introduction emphasized this pedigree, noting it was radio’s “first presentation of a complete theatrical producing company.” Welles and his Mercury Theater cast and crew put on the works of William Shakespeare (Julius Caesar), Alexandre Dumas (The Count of Monte Cristo), Charles Dickens (Pickwick Papers) and Robert Louis Stevenson (Treasure Island), among many others.

It is true that Welles deliberately set out to give his version of The War of the Worlds a realistic news story staging complete with expert commentary, witness interviews and fake reports from military honchos. It wasn’t a hoax, though; just a way of giving the show a fresh, dynamic immediacy and give the audience a nice little scare for Halloween. Still, CBS was concerned that people might confuse it with real news, so they made sure there were disclaimers not just before the opening of the program, but also at the 40 and 55 minute marks.

The show opened with what sounded like standard radio programming — a weather report followed by an orchestra playing music in a hotel ballroom — that was suddenly interrupted by a special new bulletin reporting explosions of hydrogen gas on Mars. Then it was back to the sleepy dance music, then another special bulletin, then back to the orchestra, then another break away to an astronomer describing what he saw on Mars. The tension grew from there as reports got more and more dramatic and the regular programming of music kept getting cut off after a few bars.

The other Mercury Theater broadcasts were more traditional radio plays. Welles’ twist for The War of the Worlds was to use radio conventions to convey the confusion and terror of the original story. He had the cast listen to WLS radio reporter Herbert Morrison’s real-time description of the Hindenburg disaster, still famous today for its “Oh the humanity!” anguish, to get that genuine feeling of a newsman’s increasing horror as tragedy unfolds before him. Cast member Frank Readick played that role to perfection.

The Halloween headlines condemned Orson Welles as a hoaxster and instigator of widespread panic. It was enough to scare CBS into calling a hasty press conference at which Welles expressed his deep regret, insisting he had no idea anybody would take it seriously.

He may or may not have been genuinely contrite (his expression around the 5:35 mark reminds me of Puss in Boots’ big-eyed hat-in-hand look from Shrek), but the story vaulted him to national fame, secured a sponsor (Campbell’s Soup) and another two years of the radio show. It’s also the reason RKO Studios gave Orson Welles an unprecedented two-movie contract granting him complete artistic control of his pictures. Without The War of the Worlds, there would have been no Citizen Kane.

The broadcast still holds up, even though reporters don’t talk like that anymore. The sound effects — especially the panicked crowd noises — are great and the adaptation remains one of exceptional dexterity and verve. Listen for yourself and see what you think. Would have spent all your shoe money on a ticket out of town if you had heard this 77 years ago?

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Chivalry Isn't Dead, Just Misunderstood

SCAtoday.net - Thu, 2015-10-29 19:15

An article on Myths Retold considers the question of what "chivalry" meant in the Middle Ages, metaphorically and linguistically, and how that relates to modern concepts of chivalry. [PG-13 due to language]

read more

Categories: SCA news sites

Deadline Extended for President of SCA, Inc. Applications

AEthelmearc Gazette - Thu, 2015-10-29 17:33

Leslie Vaughn, President of the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc., has announced that the SCA Board of Directors is continuing to accept applications for the position of President of the SCA Inc. until March 31st, 2016. All applications received will be evaluated after March 31st, 2016.

The Board of Directors of the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. is currently accepting applications for the position of President of the SCA Inc. This is a position requiring approximately 10-20 hours per week and includes a stipend.

The President is the principal spokesperson for the SCA, Inc. This officer is a liaison between the SCA, Inc. and outside professionals such as attorneys, accountants and insurance representatives. This officer is a contact for the SCA, Inc. for law enforcement, government agencies, and claimants against the SCA, Inc.

The President works with the Vice President of Corporate Operations to coordinate much of the day-to-day modern operation of the Corporation, and supervises and facilitates communication between many of the Society Officers.

The President is required to execute contracts necessary to properly conduct the SCA’s business, and may delegate similar responsibilities. The President is also responsible for such legal matters as contracts, merchandising and affiliate agreements. The President advises the Board of Directors on areas of corporate governance and policy issues. The President may be assigned other duties by the Board.

Qualifications for the position include excellent written and oral communication skills, the ability to work independently to prioritize tasks and meet deadlines, and strong computer skills. Experience in a modern business setting, organizational ability and problem-solving skills are a must. Experience in a modern non-profit organization and prior experience at the Corporate or Society level of the SCA are desirable, but not required.

Applicants must be available to attend quarterly meetings of the Board of Directors, typically held over a Friday and a Saturday. They must also be available for approximately four conference call meetings per year, typically during weekday evenings. As a great deal of the Board’s business occurs via the Internet, familiarity and basic skills with a computer, MS Office software (specifically Microsoft Word and Excel), and e-mail are required. The successful applicant must have reliable access to the Internet.

Hard copies of résumés (both professional and SCA, including offices held and awards received) must be sent to the attention of the Board and the President at the SCA Corporate Office, P.O. Box 360789, Milpitas, CA 95036-0789. Résumés must be received by March 31, 2016. Questions regarding this position may be directed to Scott Berk, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the SCA Inc. via e-mail at chairman@sca.org, or to Leslie Vaughn, President, via e-mail at president@sca.org.

Comments are strongly encouraged and can be sent to:
SCA Inc.
Box 360789
Milpitas,  CA 95036

You may also email comments@lists.sca.org.

Categories: SCA news sites

Application Deadline Extension – President, SCA Inc.

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2015-10-29 12:37

The following announcement was sent out via the SCA’s Announcements mailing list.

Leslie Vaughn, President of the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc., has announced that the SCA Board of Directors is continuing to accept applications for the position of President of the SCA Inc. until March 31st, 2016. All applications received will be evaluated after March 31st, 2016.

The Board of Directors of the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. is currently accepting applications for the position of President of the SCA Inc. This is a position requiring approximately 10-20 hours per week and includes a stipend.

The President is the principal spokesperson for the SCA, Inc. This officer is a liaison between the SCA, Inc. and outside professionals such as attorneys, accountants and insurance representatives. This officer is a contact for the SCA, Inc. for law enforcement, government agencies, and claimants against the SCA, Inc.

The President works with the Vice President of Corporate Operations to coordinate much of the day-to-day modern operation of the Corporation, and supervises and facilitates communication between many of the Society Officers.

The President is required to execute contracts necessary to properly conduct the SCA’s business, and may delegate similar responsibilities. The President is also responsible for such legal matters as contracts, merchandising and affiliate agreements. The President advises the Board of Directors on areas of corporate governance and policy issues. The President may be assigned other duties by the Board.

Qualifications for the position include excellent written and oral communication skills, the ability to work independently to prioritize tasks and meet deadlines, and strong computer skills. Experience in a modern business setting, organizational ability and problem-solving skills are a must. Experience in a modern non-profit organization and prior experience at the Corporate or Society level of the SCA are desirable, but not required.

Applicants must be available to attend quarterly meetings of the Board of Directors, typically held over a Friday and a Saturday. They must also be available for approximately four conference call meetings per year, typically during weekday evenings. As a great deal of the Board’s business occurs via the Internet, familiarity and basic skills with a computer, MS Office software (specifically Microsoft Word and Excel), and e-mail are required. The successful applicant must have reliable access to the Internet.

Hard copies of résumés (both professional and SCA, including offices held and awards received) must be sent to the attention of the Board and the President at the SCA Corporate Office, P.O. Box 360789, Milpitas, CA 95036-0789. Résumés must be received by March 31, 2016. Questions regarding this position may be directed to Scott Berk, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the SCA Inc. via e-mail at chairman@sca.org, or to Leslie Vaughn, President, via e-mail at president@sca.org.

Comments are strongly encouraged and can be sent to:
SCA Inc.
Box 360789
Milpitas,  CA 95036

You may also email comments@lists.sca.org

Filed under: Corporate