Included in the National Museum of American History’s enormous collection of 90,000 artifacts in the Division of Medicine and Science are more than 2,200 historic cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. Most of them have never been on display and outside of museum curators, people don’t even know they’re there. Thanks to a grant from Kiehl’s, a skincare company founded in 1851 which has over the years donated more than 100 items from its own past to the Smithsonian, the collection has now been digitized.
The National Museum of American History, with the support of Kiehl’s, plans to extend the collection to the Web through the Cosmetics and Personal Care Collections Digitization Project. A museum specialist will identify, photograph and provide descriptive information for the cosmetic and personal care objects collection on the Web. The project will allow the museum’s collection of cosmetics and personal care products to be accessed online for education and research around the world.
The objects date from the 19th century to the present and include everything from skin creams to soaps, perfumes, razors and tooth powders. The range of products and dates provides a fascinating view of how drastically beauty standards and personal care regimens have changed over the years. Browsing the collection you can tread the dangerously fine line between medicine and makeup, poison and perfume. The inextricable link between medicine and cosmetics was acknowledged by Congress in 1938 when it passed the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act giving the Food and Drug Administration some degree of regulatory oversight over the cosmetic industry.
The grant comes none to soon as soaps and the paper box they came in were not made to last. These were disposable items and there isn’t a lot conservators can do to keep them from crumbling to dust. Then there are the inevitable chemical reactions, like between toothpaste and its old tubes.
If you’re researching something of have a particular interest in one type of product, you can search the collection by keyword. I got a kick out of searching for poisons like arsenic and lead, which have been mainstays of skin care products since antiquity. I also had fun picking more general old-timey keywords like “tonic” and browsing all the quackery and impossible claims that ensued. If you’d just like to have a look around, click on one of the categories listed in the column to the right of the page. I enjoyed clicking on each category and then scrolling down to the filter options, clicking the date, and exploring the whole category from oldest to newest.
Did you know that after World War I, they made menstrual pads out of sphagnum moss? Apparently they were first invented during the war for use in surgical dressings and later found new life as a consumer product. That brings me back to the wonderful barrels of 14th century poop found in Odense, Denmark, in which clumps of moss were found because they were used as toilet paper. Damn good toilet paper at that.
The collection is full of cool random finds like this. The digitization project will continue to keep up with new acquisitions.
If you are contemplating teaching a class at Æcademy but are daunted by the financial investment needed to purchase tools and supplies, I invite you to submit a proposal for one of the two stipends ($100 and $50) offered to help defray teaching costs.
Proposals detailing your expected expenses (see additional details, below) are due by 11:59 p.m., Sunday, May 29th, 2016.
This money will be used to defray the cost of non-consumable teaching materials for a hands-on class for a minimum of 6 people.
(“Non-consumable teaching materials” are tools and supplies that would be
YES: Purchase 10 sets of calligraphy nibs with holders and a toolbox to keep them in
YES: Purchase 6 chip carving knives
YES: Pay for laminating color copies of visual aids for class
Items purchased with the money would be the property of the teacher who is awarded the stipend.
In addition to teaching at Spring AEcademy, the teacher who receives the stipend must also teach the class at least once more, in a different region in the Kingdom.
Those wishing to submit a proposal should include the following:
– your name (SCA and modern)
This offer is open to anyone teaching at Spring Academy, no matter whether this is your first time teaching the class … or your fourteenth. You do not have to have an Arts award to submit a proposal.
I will review all proposals and select one to receive the stipend. (HINT: The more persuasive your proposal, the better your chance of being selected.) By Wednesday, June 1, I will contact everyone who has submitted a proposal.
If your proposal is selected, at AEcademy you will hand me a receipt for the supplies you purchased for the class, and I will hand you a check for $100.
Please contact me PRIVATELY at ae.aecademy AT aethelmearc DOT org if you have questions.
Feel free to forward this message to anyone who might be interested in submitting a proposal.
Yours, in Service to the Arts,
Æthelmearc Æcademy, hosted on June 11 by the Shire of Ballaclagan (Wheeling, WV), currently offers 42 classes covering more than 15 different fields, ranging from Bardic to Woodworking.
We are confident there will be something of interest to everyone, of all ages. (For a listing of class titles and descriptions, please visit the website.
Are YOU thinking of joining the ALL-STAR line-up of teachers? Whether
If you’ve never taught at Æcademy (or if it’s been a while), no problem!
If you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact me at ae DOT aecademy AT aethelmearc.org.
I look forward to hearing from you … SOON!
Yours, in Service to the Arts,
PSSST! Only a handful of War College classes have been registered thus far. Registering your WC class means that anyone with Internet access can see what you’re offering. PLEASE register today!
Archaeologists excavating under the Old Divinity School of St John’s College, Cambridge, have discovered one of the largest medieval cemeteries in Britain. The first remains on the site were found during renovations to the college’s Victorian building from 2010 to 2012. The discovery was kept under wraps until 2015, when Cambridge announced that archaeologists had unearthed the intact skeletal remains of 400 individuals, plus the disarticulated remains of close to 1,000 more people. The bodies were interred in the cemetery of the medieval Hospital of St John the Evangelist, the college’s namesake. It was in use between the 13th and 15th centuries and is one of the largest medieval hospital burial grounds ever discovered in Britain.
Historians have known since the mid-20th century that there was likely a cemetery under St John’s College, but they had no idea it was so massive. The hospital was founded by the community in 1195 to care for the indigent. It was a small structure in its infancy, but grew into a large institution that cared not just for the poor, but also for other residents and Cambridge University scholars. While the hospital did have support from the Church, the cemetery was a lay institution and the burials reflect this status in their simplicity. There is very little evidence of clothing or grave goods. A few artifacts have been found but it’s not clear from their positions that they were interred with the bodies. The vast majority of burials were done without coffins, many without even a shroud, likely because of the majority of patients at the hospital were poor.
The intact skeletons were found neatly buried in rows, but they were just the last group buried in those plots. Archaeologists discovered six “cemetery generations” on the site, meaning six complete turnovers of the space. Older remains would be taken to the charnel house or the bones removed to make room for new bodies to be buried in the newly vacated areas. Despite the turnover, archaeologists also found gravel paths, a well and seeds from a number of flowering plants in the cemetery. This indicates the graves were tended to by the community, and the cemetery was less of a boneyard and more of a park-like space where people could pay their respects and grieve their dead. That’s not something you find often in cemeteries of hospitals for the poor.
Also unusual for a medieval charity hospital graveyard is the lack of young women and infants. Out of the identifiable remains, half of them were women, most of them between 25 and 45 years old. Given the high rates of death in childbirth of both mothers and babies at the time, you’d expect to see more of the former and at least some of the latter. Historic research explained this imbalance. In 1250 the hospital promulgated an ordinance that prohibited the care of pregnant women. Its focus was to be “poor scholars and other wretched persons,” as long as said wretched were not carrying future wretches.
The hospital of St John the Evangelist was long said to have been in active use during the Black Death (1348-1350), but archaeologists found no evidence of this. There were no osteological indications of plague on any of the bones and no mass graves of the types most commonly used to dispose quickly of the infectious dead. The dead of St John will nonetheless be of aid to scholars researching the effect of the Black Death on Cambridge. The University’s McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research has just received a £1.2 million grant from the Wellcome Trust to study how the plague affected the city.
A spokesman said: “This collaborative project, with Professor John Robb as PI and collaborators Dr Toomas Kivisild, Dr Piers Mitchell, and Mr Craig Cessford, explores the historical effects of major health events such as epidemics.
“It will combine multiple methods (archaeology, history, osteoarchaeology, isotopic and genetic studies of both human and pathogen aDNA) to study the people of medieval Cambridge.
“It will use the recently excavated large sample of urban poor people from the Hospital of St. John, complemented by comparative samples from other medieval social contexts and other historical periods.
By comparing samples from before and after the Black Death epidemic of 1348-50 for a wide range of social and biological indicators, this new research aims to reveal how the plague changed human well-being, activity, mobility health and the genetic constitution of Europe.
There has been a lot of interest in Hrodir and Yehudah, the Heirs of Northshield, who are the first same-sex couple in the SCA to win a Crown Tournament.
Hrodir is a Duke, Knight, and Laurel; this will be his fourth time on the throne of Northshield. Yehudah was Northshield’s first Polaris Kingdom Herald, and is a Court Baron and Master of the Pelican. They are friends, rather than romantic partners. As Heirs, They are using the titles “Hrodir Fyrste” and “Yehudah Tarkhan.” Once crowned, They will be “Hrodir Bek” and “Yehudah Khagan.”
The Heirs have created a website for Their Reign that includes some fascinating information about Their plans, which Yehudah Tarkhan has described as being in many ways an A&S project. They will be basing Their reign on the precedents of the Turkic land of Khazaria, during the time period from 750 to 1050. Their website describes the ruling structure of Khazaria this way:
Khazaria was ruled under a dual-king system common in Turkic kingdoms, derived from Mongol practice, in which a Khagan was the spiritual and cultural leader while the Bek evolved to be the military and administrative leader. In historical practice, the distinction was somewhat akin to that of the Japanese Emperor and Shogun.
For more information on this innovative approach to SCA monarchy, see Their website, most especially the page on “Information for Heralds and Scribes” which includes a great deal of historical information at the bottom.
A rare printed copy of Christopher Columbus’ letter describing what the people and placed he’d found on his famous transatlantic voyage that was stolen from the Riccardiana Library in Florence, Italy, has been found in the Library of Congress and returned to Italy. Nobody knows exactly when the red leather-bound volume that included the letter along with other early printed texts from the 1490s was stolen because it was replaced with a forgery that looked surprisingly plausible despite having been printed from a photographic plate.
The director of the library, Fulvio Silvano Stacchetti, suspects it was stolen in 1950 or 1951 when it was on loan to the national library in Rome because that was only time in the recent past when it was out of their hands. Experts who have analyzed the forgery think the technology and materials used are newer than that, and what investigators have been able to trace of its history suggests a much more recent date for the theft. It was in the hands of a rare book collector in Switzerland in 1990 and was sold at Christie’s New York two years later for $330,000. In 2004 it was bequeathed to the Library of Congress.
The forgery was first spotted in 2012, when an unnamed individual doing research in the library’s rare book room encountered the volume and thought it looked fishy. He reported his suspicions to the Department of Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) who contacted Italy’s crack Carabinieri Art Squad. Homeland Security Investigations Special Agent Mark Olexa, a specialist in cultural property theft, joined Carabinieri investigators and Italian experts in Florence in July of 2012 where they examined the forgery. They confirmed that it was indeed a fake, missing the Riccardiana library stamp, with the wrong sized pages, different page numbering, different stitching patterns compared to other prints of the letter, and on paper that while old, was a century younger than it should have been.
Investigators tracked the original letter to the Library of Congress where HSI agents worked with experts from the Smithsonian to confirm its real identity. They found evidence of deliberate attempts to disguise the true origin of the text. The stamp of the Riccardiana Library had been removed with chemical bleach and some of the characters altered to make them less recognizable at a glance. That’s why the American collector and Library of Congress had no idea it was stolen. (It wouldn’t have killed Christie’s to take a closer look, though, and I’ll bet dollars to donuts the Swiss dealer knew what was up.)
The investigation into the theft is still open, but on Wednesday, May 18th, the volume was formally returned to Italy in a ceremony at the Biblioteca Angelica in Rome. Italian Culture Minister Enrico Franceschini noted aptly: “It is interesting how 500 years after the letter was written it has made the same trip back and forth from America.”
This is not a copy of the original letter written to Ferdinand and Isabella, as some of the articles are describing it, nor is it quite accurate to say that the original letter was lost, as other articles have said. I mentioned in this post about the fresco that may include a depiction of the first indigenous Americans in European art that Columbus is known to have written two letters with near-identical content, one addressed to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, one to Spanish finance minister Luis de Santangel, Columbus’ patron and advocate. He sent both letters at the same time, either when he landed in Lisbon on March 4th or Palos on March 15th, 1493.
The original letter to Ferdinand and Isabella was never published, so far as we know, so there are no extant copies. The letter to Santangel made it to press within weeks. The earliest known edition of the Santangel letter was published in the original Spanish by Barcelona printer Pere Posa in April of 1493. It was believed lost until a copy was found in Spain in 1890. That copy is now in the rare book division of the New York Public Library.
The Santangel letter quickly made its way to Rome where a Latin translation was printed by Stephen Plannck by May, 1493. Plannck printed a second edition that same year. There were several changes. The first edition had only King Ferdinand’s name in the introduction, thought to be a deliberate slight resulting from the Aragonese translator Aliander de Cosco’s disdain for Castille, and the second edition had the names of both Ferdinand and Isabella in the header. The second edition also changed the name of the recipient from Raphael Sanxis to Gabriel Sanchez (Aliander was translating the Posa Spanish edition of the Santangel letter, but he mistakenly thought the king’s treasurer Sanxis was the recipient instead of the finance minister Santangel) and Italianized the name of the translator to Leander di Cosco. The recovered letter is a Plannck II edition.
Between 1493 and 1497, 17 editions of the letter were printed. An estimated 3,000 copies were distributed in major cities throughout Europe. Very few of them, around 80, have survived. About 30 of them are Plannck II letters. The figures are approximate because as a highly sought-after document, forgeries of the letter abound and authenticity can be hard to determine.
The letter will now be returned to the Riccardiana Library. The Galata Sea Museum in Columbus’ hometown of Genoa has submitted a request to the Culture Ministry that they get the letter because they’ll put it on display instead of squirreling it away in an archive where so few people will see it that they won’t notice it’s been stolen and replaced with a forgery for decades.
You can read the full text of the Santangel Columbus Letter in the original Spanish and translated into English here. This book compiled by the Lenox Library (later absorbed into the NYPL) starts with a reprint of the one pictorial edition with woodcuts said to have been drawn by Columbus himself, and a neat comparison of the four Latin editions, including both Planncks.
To all Rattan and Rapier Combatants that are attending War of the Roses, please pray attend.
There will be “Pennsic like” authorization and inspection points at War of the Roses this year.
The process will work the same as it does for Pennsic. Combatants will have their armor and weapons inspected by the marshals. Once that is done, they proceed directly to the MOL, where their authorization card is checked. They will then receive a sticker for their helm/mask. This will allow the marshals on the field to know who has been authorized and approved, and if there is someone who has not.
Please make sure to bring your authorization card with you to make the process as smooth as possible. The Points will be open during the published authorization and inspection times, and will extend during some fighting times as well. This process is going to help keep the combatants of the East Kingdom safer, and help the marshals do their jobs more effectively.
The Authorization and Inspection Point process is already planned for NRWC as well. We hope to do the same for SRWC, GNEW, and 100 Minutes War.
I look forward to a fun and successful summer. See you at Roses!
Filed under: Events, Heavy List, Tidings
Marten Soolmans (1613-1641) was the son of a wealthy Calvinist sugar refiner who had fled Antwerp and the wars of religion for Amsterdam in 1585. In 1628, Marten, then just 15 years old, went to college in Leiden where he studied law and met a young painter named Rembrandt Van Rijn. Jurisprudence didn’t work out, so instead of a law career Marten acquired a wife in June of 1633. Oopjen Coppit (1611-1689) came from a very old, very rich Amsterdam family who had made their fortune in grain and gunpowder. Best of all, she brought a 35,000 guilder dowry with her to the marriage.
How better to spend some of that sweet dowry skrilla than on a pair of portraits painted by Rembrandt, at that time the most sought-after portraitist in the city. Marten and Oopjen had their portraits painted in 1634 when Rembrandt was 28 years old. No records of what they spent on the paintings have survived, but comparison with similar works suggests they paid at least 500 guilders per portrait.
Decisively rejecting his Calvinist roots, Marten wears a satin-edged, starched black outfit with bows, elaborate lace collars, cuffs and garters and absolutely shamelessly huge rosettes on his shoes. He holds a glove in his hand as a symbol of fidelity to his bride. Oopjen dons a delicately patterned black silk and quilted satin gown with lace details matching his, although her shoe rosettes are comparatively petite. She is draped in exquisite jewels — pearl earrings, a pearl-festooned headdress, a four-strand necklace of pearls, a three-strand pearl bracelet, a gold rings on both hands plus a third hanging from her necklace. She holds an ostrich feather fan with a thick gold chain.
They were the first and last life-sized, full-length portraits Rembrandt ever made. Created in a style rarely seen in Holland at that time, their art historical significance has garnered them the moniker of “brother and sister of the Night Watch.” Before them, full-length, life-sized paintings of people standing up in their finest of finery were the province of royalty and aristocracy, and mostly in Flanders and down south. More than just images of moneyed people of the time, these proud, regal portraits of bourgeoisie capture the zeitgeist of the young Dutch Republic, then just 50 years old, and its new elite of merchants for whom bank accounts, not bloodlines, determined social hierarchy.
The two portraits were in private collections in the Netherlands for four centuries. After the death of collector from a long line of collectors Annewies van Winter, in 1877 her nine children sold the collection virtually in its entirety to Baron Gustave de Rothschild, scion of the French branch of the banking dynasty, for 1.5 million guilders, very much against the wishes of the Dutch government which tried its utmost to keep these unique masterpieces from leaving their homeland. They just couldn’t afford to compete with the Rothschilds. The Rembrandt Association was founded in 1883 in reaction to this great loss, its goal to raise money to prevent other treasures of Dutch artistic patrimony from suffering the same fate. The portraits of Marten and Oopjen remained behind closed doors in the Rothschild collection for the next 130 years plus, leaving only once for a temporary exhibitions at the Rijksmuseum and Rotterdam’s Boymans van Beuningen Museum in 1956.
In March of 2015, news broke that Baron Eric de Rothschild was planning on selling the portraits for a nosebleed asking price of €150 million ($168 million). He applied to France’s Ministry of Culture for an export license, and much to the general horror of the French press, it was granted. Why, outlets like La Tribune de l’Art asked, weren’t the portraits declared National Treasure which would block export and delay sale for at least 30 months to give France and its museums the chance to raise the money to buy them? There was no question they qualified for the National Heritage designation, but they weren’t even submitted to the Advisory Board of National Treasures. The Ministry and the Louvre responded that they knew very well that they wouldn’t have been able to raise that kind of money in 30 months or ever, so blocking export of paintings they couldn’t possibly keep would have been “a perversion of the device,” as Heritage Director Vincent Berjot put it.
The sounds of wailing and gnashing of French teeth were sweet music to Dutch ears. They quickly set to the task of raising an ungodly €160 million to acquire both portraits. By mid-September of 2015, a preliminary deal was signed. The government of the Netherlands would chip in half the sum, the Rijksmuseum the other half.
France wasn’t licked yet, though. Three days after the announcement of the preliminary agreement, the French Culture Ministry took a page out of King Solomon’s book and offered €80 million to buy one of the portraits. Culture Minister Fleur Pellerin claimed the offer was “part of joint efforts by France and the Netherlands” to split the baby between the Louvre and the Rijksmuseum, but Dutch officials were noncommittal at best. Besides, it was unclear whether Eric de Rothschild would even consider splitting up the works.
On September 30th, 2015, France and the Netherlands published a joint press release announcing that they had indeed teamed up to buy the portraits. For months they’d been working on a deal wherein the countries would buy both portraits and share joint custody. They would pay €80 million apiece and while French acquisition law required that each party be the official owner of one painting, in fact the pair would never be separated and they would instead split their time between the two countries. The Netherlands got Marten Soolmans and France got Oopjen Coppit.
This was an unprecedented sale, the first joint acquisition by France and the Netherlands, the first artworks shared by the Louvre and the Rijksmuseum. The acquisition was concluded on February 1st, 2016, and since the portraits were already there, the Louvre was the first to put them on public display. Conservators did a basic cleaning and used “fake saliva” to restore some of their sheen before the portraits were unveiled on March 10th, 2016, in front of illustrious guests including Francois Hollande, President of France and the King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima of the Netherlands.
They will be on display at the Louvre for three months until June 13th, after which they move to Amsterdam where they will go on display at the Rijksmuseum next to the Night Watch for three months from July 2nd through October 2nd. They will then be removed for a thorough conservation. The conservation work will also be a joint effort, headed by Sébastien Allard, Director of the Department of Paintings at the Louvre, and Taco Dibbits, Director of Collections at the Rijksmuseum.
The conserved works will go back on display at the Rijksmuseum for three months before spending another three months in the Louvre. That will be the end of the short exhibitions. After the final three months in Paris, the portraits will return to Amsterdam for five years, then to Paris for five years. After that, each museum will have them for eight years at a time. The Louvre and Rijksmuseum have agreed that the paintings will always be exhibited together and will never be loaned to any other museums.
The next in our series of Æthelmearc Artisan Profiles, from Meesteres Odriana vander Brugghe: Robert l’Etourdi.
Like most long-time SCAdians, Robert l’Etourdi has dabbled in quite a number of things over the years: Quill pens, iron gall ink, ink research, fencing, working with period pigments, making English long bows, making arrows, teaching, learning how to make/shoot flat bows, learning how to make/shoot laminated recurve bows, making mead and ale, research of Asian calligraphic brushes, and making clothing. What he loves best, though, is making bows and arrows and brewing mead and ale.
“Since I started making meads it became recently very popular and is currently the fastest growing segment of the alcohol market” Robert informed me. “A good mead can take on the same complexity as wine”. When asked what his preferred mead to brew, he said that he prefers strong meads and mellomels (fruit flavored meads). The popularity of meads has made the general population more open to trying them when, in the past, mead was considered to be “strange” or reserved for, well, people who do medieval reproduction or attend Renaissance Faires.
The thing that Robert likes most about his work is starting with a bunch of materials and at the end of the project, having a real, working thing. “There’s a feeling of accomplishment that comes with building something that you don’t get with other things.” Robert also shared that he keeps his work fresh by choosing to not engage in activities that he doesn’t enjoy. It focuses his work and makes his hobby enjoyable over the long term.
The person who has most inspired Robert along his path as an artisan was the late Edward the Gray, who he calls a “major inspiration” and someone who he seeks to emulate in all that he does. The most fitting description of the kind of person Edward was is contained in Robert’s announcement of Edward’s passing, “[He] shared his knowledge of bow building, fletching and knife making with anyone who wished to learn. His spirit, even in his declining health never faltered. His joy when seeing a student successfully shoot a new bow that he taught him to make never dimmed.”
While Robert’s focus has been on brewing and archery, what he is best known for is his research into and teaching how to make quill pens. When I asked him how he got his start, he said “When [Mistress] Gillian was the head of the scribal guild in the Rydderich Hael she saw what I was doing and began to describe the scroll that I was going to be working on. It became my first assignment and the beginning of my scribal career.” It took two years to perfect the process that he uses for making quill pens, this is the process that he teaches to others. After teaching his quill class one Pennsic, a Sofer (a Jewish scribe who can transcribe religious writings) approached Robert afterwards to inform him that the process that he teaches is the process that the Sofer learned when he was learning to cut quills.
Robert’s dream project is to make a functional composite bow using all period materials. This is the kind of project that takes years and draws upon essentially all of Robert’s experience and skill. It’s the kind of project that takes a great deal of skill and passion, two things that Robert has in abundance. At this time, Robert does not have a website detailing his work, but he frequently teaches at Æcademy and Pennsic, depending on his availability.
Workers digging a water pump station in the ancient city of Thmuis discovered an ancient nilometer, a structure used to determine the water level of the Nile River. A team of American and Egyptian archaeologists from the University of Hawaii and the Alexandria Center for Hellenistic Studies have excavated the find and believe it dates to the 3rd century B.C. when Thmuis was an important city under the Ptolemies. Fewer than two dozen ancient nilometers have been found in Egypt, making this a very rare find.
Thmuis, near the present-day city of El-Mansoura in Lower Egypt’s Nile Delta, flourished as port city from the 4th to 1st century B.C. It became the regional capital of the nome of Kha when the course of the Nile shifted from Mendes, a famous city in antiquity which had briefly been the capital of Egypt in the early 4th century B.C. under the reign of 29th Dynasty Pharaoh Nepherites. Located just half a kilometer north of Thmuis, in the 4th and 3rd centuries Mendes began to lose population as its branch of the Nile silted over and the river that was the lifeblood of Egypt moved to Thmuis. The people followed the Nile, abandoning the ancient capital for the new one.
Situated on an eastern branch of the Nile next to Daqahliyyah Lake bordering on the Mediterranean Sea, Thmuis became an important hub of agriculture, trade and religion in the region. In the Roman era, it was of significant military importance as well. The Romano-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus reported in The Wars of the Jews that Titus, son of the new emperor Vespasian, brought his legions to Thmuis on a fleet of long ships. He moored the ships there and marched across the Sinai Peninsula to Cesarea before laying siege to Jerusalem in early 70 A.D. during the First Jewish–Roman War.
In December of 2012, an archaeological team sponsored by the National Geographic Society began excavating an area of Thmuis where monumental architectural features, possibly the remains of a temple built by Ptolemy II Philadelphus (r. 283-246 B.C.) for his sister-wife Arsinoë II, had been discovered a few years earlier. The temple complex was on the banks of the Nile. Archaeologists believe the nilometer was part of this temple. Its discovery confirms that the Nile channel ran along the western side of Thmuis.
Priests used the nilometer to predict the extent of the annual flooding of the Nile.
Made from large limestone blocks, the nilometer was a circular well roughly eight feet (2.4 meters) in diameter with a staircase leading down into its interior. Either a channel would have connected the well to the river, or it would have simply measured the water table as a proxy for the strength of the river. Seven cubits — roughly 10 feet (3.04 meters) — was the optimum height for prosperity.
“During the time of the pharaohs, the nilometer was used to compute the levy of taxes, and this was also likely the case during the Hellenistic period,” says Robert Littman, an archaeologist at the University of Hawaii. “If the water level indicated there would be a strong harvest, taxes would be higher.”
Because a weak flood meant there would be famine and an excessive one destroyed homes and drowned fields, predicting how far the waters would overflow was a matter of life and death. Thmuis residents brought offerings to the temple in the hope of winning the favor of the Nile River god. There’s a list of Greek names and associated numbers on one of the limestone blocks. Archaeologists believe they were sponsors who donated money for the construction of the nilometer.
It was in use for about 1,000 years before the course of the Nile shifted again, leaving Thmuis to suffer the depopulation that Mendes had suffered before it. Today it’s a small village, but the Nile’s ancient presence is still felt in the high water table, high enough to make it worthwhile to dig the well that unearthed the nilometer.
A Roman fort built in London in the aftermath of the Boudiccan uprising is shedding new light on this little-known period in the development of the capital. The site, on the edge of the early town 750 feet or so northeast of Roman-era London Bridge, was excavated by experts from the Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA) between 1997 and 2003. They found a fort built over the ruins of commercial and residential structures destroyed in the revolt of 60/61 A.D.
Londinium was still a smaller city at the time of the uprising. It was founded after the Roman conquest of 43 A.D. so it was less than 20 years old and wasn’t an official colony yet when it fell to Boudicca. Thanks to the Thames and its direct line to maritime trade, Londinium was a growing concern with enough wealth to make it an appealing target for the Iceni. When he realized they were coming, the governor of Britannia, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, decided his scant troops could not successfully defend the city so it was better to sacrifice London and live to fight another day. He left, taking his army with him and the residents to the not-so-tender mercies of Boudicca. From Tacitus’ Annals 14:33:
Those who were chained to the spot by the weakness of their sex, or the infirmity of age, or the attractions of the place, were cut off by the enemy. Like ruin fell on the town of Verulamium, for the barbarians, who delighted in plunder and were indifferent to all else, passed by the fortresses with military garrisons, and attacked whatever offered most wealth to the spoiler, and was unsafe for defence. About seventy thousand citizens and allies, it appeared, fell in the places which I have mentioned. For it was not on making prisoners and selling them, or on any of the barter of war, that the enemy was bent, but on slaughter, on the gibbet, the fire and the cross, like men soon about to pay the penalty, and meanwhile snatching at instant vengeance.
Londinium was devastated. It was still in ruins in around 63 A.D. when the fort was built. It’s likely the fort’s aim wasn’t solely defense, but also to serve as a base for reconstruction efforts. From its size, it would have held between 500 and 800 soldiers.
Our excavations at Plantation Place for British Land on Fenchurch Street in the City of London exposed a section of a rectangular fort that covered 3.7 acres. The timber and earthwork fort had 3 metre high banks reinforced with interlacing timbers and faced with turves and a timber wall. Running atop the bank was a ‘fighting platform’ fronted by a colossal palisade, with towers positioned at the corners of the gateways. This formidable structure was enclosed by double ditches, 1.9 and 3m deep, forming an impressive obstacle for would be attackers.
Archaeologists unearthed a number of military artifacts from the site — plate armor, spears, shields, harness fittings, a partial cavalry helmet — as well as construction tools including a pick axe and hammer. They also found evidence of roads, storage facilities, a granary, a latrine, cookhouse, etc. within the fort precinct. The barracks appear to have been tents, however, not permanent buildings, and the fort was only in active use for a decade. Unlike later forts, this one was a temporary installation meant to help rebuild the city and keep the residents secure.
The fort is of great significant despite its impermanence because it is a strong indication that the Romans had picked Londinium to be the new capital. The previous provincial capital, Camulodunum, aka Colchester, does not appear to have had a similar fort built in the wake of its destruction by Boudicca. London was a practical choice. Unlike Colchester, London had easy access to the sea, ocean-going ships could go directly to the city via the Thames, and the city was new, not founded by potentially troublesome British tribes. Troops stationed at the fort provided much-needed labour and engineering expertise to rebuild roads, docks and buildings.
The Plantation Place fort was dismantled around 85 A.D. and the land it had occupied was built over with new development. Much of that was felled in the raging fire of 145 A.D., after which the area welcomed a new masonry townhouse. A hoard of gold coins was hidden in the basement around 174 A.D.
The full research on the Plantation Place fort has been published in An Early Roman Fort and Urban Development on Londinium’s Eastern Hill, now for sale in the museum shop and available for pre-order on Amazon.
Palfreys & Polearms: Being The Rhydderich Hael Baronial Championships, Kingdom Equestrian Championships and Langstrand Regional Army Muster
Join us for an incredible weekend in the country with the Barony of the Rhydderich Hael as we host our own Baronial Championships, the Kingdom Equestrian Championships, and a VERY large regional fighting muster! There will be equestrian, heavy fighting (including a polearm tourney), fencing, archery, thrown weapons, A&S, children’s activities and so much more!
We start at 4 pm on Friday, May 27, and end at 11 am on Sunday, May 29. The actual main event activities will take place on Saturday the 28th.
You may download the pre-registration form here. We encourage pre-registration as you will not get a lunch unless you pre-register. DEADLINE for pre-registration is Thursday, May 19, so you need to either pop this in the mail today or email the form to email@example.com. You may certainly pay at the gate on the day, but you will have no lunch, so plan accordingly.
The site is Nash Hill Equestrian, 10999 Persia Rd, Gowanda, NY 14070.
The autocrat is Riobard o’ Suilleabhain (Brother Bobby)(Robert Bajak), 28 W. Hill St, Gowanda, NY 14070, 716-241-7276. Deputy Autocrat is Ysabeau Tiercelin (Phoebe Waller-Sharp), 7132 Taylor Rd, Hamburg, NY 14075, 716-860-1550, firstname.lastname@example.org. Equestrian Marshal in charge is Maeve ni Surtain (email@example.com).
The reservations clerk is Rhys Penbras ap Dafydd (Brandon Baranowski), 60 Rand Ave. #3, Buffalo, NY 14216, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Site fee is $10 for adults, $5 for 7-17, 6 and under free, family cap of $25. NMS fee of $5 applies for all non-members. Make checks payable to SCA NY Inc, Barony of the Rhydderich Hael.
Camping is $10 per tent and $25 for hook-ups, per night. We ask that you let us know if you will be camping, for space planning purposes.
There will be a sack lunch sideboard with pasties and other delights (vegetarian and GF options available). You MUST reserve for the sack lunch, even though it is included in the cost of the event (see above). The site is very discretely damp, and alcohol is allowed for the A&S entries. Under no circumstances may there be any alcohol in the barn; this will be grounds for immediate expulsion from the event. No animals except for service animals and horses.
This is an active equestrian facility, no-one may enter the boarding barn areas without permission; this will be grounds for expulsion from the event. Please do not feed anything to any horse without the permission of the owner. Aside from adhering to the normal youth policies, we ask that parents keep a sharp eye on their children; the fences are electrified, and there are many other normal farm dangers present.
We will be asking all participants to sign the equestrian waiver at check-in. Horses must have negative coggins and rabies for in-state, and also health certs if from out of state.
Construction of Rome’s third subway line, Metro Line C, has made a sensational discovery: the remains of a 2nd century Praetorian Guard barracks. Thirty feet under Via Ipponio between the Baths of Caracalla and the Basilica of St. John in Lateran in the historic center of Rome, the barracks cover an astonishing 1,753 square meters (18,870 square feet) of surface area (ed note: the AP story says it’s 900 sq meters, but all of the Italian press reports the larger figure so I’m going with their data), and that’s just what’s been exposed thus far. They were built during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian (117-138 A.D.), only to be demolished just over a century later during construction of the Aurelian Walls (271-275 A.D.). The demolition was thankfully half-assed, leaving impressive ruins — the walls are up to five feet high — which were then buried.
There are 39 rooms, each four by four meters (13 x 13 feet), that open onto a central hallway. Some of the rooms, likely the officers’ quarters, are richly decorated with mosaic floors and frescoed walls. The bricks in the walls bear the stamp of the imperial kilns from 123 and 136 A.D., which is how the structure was dated. There’s also a mass grave on the site. So far 13 skeletons have been excavated from it and a few artifacts including a bronze coin and a bronze bracelet.
A number of military remains have been discovered in the neighborhood. Under St. John in Lateran is the Castra Nova Equitum Singularium (built under Septimius Severus, ca. 200 A.D.), a couple of blocks northeast under Via Tasso is the Castra Priora Equitum Singularium (Trajan, ca. 100 A.D.), and west of that near the church of Santo Stefano Rotondo is the Castra Peregrina (Augustus, 1st century A.D.).
Work on Metro Line C began in 2007 and has been beset by funding problems, corruption scandals and wonderful but expensive and time-consuming archaeological discoveries. While the subway tunnels themselves have been dug 80 feet below the surface to avoid hitting constant ancient roadblocks, the new stations can’t avoid bumping into thousand of years of history. The barracks site was discovered during construction of the Amba Aradam station and the city authorities tried to keep the news under wraps to avoid having to announce work on the line was suspended yet again.
The newspaper Il Tempo broke the news of the find last Wednesday, publishing a story complete with quotations from a letter about the find written by Francesco Prosperetti, Special Superintendent for the Archaeological Area of Rome. In the letter Prosperetti describes the discovery as exceptional and in such a good state of conservation that it would not be possible to pursue the idea of dismantling it, finishing construction and then rebuilding the structure in its original context. The barracks complex is so large it occupies the entire southern half of the station and extends beyond it. The northern half of the station is also replete with archaeological remains that haven’t been explored so it’s not known at the moment what they are or the impact they’ll have. As for how so large and complete an ancient structure could have been missed by preventative archaeology done on the site before construction began, Prosperetti notes that archaeologists took core samples which pointed to ancient boundaries under a massive modern structure, but they were buried so deep underground it wasn’t possible to explore them in the preliminary stages.
The subway company now has to figure out how to proceed, and however they go about this, it’s likely going to cost time and money. Metro Line C is already the most expensive subway construction project in history. In a press conference Monday, Prosperetti gave assurances that both the great archaeological importance of the find and the Metro budget and deadlines would be respected. The plan is to integrate the ruins into the station, creating the first fully fledged “archaeological station” in Rome, all without extra expense or delays. If that sounds less than entirely believable to you, that’s because it is.
The Scarlet Apron, a new cooking competition, will held for the first time this weekend at Æthelmearc War Practice, May 21. Open to all levels of cooks, the theme is Illusion Food. See the competition guidelines here.
Anyone wishing to participate must create an example of such a food from anywhere in the SCA’s period of study. This could be an interpretation of a subtlety that has been described in a cooking text, or an original creation that can be considered “period-plausible” based on its design, construction, and the materials used to create it.
Competition coordinator Edelvrouw Lijsbet de Keukere shared the following frequently asked questions with The Æthelmearc Gazette, and also talked to Food Editor Baroness Katja (Chris Adler-France) about cooking competitions in Æthelmearc:FAQs
1) To whom is the Scarlet Apron open?
2) How will the competition be judged?
3) Do I have to choose which category I want to be judged within?
4) Can I enter as part of a team?
5) I’m not great at writing documentation. Will that affect my ability to
All entrants are encouraged to provide a short photo diary of their piece. Pictures should include any extant pieces that inspired the finished product and/or the production process, as well as any photos of the actual entry piece being made (progress photos). These will be especially helpful for entries that do not include a whole lot of written documentation. Don’t forget to describe what each photo is!
Your other option is to sit with your entry all day so the judges may have an opportunity to ask you questions about your work. You will need to be present from 11:00 a.m. through 3:00 p.m., or until all of the judges have reported in.
6) Do I need to be present in order to be judged or be declared a winner?
7) I’m nervous about the rubric. Can I see it ahead of time?
8) Who are the judges?
9) Does my illusion food/sotelty need to be sweet or a dessert?
10) Will the entries be judged on taste as well as appearance?
Entrants who provide an edible piece should provide their own napkins, paper plates, plastic cutlery, etc. for the judges to use.
11) When and where should I bring my entry to be judged?
12) When will I need to collect my entry at the end of the competition?
13) When will the winners be announced?
14) I really want to enter! But I don’t know where to begin! Is there
15) Will I need to prepare my entry on site?
16) What kind of illusion food/sotelty should I plan to make?
17) Do I need to pre-register?
18) How much room will I have to set up my entry?
19) Will I need to dress my table space?
20) Will any table dressings be available on the day of the competition?
21) I cannot make it to War Practice, but I would still like to submit an
22) Does my entry need to be period?
However, the only REQUIREMENT is that your entry be “period-plausible,” dealing with
Q: Last fall, you ran the Cast Iron Chef cooking competition at A Shoote in the Wildwood, where four teams cooked period-inspired dishes on site in a couple of hours, much like Chopped and other cooking competition television shows.
The Scarlet Apron, however, is closer to the Wooden Pin and other display competitions where cooks bring an already prepared dish to be judged. How do you choose which kind of competition will work for a given event?
A: A lot of factors were considered when coming up with the format of each of these very different cooking competitions. When I was asked to revive the cooking competition held at previous Æthelmearc War Practices (then called the Wooden Pin) I did consider something similar to Cast Iron Chef, where the contestants cook on site. Ultimately, I decided to make this one closer to the original Wooden Pin format for a few reasons.
First, I was the head cook for Crown Tournament, which was being held in my barony of Delftwood only two weeks before the competition. I knew I would, personally, not be able to maintain enough momentum to promote and run a cooking event that required the kind of time and preparation that Cast Iron Chef has.
Second, I know that Æthelmearc War Practice is an event many people attend for the purpose of attending Order meetings, getting together with their far-away Friends, and spending as much time on the battlefield or taking classes as possible. It’s a really busy time! I recognized that people who may be interested in entering the competition may have other obligations, or just other things they wanted to do, rather than take up a whole day to participate in one activity. At A Shoote in the Wildwood — Delftwood’s archery event that takes place over Labor Day Weekend — we were looking for a large-scale event to encourage people to stay on site for the whole weekend. Usually, most of the major archery competitions were finished on Saturday, and Sunday attendance was significantly lower. By creating an all-day cooking competition on Sunday, we boosted our attendance numbers, while providing something fun for those who are not archers to participate in!
So I guess the TL;DR version is, I try to assess what I think would be fun for people to participate in, what other things are happening at the event, and how much time I am personally able to commit to the planning and execution of the competition in order to decide its format.
Q: You’ve also coordinated some event and cooks guild food challenges in Delftwood, such as asking gentles to bring items made with honey to Mistress Othindisa’s Laurelling (who was inducted for her knowledge of period beekeeping). What advice would you give to local groups to hold their own cooking challenges at their events, social meetings, or cook guild sessions?
A: I’m always looking for ways to stretch my culinary muscle and challenge myself. Sometimes preparing a feast with a limited budget does not allow me to do this, and I’m the kind of person who needs a reason (meaning an event or prescribed activity) to motivate myself. I figured I’m not the only one in the SCA who feels like this, so I began thinking about what I would have fun doing at events that was not necessarily preparing a feast, but still allowed me to interact with other cooks, share knowledge, learn a bunch, and have fun while doing it. The idea of competitions or discussion sessions at which food was the main attraction seemed to be a great solution to the challenge of bringing all of these things together.
In terms of challenges taking place at events – promote, promote, promote! I tend to get a bit zealous when hosting any kind of event or program within an event, so I’m going to take this moment to apologize to anyone on my Facebook friends list who also subscribes to all of the other historical cooking groups and local SCA groups that I do, because I tend to post announcements to them all for the widest reach possible, which means they get about 15 notifications at once all saying the same thing!
When it comes to creating activities for local meetings, I recommend creating specific challenges. When the Delftwood cooks’ guild meets, it is to discuss or present the results of a specific request, usually decided upon at the previous month’s meeting. For example, some of the topics we have covered have included: Vegetarian entree options that are NOT pies; Cook Thine Enemy, for which you must determine which culture or people your persona was fighting against during your chosen period of study, and cook a dish that they would have eaten; Sauces and Condiments; Illusion Food; Seasonal and Regional – food your persona would have eaten at that particular time of year in their particular region; and Outdoor Picnic foods. At each meeting, I usually solicit suggestions for challenges from those who are present, and then we agree on which one we want to use for our next meeting, while the rest are recorded for use at a later date.
Lately, however, our schedules have gotten a bit busier than usual, and the format of issuing a challenge, then cooking the dish to discuss with the group has gotten a bit stale. In order to give our cooks a bit of a break, and to encourage and welcome the new people who have recently come to Delftwood with an interest to food and cooking, we have initiated a series of classes on Medieval Gastronomy. For these classes, one person volunteers to lead a small team (or some choose to work by themselves) to research the cuisine of a specific culture within the SCA range of study. They create a presentation that discusses the ingredients, flavor qualities, and cooking techniques that are indicative of that culture, and cook samples of dishes that best illustrate these points (because, let’s face it, you can’t really talk about the flavors and qualities of food without tasting it, right?). So we have had small groups of people present their findings on the food culture and flavors from 13th to 15th century England and France, ancient Rome, and medieval Japan.
Our next class is coming up on June 2, at which Meisterin Felicity will be teaching us all about Medieval German gastronomy! I have found these classes to be helpful for our new SCA participants to learn what they should expect from medieval food and SCA feasts. It is also a great way to encourage new people to get their hands dirty in the kitchen (and wash them after!). In fact, one of our newest members cooked her very first medieval recipe, AND presented her very first A&S class through one of these classes, and she has been challenging herself in the kitchen ever since!
So I guess, be open to variety – try to include topics for those who are timidly dipping a toe in the water, as well as for those who are comfortable on the high dive. The future of SCA cooking depends on those of us who have a passion for food encouraging the next generation, and helping them find their footing. These casual meetings are a great way to do it!
Q: What are the logistics/needs for each kind of competition? For example, for the Cast Iron challenge, your barony’s populace donated the food stuffs for the pantry from which the entrants cooked.
A: It really depends on the challenge issued. Like I mentioned earlier, I did originally want to do something similar to Cast Iron Chef at War Practice. That would have required me to begin soliciting food donations and promoting the competition MUCH earlier than I knew I realistically had time for, considering my timeline for Crown Tournament prep (paired with the fact that, mundanely, my husband and I were moving from our apartment of 10 years into our first house exactly one month before Crown). This year’s Scarlet Apron was intentionally planned because I knew that I could not live up to the high standards I have for how I would like to see this competition go off, so I planned accordingly.
In addition, Cast Iron Chef was something special last year, and we in Delftwood would like to see it grow. If both Cast Iron Chef and the Scarlet Apron are to last, they must be in different formats, as not to burn out or bore our cooks, many of whom may take part in both competitions! Variety is the spice of life, after all!
Q; Four teams entered the Cast Iron challenge, which was at a smaller local event and was an on-site cooking challenge. How many entrants do you hope to attract to the Scarlet Apron challenge at War Practice, which is a larger event and requires entrants to bring a finished piece?
A: Well, I am hoping to see both competitions grow! It warms my heart to see people get creative and passionate about food. I have noticed that the art of historical cooking has tended to fall into the lap of whoever is in charge of cooking dayboard or feast for events, but does not usually get a place outside of these job duties at most SCA events. This is my attempt to bring the Culinary Arts into the spotlight, and allow our cooks to really show off what they can do!
With that in mind, I hope to see lots of people entering the Scarlet Apron this year! I am prepared for 20 individual people, which includes those working independently and in small teams. Everyone who participates will receive a token so they can brag that they rose to the challenge issued! Of course, I would be ecstatic to see more than that participate, but I know that the first year of a new activity can be a little tricky to get off the ground sometimes (hence why I inundate social media and mailing lists to promote these types of things).
Still, the idea is to encourage the cooks of the kingdom to join in – each year that the Scarlet Apron is held, there will be a new medallion to collect, similar to how Pennsic medallion art changes every year, and have become collector’s items for some people. It is my hope that we will all be Ooooo-ing and Aaaaaah-ing at the participants’ achievements and shiny new flare items for years to come!
Q: What are your future cooking competition goals?
A: I just want to continue to promote historical, researched cooking as much as I can while having fun! I am hoping that both the Scarlet Apron and Cast Iron Chef become a “thing,” for their respective events, and I have some ideas on how to do that.
Cast Iron Chef, for example, will remain an on-site cooking tournament; however, the format may change from time to time. This year, in order to keep within our archery event theme, we will be asking the cooks to team up with an archer for a special shoot. The archer will have targets of images of food. While all the cooks will have access to a “peasant’s pantry,” of basic staple foods like grains, common spices, and basic garden vegetation, the archers will be trying to acquire the cooks access to more “premium” items like dairy and animal protein. Whatever the archer is able to shoot with his or her arrow is what the cook will be allowed to use for their recipe. I’m really looking forward to seeing how this plays out!
As for the Scarlet Apron, I would love to see this blossom into a well-regarded, kingdom-level activity. War Practice tends to be one of those events attended by a more diverse group of SCAdians. Most of the time, a local group’s event will only attract local, or mostly local people. War Practice gives cooks from all over AEthelmearc to connect, meet, and interact with each other. I am hoping that, over the next few years, cooks of all experience levels see the Scarlet Apron as an opportunity to network and make new friends, and allow this competition to grow in such a way that we all become better – and more fearless – cooks for it.
Q: Anything else you want to add?
A: One of the other things I would love to see happen in the Scarlet Apron is more Youth participation. I am a big fan of SCA children participating in relevant activities alongside the adults when it is appropriate to do so. I love it when I see kids helping in the kitchen – in fact, Meisterin Felicity’s children, Fela (who is nine) and Frytz (who is almost five), were a HUGE help in forming all 200 homemade pretzels that were served at Crown Tournament. I know that if I were a young child in the SCA, I would much prefer to do the stuff the adults were doing, because, to me, that is what the SCA is. (NB: Please understand that I am NOT criticizing the separate kids’ activities hosted at events at all. Many children prefer to do these kinds of crafts or games, and that, too, is awesome!)
I am hoping to see some Youth entries, to demonstrate their talent to the kingdom, to let them know that their contributions are worthy of recognition, and to encourage those kids interested in learning about food and cooking to take a leap of faith! Ideally, I would like to have young members of our populace also act as judges for the Youth entries, however I do not yet have many volunteers – I will be reaching out to the kingdom shortly to put feelers out for this. In the meantime, I am hopeful that we will see at least one entry by someone who falls into our Youth category!
Finally, I would like to encourage everyone attending War Practice to come by the Great Hall any time between 11 and 4 to look at the amazingly creative talent of our kingdom’s cooks. And while you are there, please pick up a token from the check-in table to vote for your favorite – whichever entrant receives the most tokens will win a prize for being the Populace’s Choice winner!
I am very excited about the Scarlet Apron’s inaugural year, and hope that everyone has fun creating and viewing the entries that will be on display!
Hundreds of graffiti on left on the walls of Richmond Castle by conscientious objectors during World War I will be preserved by English Heritage, thanks to the support of the Heritage Lottery Fund.
Richmond Castle was built a few years after the Battle of Hastings by the Alan Rufus, a relative of William the Conqueror’s and the 1st Lord of Richmond. The remains of a hall block from the 1080s still stand, the most surviving 11th century architecture of any castle in England. In 1854 the Duke of Richmond leased the castle, many parts of it now derelict, to the North York Militia. Barracks were constructed against the western wall and a reserve armory built near the castle gate.
It was the 19th century armory which was put to use in World War I as a prison for conscientious objectors after conscription began in 1916. The castle was occupied by the northern Non-Combatant Corps, a support unit which allowed people with religious or moral objections to killing to serve in non-combatant roles. That didn’t work for all the objectors, 16 of whom wanted no part of the war effort, combatant or no. In theory the conscription law had a “conscience clause” which allowed people with pacifist religious beliefs to be exempt from combat, but in practice exemptions were very hard to come by. Even members of a church denomination like the Quakers which had strictly upheld the principle of non-violence for hundreds of years at times under extreme persecution and duress, faced arrest and imprisonment.
The Richmond Sixteen included people from different Christian denominations — Quakers, Methodists, International Bible Students (renamed Jehovah’s Witnesses in 1931) — and socialists. They were kept in eight small, damp cells on two floors of the old armory. Often they were forced to subsist on bread and water. They kept their spirits up by singing, discussing religion and politics, playing chess through a hole in the wall and decorating the walls that confined them with hundreds of graffiti. There are Bible verses, portraits of loved ones, hymns, political statements, a calendar and more.
The Richmond Sixteen were moved from the castle on May 29th, 1916, to a military camp near Boulogne in France. As soon as they stepped foot on the camp, they were officially considered on active duty, which meant they would be subject to harsh military justice should they refuse to follow orders. Since everyone knew they weren’t going to follow any orders, the move to France was basically a gun to their head. When they declined to schlep supplies at the dock when ordered, they were court-martialed, found guilty and “sentenced to suffer death by being shot.” Their sentences were quickly commuted to 10 years’ hard labour.
It turned out that Prime Minister Herbert Asquith had issued a secret order that none of the conscientious objectors in France were to be shot. He didn’t want them dead; he wanted people to think the military wouldn’t hesitate to shoot COs to death as a deterrent to anyone else thinking of asking for an exemption from service.
When the COs were shipped back to England, they had sentences to serve in civil prisons and work centers. For the rest of the war the Richmond Sixteen busted up rocks in a quarry near Aberdeen where the local newspapers referred to them as “degenerates.” When they were finally released, the “conscies” were widely reviled as cowards and treated with contempt. Finding a job and a place to live was a huge challenge.
The graffiti they left on the walls of their Richmond Castle cells has survived for a hundred years, but conditions have been as unkind to it as people were to their creators. The 19th century armory was built lime-washed walls that were never intended to last. Water is leaking in through cracks in the roof and walls. Salts in the lime react to moisture, crystallizing and lifting the lime layer off the wall behind. As the lime flakes off, it takes the graffiti with it.
The Buildings Conservation and Research Team at Historic England have been studying the site since 2014, documenting temperature and humidity levels, analyzing the walls and wash, pinpointing the most threatened areas. They have laser scanned the walls and captured the graffiti with high resolution photographs. They didn’t have the funding to do the necessary repairs and conservation until this year. From 2016 to 2018, English Heritage will spend £365,400 to repair the roof and walls, stop the water penetration and treat the graffiti in greatest danger. Once the walls have been stabilized enough to ensure people’s breath won’t harm the artwork, the cells will be open to the general public for the first time in 30 years.
For more information about the Richmond Sixteen, the graffiti and the castle, see English Heritage’s website. Here are two short videos they made with fine shots of the interior.
The first lock of hair from the head of third President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson ever to be offered at public auction sold on Saturday, May 14th, for $6,875 including the buyer’s premium. You might think for that amount you’d get traditional tuft of hair, maybe tied in a ribbon or encased in a velvet-lined box, but no. There are precisely 14 reddish hairs in this lot, held in a glassine envelope. They look like he got some tape stuck on his hair and had to pull it off losing a few in the process.
The ownership history of these hairs is well documented with a clear connection to Thomas Jefferson, which is why they sold at more than double the pre-sale estimate of $3,000, already a princely sum for 14 hairs. Locks of hair were common keepsakes in the 18th and 19th centuries, and several of Thomas Jefferson’s are extant. None of them are known to have been sold at auction before, however. The first owner of the hairs (save for Jefferson himself when they were attached to his scalp) was Doctor Robley Dunglison who was very close to Jefferson in the last year and a half of his life.
Robley Dunglison was an English doctor trained as a general practitioner and obstetrician. He was working at the Eastern Dispensary in Whitechapel, London, in 1824 when he met Francis Walker Gilmer, a lawyer and friend of Thomas Jefferson’s and the first chair of law at the University of Virginia. The university had been founded in 1817 and was just about to open its doors to students (the first class would meet on March 7th, 1825), but first they had to find some professors. Jefferson commissioned Gilmer to recruit faculty in Britain. Gilmer offered Dunglison a positioning heading the anatomy and medicine department and Dunglison accepted, in no small part because it gave him the wherewithal to marry his sweetheart Harriette Leadam. They married on October 5th, 1824, and on October 27th they set sail for Virginia.
By the terms of his contract with UVA, Dunglison was prohibited from establishing a private practice which made him the first professional full-time professor of medicine in the United States. There was one exception: he was allowed to treat Thomas Jefferson who was by then 81 and in very poor health. For most of his life Jefferson had avoided doctors, believing most illnesses naturally sorted themselves out. He explored his thinking on the subject in an 1807 letter to Dr. Caspar Wistar, the country’s foremost anatomist and professor of anatomy, midwifery, and surgery at the University of Pennsylvania.
As far as Jefferson was concerned, physicians were more often than not ill-informed quacks randomly experimenting on patients only to worsen the problem, delay the healing and/or take credit for any improvement that would have happened anyway if they’d just been left alone. “I believe we may safely affirm that the inexperienced and presumptuous band of medical tyros let loose upon the world destroys more of human life in one year than all the Robinhoods, Cartouches, and Macheaths do in a century,” he wrote. (Cartouche was the nickname of the famous highwayman Louis Dominique Bourguignon who stole from the rich and gave to the poor in early 18th century France. He was captured and executed by breaking on the wheel in 1721.)
Jefferson thought enough of the young Dunglison to overcome his reluctance. Dunglison first treated him for an obstructive uropathy, probably caused by an enlarged prostate, by passing a bougie. Jefferson paid close attention, taking notes on the remedies Dunglison recommended and learning how to pass the bougie himself. After that bonding experience, Dunglison became Jefferson’s personal physician and was a frequent visitor at Monticello from then on and was at Jefferson’s deathbed on the Fourth of July, 1826.
The lock the 14 hairs came from passed from Dr. Robley Dunglison to his son Dr. Richard J. Dunglison, editor of the first five American editions of Gray’s Anatomy. It was then passed down to his step-son Charles Ferry Fisher, a librarian of the Philadelphia College of Physicians. Most of the lock was donated to the college along with other Robley Dunglison artifacts, but they kept a few of the hairs. Those few hairs were eventually acquired by autograph dealer Charles Hamilton.
A 1929 affidavit from Charles Ferry Fisher attesting to the provenance of the hairs was included with the lot, as is another letter from Charles Hamilton confirming its authenticity. It’s not known when the lock was snipped. Since it’s still the reddish hair of Jefferson’s younger days — he was fully grey by the time of his death — Dr. Dunglison was likely given it to remember his most famous patient by rather than taking it himself.
The King’s Champion is Lord Gellyes Joffrey.
The Queen’s Champion is Lord Kenimathor of Lochleven.
The EK Gazette thanks Master Rowen Cloteworthy for reporting today.
Filed under: Heavy List Tagged: champions, King and Queen's Champions, Kings and Queens Champions
From the SCA Kingdom of Northshield Facebook page:
Heirs of Northshield! Hrodir Fyrste and Yehudah Tarkhan.
Northshield has made history! Prince Hrodir and his consort, Prince Yehudah, will be the first same-sex monarchs in the Society.
When side scan sonar found the wreck of an iron-hulled Civil War steamer off Oak Island, North Carolina, on February 27th, 2016, researchers from the Underwater Archaeology Branch of the North Carolina Office of State Archaeology identified it as one of three blockade runners known to have gone down in the area: the Agnes E. Fry, the Spunkie or the Georgianna McCaw. The measurements of the wreck suggested it was the Agnes E. Fry. The remains are 225 feet long, the Fry 236 feet long. The other two candidates were significantly smaller.
Archaeologists were hoping to get a conclusive identification when divers explored the site in March, but the currents were very active and visibility was consistently bad, maxing out at 18 inches on a good day. Divers were able to recover a few artifacts — a deck light, a coal sample and what appears to be the handle of a homemade knife — but nothing with a name. Still, the sonar and diving data clearly matched what we know about the Fry. Contemporary documents report that the two engines and paddlewheel were salvaged from the Fry. The engines and paddlewheel are missing from this wreck. At least one boiler is still in place, and it is of a newer type than McCaw or Spunkie were equipped with. The hull design is also more modern than the two other lost blockade runners. Damage to the bow and stern explains the small discrepancy in dimensions between the wreck and the Agnes E. Fry before it sank.
According to Billy Ray Morris, Deputy State Archaeologist and director of the North Carolina Office of State Archaeology’s Underwater Archaeology Branch, there are also references from the US Life Saving Service to this wreck being the Fry as late as the 1920s. Morris is “99.99% positive” on the wreck being the Fry, which is as convinced as anyone of a scientific bent can be.
The discovery made international news which spurred Capt. J.D. Thomas of the Charlotte Fire Department Special Operations/EMS Command to offer the Underwater Archaeology Branch the use of a state-of-the-art 3D sonar device provided by Nautilus Marine Group International, plus a team of experienced search and rescue divers to work with the maritime archaeologists. The 3D sonar technology allowed the team make a complete, highly accurate, multi-dimensional map of the wreck in days no matter how murky the waters. It also detects details that the side scanning sonar missed. This was the first 3D sonar imaging was used to scan a shipwreck site in North Carolina.
The results of the scan were combined into a sonar mosaic which shows the wreck in exceptional detail and high resolution. The Underwater Archaeology Branch has released the composite image complete with labels identifying the different parts of the ship and Billy Ray Morris was kind enough to send me a beautifully huge version of the mosaic.
Here’s the original side scan sonar image, just for comparison.
Quite a difference, isn’t it? I can’t wait to see this technology widely applied to maritime archaeology.
The Agnes E. Fry was built and launched on the Clyde in Scotland in 1864. It was initially named the Fox, but Captain Joseph Fry renamed it after his beloved wife (and first cousin; their mothers were sisters), Agnes Evelina Fry, nee Sands. Captain Fry had had an illustrious career in the US Navy. He reluctantly resigned his commission when the Civil War broke out despite believing in the principle of the Union because he could not stand to fight against his home state of Louisiana and his family and friends. His skills as a naval captain were put to use in the Confederate Navy.
In the Spring of 1864, he was sent to Scotland to pick up the new ship. He stopped in neutral Bermuda for supplies for the Confederacy and returned with his much-needed cargo to North Carolina where he tried seven times to get it through the Union blockade of Wilmington with no success. He finally broke through and on November 10th, 1864, wrote to his wife:
Many vessels have arrived here since I first left Bermuda, and it is also true that many have been lost trying to get in. God has watched over our safety, and prospered us wonderfully. I have been chased over and over again;… have had the yellow fever on board; have headed for the bar about seven times in vain. … I never was so happy in my life as when I at last arrived, and thought I should be with you in three or four days; nor so miserable as when I found they wanted me to try and go out again immediately, by which I lose my chance of coming home. But I am bound to do it. I am complimented on having the finest ship that ever came in, named, too, after her whom I love more than all the world beside. The owners are my personal friends, and are pledged to take care of you in my absence, or in case of my capture. She is a vessel they especially want me to command, and although I would not leave without having seen my family for twice her value, still duty requires that I should do so.
Blockade running required persistence and daring, and a strong, fast ship, all of which Joseph Fry had, but the latter not for long. The Agnes E. Fry ran aground near the mouth of the Cape Fear River on December 27th, 1864. Fry was given command of another ship in Mobile Bay until the end of the war.
Perhaps his time as a blockade runner gave him a taste for smuggling for a cause, because less than a decade after the Confederate surrender, he was commanding the steamer Virginius and bringing its cargo of rebels and weapons to Cuba to fight Spanish rule. He was captured by the Spanish before he got there and taken to Santiago de Cuba. Captain Fry and his crew were court-martialled on charges of piracy and convicted. Over the complaints of US and British officials, they were sentenced to death. On November 7th, 1873, Joseph Fry and 52 of his officers and crew were executed by firing squad in a brutally slapdash manner. A witness described the scene:
“The victims were ranged facing the wall, and at a sufficient distance from it to give them room to fall forward. Captain Fry having asked for a glass of water, one was handed him by Charles Bell, the steward of the Morning Star. Fry then walked from the end of the line to the center, and calmly awaited his fate. He was the only man who dropped dead at the first volley, notwithstanding that the firing party were but ten feet away. Then ensued a horrible scene. The Spanish butchers advanced to where the wounded men lay writhing and moaning in agony, and, placing the muzzles of their guns in some in stances into the mouths of their victims, pulled the triggers, shattering their heads into fragments. Others of the dying men grasped the weapons thrust at them with a despairing clutch, and shot after shot was poured into their bodies before, death quieted them.”
Another 93 were scheduled to be shot, but the second round of executions was interrupted by Commander Sir Lambton Lorraine of the British warship Niobe who threatened to bombard the city if they didn’t stop. The execution of Joseph Fry caused outrage in the United States. President Ulysses S. Grant gave a speech to Congress decrying it as a barbaric slaughter in violation of treaties between the countries. Fry was seen as a martyr and patriot, and while things didn’t come to blows quite yet, fury over his fate still simmered 25 years later when war finally did break out between Spain and the United States.
It is with regret that the EQUESTRIAN Activities at this weekend’s Hastilude Event in the Barony of Dragonship Haven, Bethany, CT are CANCELLED.
Everything else is still a go!
Filed under: Announcements, Equestrian, Events
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