Recommendations are requested via the online form:
Editor’s Note: Need more information about the East Kingdom awards polling process? This article gives a good overview. Need to find out whether or not someone has the award you are considering? Look them up in the Order of Precedence: http://op.wiglaf.org/index.php. You do not need to be a member of an order to recommend someone for an order. Any person may recommend any other person for any award.
Filed under: Court, Law and Policy, Official Notices Tagged: award recommendations, awards, polling deadlines, polling orders, pollings
Two bronze sculptures that were stolen from the Hirschl & Adler Gallery in New York in December of 1983 have been found and returned to the gallery. Central Figure of Day by Paul Manship was the first to be stolen from the gallery in broad light on December 3rd, 1983. Three weeks later, Figure of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney by Prince Paul Troubetzkoy was stolen again in the middle of the day. The thefts were reported to the Art Dealers Association of America (ADAA) at the time but the case soon went cold.
Last December, both sculptures were consigned for sale by a private collector to the Gerald Peters Gallery. He had owned them since 1985 when he bought them together from a shop in New York’s diamond district. The collector no longer had receipts nor remembered which store he had purchased them from. In advance of their exhibition and sale, the Gerald Peters Gallery did due diligence research into the ownership history of the sculptures and discovered they were stolen property. It then hired Art Recovery International to negotiate between the parties and arrange for the return of both pieces. Two months later on February 6th, 2015, the works were returned to Hirschl & Adler.
The legal process of determining ownership in this case presented very few obstacles. Unlike the legal systems in most European counties, it is a basic tenet of US law that no individual can obtain good title to a stolen work of art – not even when purchased in good faith. The law recognises that a stolen work of art is always stolen property and therefore makes no exceptions for good faith, passage of time or the number of owners since the theft occurred.
It helped that Hirschl & Adler had retained full documentation of their ownership of the statues and of the theft, so there was no question of who held the last legal title. The collector who has owned them for 30 years is not considered a suspect. He just spotted a bargain in a shady store.
Ray Lazerson, Treasurer at Hirschl & Adler Gallery, commented: “There can’t be too many dealers who have to tell their gallery Director twice in three weeks that something has been stolen! We are delighted that these works have been found and grateful for the co-operation of all parties in their recovery.”
Both sculptors are famous for monumental outdoor works: Manship for his 1934 gilded statue of Prometheus overlooking the Lower Plaza of Rockefeller Center and Troubetzkoy for his 1909 equestrian statue of Tsar Alexander III of Russia now in front of the Marble Palace in St. Petersburg. Indeed, Central Figure of Day was done in a similar style to Prometheus, during a period when Manship became fascinated by ancient sculpture after he won the Rome Prize and attended the American Academy on residential fellowship from 1909 until 1912. He also became interested in Indian art at this time, an influence you can see in Central Figure of Day.
Figure of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney was one of a number of sculptures Prince Troubetzkoy made for high society figures of the golden age. Mrs. Whitney was one of the most notable. A succesful sculptor in her own right as well as a society maven, philanthropist and patron of the arts, she is best remembered today as the founder of the Whitney Museum of American Art which she established in 1931 to showcase the works of living American artists who had been rejected by more hide-bound institutions like the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The Whitney is opening in a new building come May 1st. It would be cool if they acquired the sculpture of their founder in time for the reopening. Troubetzkoy’s bronzes rarely appear on the market, and since this one is believed to have been cast during his lifetime, it is particularly valuable. Together both pieces are valued at around $250,000 now, an exponential growth from their estimated worth of $24,000 each in 1983.
Their Majesties, Timothy and Gabrielle, have released the Pennsic War Points and Battle Schedules and Plans.
Complete and detailed information about how the war points will be fought, plus related regulations and schedules can be found here – Pennsic War Point Details and Regulations.
WAR POINTS SUMMARY
SUNDAY, AUGUST 2
MONDAY, AUGUST 3
TUESDAY, AUGUST 4
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 5
THURSDAY, AUGUST 6
FRIDAY, AUGUST 8
ONGOING DURING WAR WEEK
A team from the Colchester Archaeological Trust unearthed the rare Roman bronze figurine of a harpy in Brightlingsea on the southeastern coast of England. Archaeologist Ben Holloway discovered the petite four-inch high piece in September of last year during the preventative excavation of a section of the Moverons Quarry before gravel quarrying was slated to begin there. The artifact was in the top layer of fill in a field-boundary ditch that also had Roman pottery sherds and fragments of imbrex, Roman overlapping clay roof tile.
It is quite finely detailed, and is in the form of an upright bird with a woman’s head and with small wings which are fully open. The figure has feathers and talons, and braided hair; however, it seems to have a serpent’s tail which functions as a support. It is standing on a damaged base and also seems to have been attached at the top of the support.
The figurine has not been cleaned or conserved yet, so more details will be forthcoming. There is no indication from the context of why it ended up in the quarry site. It could have been anything from a discard to a votive offering. Its design is similar of the feet found on small, portable charcoal braziers Romans used for indoor heating.
Two braziers donated by Marcus Nigidius Vaccula to the Forum Baths and Stabian Baths of Pompeii in the late 1st century A.D. have harpy feet that look very much like larger versions of the Brightlingsea figurine. A bronze brazier called a foculus was used in the tepidarium to heat the air to a constant warm temperature. Bathers would sit on benches next to the brazier to get a good schphitz (ad flammam sudare) going before moving on to the hot waters of the caldarium.
The tepidarium was often the central room of the Roman bath complex and was the most elaborately decorated. Elegant architectural features like mosaic floors, marble inlays, sculpted support pillars and intricate reliefs were the setting for the most expensive high-end art works. The largest Roman sculptural group ever found, the breathtaking Farnese Bull, was discovered in the tepidarium of the Baths of Caracalla.
Although they have discovered evidence of thousands of years of habitation at the quarry site, from a Bronze Age ring-ditch to Anglo-Saxon huts, archaeologists have not found any conclusive evidence of Roman baths. They closest they came was a tile from a hypocaust, the underfloor hot air system used to heat baths and pricier homes, but they believe it was part of Roma farmhouse or villa in the area. Indeed, archaeologists found the remains of Roman field systems in the quarry, plus three Roman cremation burials from the 2nd-3rd century. If the harpy was part of a brazier, it was likely used in the home.
As an aside, the figurine was found just weeks after this same team found the hoard of jewelry hidden from Boudicca’s army Roman treasure at the Williams & Griffin store excavation in Colchester. What a productive few months they’ve had.
At Rowany Festival this Easter, Countess Eva Von Danzig, Baroness of Innilgard, became the first female knight of Lochac.
The writs for the first three Eastern members of the Order of Defense were delivered today by Their Majesties Omega and Etheldreda. The Order of Defense recognizes superior prowess and contributions in rapier combat with a patent level award, more commonly known in the SCA as a peerage. This peerage order was created by the SCA’s Board of Directors in February. The peerage may be awarded beginning on May 1st. The writs notified the first three candidates that they were instructed to appear at Crown Tourney on May 2nd and answer Their Majesties as to whether they are willing to be accepted into the Order.
Sir Antonio Patrasso has been active in the East Kingdom Rapier community for twenty five years, and served as East Kingdom Marshal of Fence from 2004 to 2008. In addition to being a companion of the Order of Chivalry and the Order of the Pelican, he was the 26th inductee to the East Kingdom Order of the Golden Rapier. Sir Antonio also holds the Order of the Silver Crescent, the Order of the Tygers Combattant, the Queen’s Cypher, the Order of the Iron Tower (Settmour Swamp). He currently serves as King’s Rapier Champion and and is a Past Queen’s Rapier Champion. In addition to his duties as a marshal, he also serves the Seneschalate as New Groups Deputy, and serves the office of the Tyger Clerk as Backlog Scroll deputy. He lives in the Barony of Settmour Swamp.
Don Donovan Shinnock has been active in the East Kingdom Rapier community for over twenty years and was a cadet of Don Martin Quicksilver. He has served twice in the East as King’s Champion of Rapier and as Queen’s Champion of Rapier. Don Donovan is a Companion of the Order of the Silver Rapier and the Order of the Golden Rapier. He is also a Companion of the Maunche for his research on rapier combat, received the King’s Esteem of Merit from King Edward II, King Kenric II and King Brennan and is a Companion of the Carolingian Orders of the Perseus and the Daystar. He currently lives in the Shire of Quintavia.
THL Fraiser Macleod currently serves as the East Kingdom Marshal of Fence. He has been active in the East Kingdom Rapier community for twenty six years, beginning his SCA career in Endewearde as a student of Master Gregory Finche before moving to AEthelmearc and then returning to the East. He is the 8th White Scarf of Aethelmearc and the 31st Companion of the Golden Rapier, and has fought as a Rapier Champion at Pennsic for both the East and AEthelmearc. He has previously served as Queen’s Rapier Champion of the East. Don Fraiser is also a Companion of the Silver Crescent, the King’s Esteem of Merit, and the Portcullis of endewearde, and is one of the founding members of the Northguard Rapier Company. He currently lives in the Barony of Endwearde.
Filed under: Court, Fencing
His Majesty Darius, called Omega, has released the listing of Pennsic War Points to the Gazette. Here are the highlights. More detailed information about how the war points will be fought, plus related regulations and schedules can be found here – Pennsic War Point Details and Regulations.
WAR POINTS SUMMARY
SUNDAY, AUGUST 2
MONDAY, AUGUST 3
TUESDAY, AUGUST 4
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 5
THURSDAY, AUGUST 6
FRIDAY, AUGUST 8
ONGOING DURING WAR WEEK
Sa majesté Darius dit Omega a révélé la liste des points de guerre pour Pennsic à la gazette. Voici les points majeurs.
SOMMAIRE DES POINTS DE GUERRE
DIMANCHE LE 2 AOUST
LUNDI LE 3 AOUST
MARDI LE 4 AOUST
MERCREDI LE 5 AOUST
JEUDI LE 6 AOUST
VENDREDI LE 7 AOUST
CONTINUEL DURANT LA SEMAINE DE GUERRE
Traduction: Mór of Kilkenny
Filed under: En français, Pennsic, Uncategorized
In mid-March a new Twitter account came into being: @MedievalReacts
[View the story "Reacting to Medieval Reactions" on Storify]
Countess Elena d’Artois is a Companion of the Order of the White Scarf. This article is from a Facebook post in which she contemplated the relationship between Æthelmearc’s Ladies of the Rose and Garnet and the rapier fighters, most especially the White Scarves.
The Queens of Æthelmearc, Roses, and Garnets have a very special and ever-changing relationship with the White Scarves and fencing community. Their paths have changed from guardian, to guide, to confidante, to dear friend, to momma bear, and who is in what role changes as the community changes.
When I was a terrified first time princess, three White Scarves especially changed my path. They helped me to understand the art that is fencing (which I still don’t understand as well as I would like…. but we all grow, every day, together). They and the fencers welcomed me and supported me in that role, so much so that I have stayed and now serve in that community. Don Bastiano, Don Corwin, Don Christian and others were wonderful guides at that time. They taught me the Cult of the Queen, the honor of being a target, a courtier, a scholar, and a soldier. These are integral to the role of the fencer in the Society and those things that we learn in our art martial are skills that help us be successful in life. Focus. Determination. Discipline. Respect. Service. Pursuit of excellence. Kindness. Standing for what is right. A kind word can mean the difference to someone, and you never know who you touch. The art of defense can be elegant. One need not be a brute to eviscerate an enemy. Those are the things that the fencers taught a Rose-to-be.
As a fencer I watch the Roses. Those qualities that they embody and protect are those that we aspire to. Service to a greater community. Excellence and Chivalry are more important than victory. Gentility. The impact of words we speak. Inspiration. Loyalty. Honor. Grace. The responsibility of position doesn’t end when you leave the field. Leading by example in all things. Those are the things that I learn from the Roses I watch. So much yet to learn.
Our kingdom’s Queen’s Rapier Championship Tournament is coming. Take this opportunity to look at your Queen and the Ladies of the Rose who support you. Spoil them. Revere them. Respect them. They are the Ninjas of Æthelmearc. Do something nice for a Lady of the Rose when you see them next. Coronation is this weekend. What a wonderful opportunity to share a drink or a piece of chocolate.
That said – if you would do those wonderful things for a Lady of the Rose – also do those things for someone you don’t know. Reach out to a new person and say hello. Offer a stranger a beer. Give a piece of chocolate to someone who might like it. You don’t have to be a Rose to appreciate a kind word, a drink, or a sweet. Those skills we learn in our game are the same skills that help us to make a better world in every area of our life. We serve a larger community. Kindness and respect are universal. But if learning to do it for one person or group of people teaches us how to do that better, then we have truly learned and grown as a people.
My fellow fencers, what do you see as the relationship between the Roses and the fencers? How do they inspire you?
“We are so grateful for the generosity of the artisans of the East. Strengthening the ties between Kingdoms is very important to Us, and one of the ways we can do that is on a personal level between the Royal Cousins. The giving of gifts, particularly from royal hands, has been a tradition for millenia. In our Society, while the Royalty only reign for a short time, their memories of the gifts they receive are vivid, and they speak well of the kingdom that gave those gifts for years afterward. We have been the recipients of many beautiful things, and we wanted to make sure that the East gave gifts in kind.
The royal gift exchanges aren’t as visible as A&S displays, but they do give the artisans a different exposure. Their items are admired and treasured. Still, it requires a depth of loyalty to the East and a wealth of generosity to give away the products of their time and effort to royalty they do not know and may never meet. We are humbled and inspired by them, and would like their works to be remembered.”
The artisans’ work can be seen here.
Leurs Majestés ont organisé un système sur leur site internet, afin de publiciser tous les artisans de l’Est ayant contribué à la banque d’items pouvant être offerts par Nos Monarques en guise de reconnaissance ou d’amitié. La Reine Thyra a voulu exprimer combien ces présents étaient importants pour eux, ainsi que pour le Royaume de l’Est, par ces mots.
“Nous sommes tellement reconnaissants pour la générosité des artisans du Royaume de l’Est. Renforcer les liens entre Royaumes est d’une grande importance pour Nous, et Nous pouvons entres autres nous acquitter de cette tâche de manière personnelle entre Cousins Royaux. L’offre de cadeaux, particulièrement venant de mains royales, est une tradition vielle de plusieurs millénaires. Dans notre Société, même si la Royauté ne règne que pour une courte période de temps, les souvenirs des cadeaux reçus restent vifs et évoquent les qualités du Royaume qui les a offerts pour bien des années à venir. Nous avons été les récipiendaires de bien belles choses, et voulions nous assurer que le Royaume de l’Est pourrait en offrir de toutes aussi jolies.
Les échanges de cadeaux royaux ne sont pas aussi visibles que les expositions d’Arts et Sciences, mais ils donnent aux artisans une forme différente de visibilité. Leurs objets sont admirés et chéris. Malgré tout, cela requiers une profonde loyauté envers l’Est, ainsi qu’une générosité sans pareille pour donner ainsi le produit de leur temps et efforts pour une royauté qu’ils ne connaissent pas et peut-être ne rencontrerons jamais. Nous nous sentons humbles et inspirés par ces personnes, et voulons que leurs travaux ne soient pas oubliés.”
Traduction: Behi Kirsa Oyutai
Filed under: Arts and Sciences, En français, Tidings
The following message was sent today by the East Kingdom Chancellor
Due to unpreventable circumstances beyond our control, tomorrow’s EKU needs to be held in a different location– we will be moving to Eastern Maine Community College, Maine Hall (354 Hogan Road, Bangor, Maine 04401. This is right down the street from the old location. ALL classes will still be held as planned and at their scheduled times– the room numbers will be different but there will be plenty of signs to help you find your way. Please pass this message along to any and all FB groups, mailing lists, and friends you may know of who are attending. Please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org if you have any questions.
Filed under: Announcements, Events
After years of conservation to preserve organic remains, artifacts from the wreck of the 19th century Hawaiian royal yacht the Ha’aheo o Hawai’i have returned to Hawaii. They will become part of the permanent collection of the Kaua’i Museum where they will go on display close to where they spent almost two centuries under the turquoise ocean.
The yacht started out its life in far less congenial waters. Captain George Crowninshield, scion of the prominent Boston Brahmin seafaring family, commissioned Salem’s greatest shipwright Retire Becket to build him the first ocean-going pleasure yacht in the country. Crowninshield was involved in every aspect of construction and he spared no expense. The ship cost $50,000 to build, plus another $50,000 was spent on the furniture and finishes like flamed mahogany and birds-eye maple paneling, custom furniture by Boston’s premier cabinetmaker Thomas Seymour, silk velvet upholstery with gold lace trim, ormulu chandeliers, bespoke sets of silver, porcelain, glass and linens. It even had indoor plumbing. Cleopatra’s Barge, an 83-foot brigantine, was launched on October 21st, 1816. Inclement winter prevented her from sailing right away and the vessel was instantly famous so when the ship was frozen at the dock after a short trial run in December, it was opened up to visitors. Thousands came to see it.
When the ice thawed in late March of 1817, George took Cleopatra’s Barge on a long, leisurely Mediterranean cruise. Everywhere he stopped, Crowninshield was greeted by thousands of admirers wanting to get a glimpse of his luxurious ship. One day in Barcelona the yacht had 8,000 visitors. He was also watched by less friendly people: the British and French navies, who put men-of-war on his tail because they had heard the widespread rumor that Captain George was secretly planning on rescuing Napoleon from St. Helena and bringing the ex-emperor home with him to America. Whether this was truly his cockamamie scheme or not, his actions could certainly be seen in a suspicious light. He got 300 letters of introduction to important people on the continent, stopped at Elba where he met Napoleon’s aides who gave him more letters of introduction to the Bonaparte family, visited with the family in Rome — Napoleon’s sister Paulina Bonaparte, Princess Borghese, gave Crowninshield a snuff-box, her sister Princess Murat, Queen of Naples, gave him a ring, Napoleon’s mother gave him a Sevres chocolate mug and her son’s boots — but ultimately went home without an exiled former emperor on board.
Crowninshield and Cleopatra’s Barge returned to Salem on October 3rd, 1817. George stayed on board making an extremely fancy houseboat out of his yacht. He got less than two months’ use of it, sadly, as he died of a heart attack on board on November 26th, 1817. He was 51 years old. His family stripped the elegant furnishings and used it as a trade vessel for a few years before selling it to another mercantile concern. In November of 1820, Cleopatra’s Barge was sold again, this time to King Kamehameha II (aka “Liholiho”) of Hawaii. The King paid 8,000 piculs (1,064,000 pounds) of sandalwood, an estimated value of $80,000, for the ship and thus Cleopatra’s Barge became the first and only royal yacht in any part of what would become the United States.
Kamehameha II loved his new toy. He outfitted it in additional finery and cannon for ceremonial shots and traveled the islands with it. The honeymoon period was short-lived, however, as by April 1822 it became clear that so much of the wood was rotting the ship would have to be dry-docked and extensively repaired. Fresh lumber had to be secured from the Pacific Northwest so it was more than a year before the yacht was seaworthy again. The king renamed her Ha’aheo o Hawai’i (Pride of Hawaii) and the rebuilt ship was relaunched on May 10th, 1823.
Again his enjoyment of the yacht would be short-lived. King Kamehameha II decided to go to London to meet King George IV. Instead of taking the Ha’aheo o Hawai’i, however, he was persuaded to book passage on the whaler L’Aigle because its crew, led by one Captain Valentine Starbuck (no word on his relation to the Battlestar Galactica pilot), was familiar with the route. The king, his wife Queen Kamāmalu and other Hawaiian notables, left for England in November of 1823. After a stop in Brazil, they arrived in Portsmouth on May 17th, 1824, and then hung around for a few weeks waiting for King George to fix a date for the audience. They were finally scheduled to meet on June 21st, but they had to postpone it when the Hawaiian royals were struck with measles. On July 8th, 1824, Queen Kamāmalu died. King Kamehameha II died six days later. Their bodies returned to Hawaii almost a year later, on May 6th, 1825.
His beloved royal yacht would precede King Kamehameha II to the grave. It ran aground on a reef in Hanalei Bay on the north coast of the island of Kauai. It’s unclear what the ship was doing in such a remote location. The Christian missionaries the king had often given rides to on his ship said it was persistent drunkenness of the crew that led to the Ha’aheo o Hawai’i‘s wreck. An attempt was made to rescue the vessel which was still above the waterline, but it failed, snapping the main mast, and when the news reached the islands that the king was dying, whatever parts of it could be salvaged were and then the ship was abandoned to the surf.
The surf did its job well and the wreck of the opulent royal yacht remained unexplored for more than 170 years. In 1994, Paul Forsythe Johnston, Curator of Maritime History at the Smithsonian Institutions’ National Museum of American History and formerly the curator of the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem which has a long history with the yacht from her Cleopatra’s Barge days, applied for and was granted Hawaii’s first underwater archaeological permit to search for the Ha’aheo o Hawai’i. The next year, diver, historian and shipwreck hunter Richard Rogers volunteered his own vessel to help in the search. This video follows the team in the first few weeks of the search:
For four weeks each year between 1995 and 2001, the search party looked for the wreck. At first they only found debris, but a couple of seasons in they finally discovered the wreck under 10 feet of water and 10 feet of sand, documented it thoroughly and recovered some of its artifacts.
All told, more than 1,000 artifacts were retrieved.
“We found gold, silver, Hawaiian poi pounders, gemstones, a boat whistle, knives, forks, mica, things from all over the world, high- and low-end European stuff. Every bit of it is royal treasure,” Rogers said. [...] His favorite discovery was a trumpet shell.
“I found it under a bunch of sand and carried it onto the deck. This was in 1999. I blew it and it made the most beautiful sound going out over Hanalei Bay,” Rogers recalled. “I thought about how it hadn’t been blown in over 170 years.”
The principal value of the artifacts is historical, said Paul F. Johnston, Ph.D., Curator of Maritime History at the National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution. They represent the only known objects from the short but intense reign of Kamehameha II, the man who abolished the Hawaiian kapu (taboo) socio-cultural system and allowed Christian missionaries into the kingdom.
“He only reigned from 1819 -1824, but Old Hawaii changed forever and irrevocably from the changes he put into place during that short period. He was an important member of our nation’s only authentic royalty,” Johnston said.
The Smithsonian has held the artifacts since their discovery for conservation and study, but they belong to the state of Hawaii. The museum has received four crates of objects recovered from the wreck and is expecting another two. Once everything is in place, curators will open the boxes and start unpacking their royal treasure for display.
This is the first in a series of profiles featuring the bards of Æthelmearc, from Baroness Gwendolyn the Graceful, our current Sylvan Bard.
What’s your full SCA name (and anything else you typically use to introduce yourself)?
What attracted you to the bardic arts?
How long have you considered yourself a bard / scop / scyld / minstrel / term-of-choice?
What’s your primary form (singer, storyteller, poet, etc.)? Do you play any instruments, and if so, which?
Where can we find your work? Do you have a brief sample you’d like to share?
What sorts of pieces do you enjoy producing? What attracts you to that style?I like a variety of music. Everything from the funny to serious, filks and period pieces, love songs and war songs. I most enjoy something with a drum to accompany because it changes the feel of the piece. The best performance of ‘The Minstrel Boy’ I ever did was the first time Don Brennan the Misguided accompanied me with his bodhrán. I’ll never forget how it felt.
Describe a favorite performance of your own in the SCA. What makes it a highlight for you?
Describe a performance by someone else that inspired you in the bardic arts. How did that performance guide you to improve your own art? What did it prompt you to do?
What projects are you working on now?
Who are some of your favorite influences, either for your own research and composition, or for performing within the SCA?
What other types of performance do you particularly love to see / hear?
What advice do you have for someone who wants to be a bard?
Is there anything you want to add?
A newly published study of the mummies in the crypt of the Church of the Whites in the town of Vác, northern Hungary, has found they harbored multiple strains of tuberculosis all descended from a common ancestor in the late Roman period (396-470 A.D.). Contemporary TB infections are usually caused by a single strain.
The remains of 265 townspeople buried in the crypt between 1731 and 1838 were discovered in 1994 by a construction worker doing repairs on the church. The vault had been bricked in decades before and forgotten, leaving the cool, dry air and the anti-bacterial, fluid-absorbing properties of the wood chips placed under their bodies and of their elaborately painted pine coffins to naturally mummify the bodies and preserve even their clothing in the most exceptionally pristine condition. After X-rays at the Hungarian Natural History Museum in Budapest found evidence of tuberculosis in the bones, subsequent studies determined that 89% of the mummies had been infected with the tuberculosis pathogen at some point in their lives although only 35% of them were actively suffering from the disease at the time of their death.
The prevalence of tuberculosis in the group, their apparent resistance to the disease and the pre-Industrial, pre-antibiotic timeline of their deaths provided researchers with a rare opportunity to study tuberculosis during its peak infection years for invaluable information about how it was spread and how people’s immune systems fought the infection. A multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the University of Warwick, the University of Birmingham, University College London, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Hungarian Natural History Museum in Budapest extracted DNA from samples drawn from 26 of the Vác mummies that were known to have harbored TB pathogens. Using a methodology called shotgun metagenomics to extract tuberculosis DNA directly from the samples rather than attempting to isolate and culture the pathogen, the team was able to get results in days rather than weeks.
They found 14 examples of TB DNA in eight bodies. Five of the eight bodies sampled harbored multiple M. tuberculosis genome sequences for a total of 12 different strains. One body had three different strains of tuberculosis. Mixed infections like this are rare in Europe and America today, but in areas of the world where TB is still prevalent one out of five patients have multi-strain infections. The people in this study died when TB was at peak prevalence in Europe, killing millions as the White Plague.
They also discovered that the samples from two bodies known to have been mother and child — Anna Schöner (mother, died 1793) and Terézia Hausmann (daughter, 28 years old, died 1797) — shared the same two genotypes.
Our analyses on these bodies provide the first evidence of an intimate epidemiological link between TB infections in two long-dead individuals, supporting mother–child transmission, or vice versa, or infection from a common source. More striking is that we obtained the same two M. tuberculosis genotypes, albeit in different proportions, from samples from both bodies. It remains unclear whether this shared within-host diversity in mother and daughter stems from multiple episodes of infection or from a single transmission event of more than one strain. These findings add weight to the claim that within-host diversity poses a challenge when attempting to infer the nature and direction of disease transmission. Interestingly, two samples from Terézia Hausmann’s lung yielded different proportions of the two genotypes, perhaps suggesting fine-grained spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of strains
What a complicated disease TB is. No wonder it takes half a year of intense antibiotic treatment to cure (if the strain isn’t resistant, that is).
The metagenomics approach appears to be more effective at identifying multiple TB strains in samples than the microbiological culture approach. This method could prove a signficant improvement in the diagnosis of modern TB infections and opens the door to new treatment possibilities in the age of antibiotic resistance. The Warwick Medical School team has now successfully used metagenomics to identify the lineages of TB bacteria in contemporary samples. That study was published last September, but was actually performed after the pathogen strains were extracted from the Vác mummies, so the 18th century victims of the White Plague have already helped today’s victims by giving them a much faster and more accurate method to identify the bacteria causing their illness. That’s an important step in finding more effective, targeted treatment protocols.
Here, we have confirmed the remarkably high prevalence of TB within an affluent, urbanized, but largely pre-industrial, Central European population. By showing that historical strains can be accurately mapped to contemporary lineages, we have ruled out, for early modern Europe, the kind of scenario recently proposed for the Americas, that is, wholesale replacement of one major lineage by another (with a different host range and presumed pathogen biology) and have confirmed the genotypic continuity of an infection that has ravaged the heart of Europe since prehistoric times. With TB resurgent in many parts of the world, including Hungary, the struggle to control this ancient infection is far from over.
The time is almost upon us to find out who our next heirs will be. Who will be the best fighter of the day? Whose game is at its peak at just the right moment? Who is so hungry for the Crown that none shall best them? Whose colors will fly highest at the end of the day and meld into the red of Æthelmearc, making our Kingdom even stronger than before?
We shall find out on Saturday, May 2nd at the Wellsville Elementary School in Wellsville, NY (Shire of Hartstone). Site opens at 8:30 am, with armor inspection from 8:30-11:30. Starting at 11:00 am, our beautiful Queen will be hosting a Consort’s Tea in the Royal Pavilion, please plan on attending if you can to hear the wise words of our Queen and the Ladies of the Rose. A banner filled procession is to take place at 12:00 pm, so bring your banners and wear your colors proudly! Bring a herald (or hire one!) to announce you and your consort to Their Majesties and the populace – there may be something in it for them! The Tourney and Dayboard will follow the procession, fighting will continue until a victor is declared and we have the names of our newest Heirs.
The day wouldn’t be complete without admiring the skills of the artisans of our great Kingdom! There will be an Arts and Sciences Display area for any and all who wish to show us what makes our artists so special. Please feel free to bring your finished pieces or works in progress so we can admire your hard work and talents. There will also be space available both indoors and out for any gentle that wishes to merchant during the event, at no charge.
The focus of the day will be on the combatants and consorts, but that can’t happen if you don’t get your letters delivered to the hand of Their Highnesses by this Saturday (April 11th). Please consider entering Crown Tourney so you can have a deciding voice in guiding our Sylvan Kingdom on her path to increased greatness. Also, please contact the autocrat with the dimensions of any day shade or pavilion you intend to set up around the List Fields so we can be sure all have the space they require ahead of time. There will be a map of List Field pavilion setups available the day of Crown, please check with the autocrat or Baroness Helene of Delftwood, for your allotted space before setting up.
We look forward to seeing you there! Please check the Facebook Event page or the Kingdom website for more information.
Lady Lasairfhiona inghean Aindriasa
With the first writs for the newly created Order of Defense expected to be issued this weekend at Coronation, the Gazette is grateful to Lord Yehuda ben Moshe, Elmet Herald for submitting this article clarifying the regalia for the new order.
Many questions have arisen regarding the regalia of the forthcoming Order of Defense. Lord Yehuda ben Moshe, Elmet Herald (East Kingdom Education Deputy) answers some of the most common questions
Q: What, exactly, is the regalia of the new Order?
A: A white livery collar.
Q: Where does it say that?
Q: What, exactly, is a livery collar? Is it the same as a collar of estate?
A: “Livery collar”, “collar of estate”, “chain of estate”, “chain of office” all seem to be fairly synonymous. There is a wide variety of forms found in period, though most seem to fall into two categories – a leather or fabric strap with fittings and mounts, or a metal “chain” made up of plaques, “S” shapes, or other elements. A variety of period livery collars can be seen here and here.
Q: So which of those is reserved to the Order of Defense?
A: No particular form is specified. The relevant text from the decision:
In acknowledgement of the diverse forms and ornamentation that livery collars may possess, we decline to specify a type for the Order, just as we do not specify anything beyond a white belt for the Order of the Chivalry. In order to be considered regalia, the collar itself must be white.
Q: White? Heraldic white is the same as silver. Does that mean that all metal livery collars are now reserved for the Order of Defense?
A: No. While the heraldic term “argent” is used to specify both “white” and “silver”, that applies to armory, not regalia. The registration specifically states that only white-colored collars are reserved for the Order, not metal-colored ones. The relevant text from the decision:
Much like the superprotection of the white belt as regalia for the Order of Chivalry does not prevent the populace from wearing belts of other colors or metal, the superprotection of a white livery collar for the Order of Defense does not mean that members of the populace cannot wear livery collars of another color or metal livery collars, including those made of silver.
So just as a silver-colored belt isn’t reserved for knights, a silver or pewter colored collar isn’t reserved for Masters of Defense.
Q: What about a shirt with a white collar? Or an Elizabethan-style white ruff collar? Can I no longer wear these? Can I not have a white collar on my dog if I bring her to an event?
A: No. The regalia is only for livery collars, not any other kind of collar. Shirt collars, ruffs, dog-collars, etc. can all be white. Only white livery collars are protected.Copyright 2015 Juliean Galak. Permission is hereby expressly given to republish this article in its entirety in any non-commercial publication, as well as any publication of the SCA, Inc. or its subsidiaries, provided the article is not altered except as to formatting and this notice is retained.
Filed under: Fencing, Heraldry Tagged: order of defense, regalia
Medical researchers have long sought the origins of the sexually-transmitted disease syphilis, but most now believe that the pox was brought back by Christopher Columbus from one of his voyages to the New World. LiveScience recently published an Op-Ed from the Conversation.
COURT OF THEIR MAJESTIES EDWARD III AND THYRA II
The Court of our most excellent prince and lord, Edward, by right of arms most illustrious King of the East, third of that name, and Thyra, his Queen by agency of that same right, second of that name, held upon 28 March in the forty-ninth year of the Society in the Barony of the Settmour Swamp; on which day were called all and sundry the lords of the realm and the great persons of the kingdom to hear the following publicly proclaimed:
Item. Their Majesties thanked Vienna de la Mer for her service as Kingdom Chatelaine and gave her a token of the same, whereupon they dismissed the said Vienna and bade her take her rest.
Item. Their Majesties accepted the oath of Erhart von Stuttgart as the new Kingdom Chatelaine and gave him a token.
Item. Their Majesties summoned Rose Storie MacTherion before the assembled Court and thereupon awarded her Arms, the which deed was confirmed in a document created by Katherine Stanhope.
Item. Their Majesties then summoned Therion Sean Storie, father of the aforesaid Rose, and, praising his skills with the rapier, endowed him with the Order of the Silver Rapier, the which deed as memorialized in a document created by Isabel Chamberlaine.
Item. Their Majesties commanded Jenevieve Fiana Spillane to attend upon them and, recognizing her famed skill with the blade, inducted her into the Order of the Silver Rapier, the which deed was confirmed with a document created by Katrusha Skomorokh.
Item. Their Majesties summoned into the Court the good lady Isabel Chamberlain and ordered the said Isabel to sit vigil to answer the question whether she would join the Order of the Laurel.
Item. Their Majesties caused Tiberius Nautius Maximus to be brought before the Court, whereupon, in recognition of his might upon the field of battle, inducted him into the Order of the Tygers Combattant, the which deed was confirmed with a document created by Vettorio Antonello.
Item. Their Majesties commanded Ivan Ivanov syn Dmitriev to be sent to sit vigil to answer the question whether he would join the Order of the Chivalry.
Whereupon the Court was adjourned until later in the afternoon.
Item. Their Majesties caused Benjamin Black to be brought before them, whereupon, in acknowledgement of the diverse good labors of the said Benjamin, inducted him into the Order of the Silver Crescent, the which deed was confirmed in a document created by Rhonwen Glyn Conwy.
Whereupon the Court was adjourned until later in the afternoon.
Item. Their Majesties welcomed as guests in their Court their Graces Dionysus and Persephone of the Holy Kingdom of Acre.
Item. Their Majesties announced that they and their Heirs signed the Golden Lance Treaty, establishing the Order of the Golden Lance of the East as an Order of High Merit for equestrian activities.
Item. Their Majesties decreed that, for the duration of their reign and that of their Heirs, the Order of Defence shall be excused from the verbal polling requirement of Section IX.E.2 of East Kingdom Law, requiring 20 members of an Order to be present in person for a verbal poll to be valid.
Item. Their Majesties recognized the children who had participated in the Children’s Service Initiative.
Item. Their Majesties summoned before the Court the good lad Brendan of Silver Rylle and endowed the said Brendan with the Order of the Tyger’s Cub, the which deed was confirmed with a document calligraphed by Jonathan Blaecstan and illuminated by Ellesbeth Donofrey.
Item. Their Majesties gave tokens of welcome to newcomers to the Society.
Item. Her Majesty announced the creation of inspiration tokens, to be distributed among the populace and shared with gentlefolk who inspire others.
Item. Their Majesties summoned Jenna Childersley, called Childslayer, before the Tyger Thrones and, praising her display of a pottery wheel in Artisans’ Row, endowed her with the Award of the Golden Lyre.
Item. Their Majesties announced the banishment from the realm of Nicholas Condon.
Item. The Guild of Athena’s Thimble made a gift of white-work embroidery to Her Majesty.
Item. Their Majesties bade Briony of Chatham, guild mistress of Athena’s Thimble, to tarry before the Court, whereupon they invested the said Briony with the Order of the Silver Crescent in recognition of her many labors, the which deed was confirmed in a document calligraphed by Jonathan Blaecstan and illuminated by Kis Maria.
Item. Their Majesties called Ulf Jageren to stand before them and awarded him Arms, the which deed was confirmed in a document calligraphed by Nest verch Tangwistel and illuminated by Lillian atte Valleye.
Item. Their Majesties summoned into the Court the good Rosie O’Connel, whereupon they awarded her Arms, the which deed was confirmed in a document created by Henna Sinclair.
Item. Their Majesties bade Orlando Sforza to attend upon them and, giving praise to the said Orlando’s research in matters of rapier and swordsmanship, inducted the said Orlando into the Order of the Maunche, the which deed was confirmed in a document created by Elsa de Lyon.
Item. Lady Angelina Capasso presented gifts to Their Majesties and Their Highnesses from the Stronghold of Warrior’s Gate, in the Kingdom of the West.
Item. Her Majesty endowed Juliana le Chaluner with the Queen’s Award of Esteem for her sundry and diverse labors for the good of the realm.
Item. Their Majesties called into the Court the notable lady Rhode Kephalaina and thereupon invested her with the Award of the Burdened Tyger for her stewardship of Dragonship Haven’s Baronial Investiture, the which deed was confirmed in a document created by Nest verch Tangwistel.
Item. Their Majesties summoned Aaron the Arrowsmith to attend upon them and duly created the said Aaron a Baron of the Court with a Grant of Arms, the which deed was memorialized in a document created by Kayleigh Mac Whyte.
Item. Their Majesties commanded Isabel Chamberlaine to appear before them and answer the question whether she would join the Order of the Laurel; and hearing the said Isabel’s answer and the testimony of goodly and noble persons of the Realm they invested the said Isabel as a Peer of the Realm with Arms by Letters Patent, the which deed was confirmed with noble gifts and a document authored by Angus Pembridge, calligraphed by Eva Woderose and illuminated by Ro Honig von Summerfeldt.
Item. Their Majesties ordered Rupert the Unbalanced and Diana the Wanderer to attend upon them, whereupon they invested the said Diana and the said Rupert as Baron and Baroness of the Court, and caused the same to be confirmed with a document created by Leonete d’Angely and a gift of stained glass created by Conor O Ceallaigh, Lada Monguligin and Ryan Mac Whyte.
Item. Their Majesties awarded Arms to Kára Grímsdóttir, as confirmed by a document authored by Alys Mackyntoich and calligraphed and illuminated by Heather Rose de Gordoun.
Item. Their Majesties awarded Arms to Tathiel Aidanswife, as confirmed by a document authored by Alys Mackyntoich and calligraphed and illuminated by Chrestienne la pescheresse.
Item. Their Majesties commanded Ivan Ivanov syn Dmitriev to appear before the Court and answer the question whether he would join the Order of the Chivalry; and the said Ivan answering that he would accept the belt, spurs and chain of a Knight; and the Court hearing testimony concerning the good worth of the said Ivan from honored and noble persons; Their Majesties created the said Ivan a Peer of the Realm with Arms by Letters Patent, as confirmed in a document created by Nest verch Tangwistel.
Item. Their Majesties thanked the musicians playing for the Court and the day’s festivities.
I, Alys Mackyntoich, Eastern Crown Herald, wrote this to memorialize and make certain all such things that were done and caused to be done as above stated.
Filed under: Court Tagged: court report, mudthaw
The East Kingdom University, to be held in the Barony of Endewearde this coming Saturday, April 11th, is pleased to announce that its full class listing and schedule is now available on the event website! We welcome you to come and partake in a multitude of classes throughout the day on topics covering the arts, service, marshal activities, and more!
Filed under: Events Tagged: classes, EKU, schedule
Both tombs were built on two levels: a top one on the surface made of mud brick, and a burial chamber below cut out of the white limestone bedrock. The burial chambers were both deep under the ground. The first tomb discovered belonged to a high priest named Ankh Ti and his burial chamber was 12 meters (40 feet) deep. The second tomb belonged to a priest named Sabi whose burial chamber was six meters (20 feet) deep.
The paintings decorate the walls of the limestone burial chambers and they are in excellent condition, their colors still bright more than 4,000 years after they were painted. Ankh Ti’s burial chamber paintings depict scenes of offerings to the gods including seven large jars used to contain the seven sacred oils necessary for the Opening of the Mouth ritual which made it possible for the deceased to eat and drink in the afterlife. On the left wall there is a lists of names of offerings and the quantity offered in a handsomely organized graph. (Old Kingdom Egyptians had spreadsheets down pat for at least three centuries by the time these tombs were built.) Next to the list is a false door with depictions of offerings including meat, birds, bread, vegetables, roses, milk and beer. Other scenes show incense balls, copper burning incense, head rests and the necklaces worn by priests during the performance of these rituals. Sabi’s tomb has similar paintings of the offerings and the list.
Human remains were found inside both burial chambers, but they were scattered about and there were no sarcophagi, the result of looting in antiquity, probably in the waning days of the Old Kingdom during the 7th or 8th Dynasty. The tombs weren’t completely emptied of artifacts by the thieves. Archaeologists found some funerary tools, alabaster jars, pottery and some colored limestone offering models.
The paintings and artifacts indicate Ankh Ti and Sabi were involved in mummification and funerary rituals as part of their priestly duties. The decoration of their tombs and the accessories buried with them were chosen to reflect the work they did in life.