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Wicked copper-headed barbed arrow found in melting ice

History Blog - Sun, 2018-01-14 23:30

A wicked looking copper arrowhead still masterfully attached to a barbed antler shaft discovered in a melting patch of ice in Yukon, Canada’s northwestern most province, in 2016 has been found to be almost 1,000 years old making it one of the earliest copper artifacts ever found in the Territory.

The credit for this discovery goes to a herd of caribou, because even though the arrowhead was found by an archaeologist, he wasn’t at the site to excavate or search for ancient artifacts. Archeologist Greg Hare was flying over the area in a helicopter accompanied by a film crew that was shooting a documentary. He was pointing out some of the sites where he and his colleagues have discovered First Nations hunting weapons when they saw the caribou. The documentarians wanted to get a clean shot of the majestic ruminants so Hare’s helicopter landed to allow the filmmakers in the second copter to get a clean shot.

The rocky hillside where they landed was topped with a rapidly vanishing layer of half-melted ice and under normal circumstances they would never have stopped there given the precariousness of the melting ice on the surface. While they were waiting, the team spotted a barb sticking out of a barely-there thin layer of ice. They pulled it out gingerly and found a copper blade attached to the barb.

“This is one of the oldest copper elements that we ever found in the Yukon,” Hare said.

For thousands of years, caribou took refuge in the summer up high on the alpine ice patches to escape the heat and swarms of harassing insects. That made those ice patches good areas for ancient hunters to get close to the caribou.

Some weapons would miss their marks and disappear in the snow and ice, over time building a treasure trove of artifacts now revealed by the melting ice. Archaeologists have found ancient hunting tools made of wood, antler bone, and now copper.

“The significant part of the story is that [the arrowhead] is so old, and it is such a beautiful expression of copper metallurgy,” Hare said. “Copper only first shows up in the Yukon about a thousand years ago and this is almost at the beginning of that technology.”

The arrowhead was radiocarbon dated to 936 years ago. Bows and arrows only began to be used by First Nation hunters about 1,100 years ago, so this really is an incredibly early example of copper metallurgy in the area. For thousands of years before then the weapons of choice were atlatli, throwing darts launched by striking them with a paddle. It was a technology that was employed by indigenous peoples in Yukon for almost 7,000 years before it was abandoned in favor of the bow and arrow.

The copper in the arrowhead is incredibly pure at 99.9 percent, and it is of local extraction. The nugget from which it was made was recovered in the metal-rich creeks of the southwest Yukon. The quality of workmanship is exceptional and the hunter who missed his target doubtless would have searched for it in the snow and ice-covered terrain for days, even weeks, after it was lost.

The random good luck that put Hare and his team down on that hillside to recover such a rare and important transitional in the evolution of indigenous hunting weaponry would have passed them (and us) by if the timing had been only slightly off. Two weeks after the discovery, Hare returned to the site to explore it further and all the ice had melted leaving nothing behind to find besides lumps of still-frozen caribou dung. If there was anything there, it was carried away by the runoff into the rocks or down the hill.

Look at the condition of this arrowhead. It is a spectacular piece of work and we are very fortunate the right people were in the right place at the right time to rescue it in such pristine condition just as it emerged from the melt.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Polling Recommendation Deadline Extended to Monday Night

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2018-01-14 23:13

Caoilfhionn Princepissa and Brennan Princeps wish it to be known that the deadline for award recommendations for their first polling has been extended a day.  Please ensure that recommendations are in by the end of the day Monday, January 15th.

Please remember that you need not be a member of any order to recommend someone you consider deserving.  If you know someone you feel strongly about, there is an easy online form you can fill out to submit them for consideration.

Many questions about the awards process can be answered through this great article by Her Grace, Duchess Avelina: How the Awards Process Works

C3R Got A Facelift

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sun, 2018-01-14 21:22

By Lord Eldjarn the Thoughtful, C3R Autocrat 2018

Thescorre’s College of Three Ravens has gotten a facelift for 2018! The Barony’s staple schola event (over 30 years old, formerly UWEKAT and UAKAT) will be held at a new location next month: St. Paul’s Lutheran School in Hilton, NY, just half an hour from downtown Rochester. The site includes a gymnasium for fencing and heavy weapons classes and sparring.

February 24th will see more classes and activities than the event has had in years. Classes on many topics will be filling the nine classrooms and dedicated scriptorium from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. (See current class list below.)

Sinks, Gym, and No Stairs!

The school just completed renovations this past summer and now all classrooms have ceiling-mounted projection systems. There is also a sink in each room. Previously, there were two larger classrooms. The renovations saw one room permanently split, resulting in an extra room which gives us private space for holding a third vigil. The remaining larger classroom will be dedicated to dance or other subjects requiring a little extra floor space.

What does the new facility lack? Stairs!!

The gym, a respectable-sized main hall, classrooms, scriptorium, and three vigil rooms are all on one level for complete ease of access. The Royalty room is even conveniently placed across the hall from the scribal room.

The school includes three sets of restrooms spaced throughout the T-shaped site, with two sets offering diaper changing stations. The third set alongside the gym is adjacent to a pair of small, locker/changing rooms equipped with two adult-height shower stalls each. One shower in each Lords’ & Ladies’ conveniently has a fold-down shower seat and wand shower head.

Off-street parking is extensive, boasting four separate parking lots totaling approximately 200+ spaces. SCA attendees will be using the larger west lot that fits 98 cars, as well as two other parking areas reserved for the convenience of event staff, vigil coordinators, and Royalty. That still leave us with some overflow in the more distant areas of the parishioners lot, should it be absolutely necessary.

The main hall features 18 tables of eight, and its own exterior entrance apart from the one leading directly into the adjoining kitchen. Our lunch and feast cooks, Lady Ragna Feilan and Lady Lasairfhiona inghean Aindriasa, have been raving about the kitchen space just from seeing photos and are eager to fill many bellies with their delicious-sounding planned meals.

Outside the main hall are large windows letting in sunlight near benches where gentles may sit and chat. There is even room for several merchants should anyone wish to set up a table to display their wares. There are one or two already signed up; contact the Autocrat if interested.

Unfortunately for us, the church holds a small Saturday service in their 400-seat nave/chancel, which conflicts with our traditional Court time. However, the spacious gym with its movable bleachers will be ample room for our pageantry! The gym is also at the opposite end of the site, so SCAdians and parishioners will not disrupt each other. I’ve no idea what spectacle may be planned for the elevation of Gillian Llwelyn to the Laurel and elevations of Nest Verch Rys and Rioghnach ní Rose to the Pelican, but such will doubtless be a delight to witness.

A well-attended C3R calligraphy class taught by Mistress Matilda in 2015.

It would be neglectful of me to fail to mention the sprawling outdoor athletic fields, though snow-covered in February, are capable of simultaneously accommodating all martial activities including target archery at future events in warmer seasons.

The site administrators have been exceedingly friendly and interested in our medieval activities. Let us hope we can build a mutually respectful relationship with the school and continue to have access to the site for years to come!

Please consider braving the wintry temperatures and roads to come make this College of Three Ravens an extraordinarily enjoyable day of learning, socializing, eating, and plain chivalrous fun.

Current Class List
  • Gilding for Novices– Abigail Kelhoge
  • Blackwork, Beyond the Basics– Moniczka Poznanska
  • Beginning Embroidery– Moniczka Poznanska
  • Do They Get This at the Thingvallir?- Humor in the Sagas– Baron Fridrikr Tomasson
  • Með jákvæði hennar sjálfrar: Change in Icelandic Marriage Law as reflected in Njals Saga and Laxdæla Saga– Baron Fridrikr Tomasson
  • Whitework 101: It’s Not as Scary as You Think– Felice de Thornton
  • Chainmaille for Beginners– Amalie Reinhardt
  • Symbolism of Flowers in Squashed Bug Manuscripts– Eleanore Godwin
  • Belly Dance– Kathlin Ulfsdottir, known as Hadia
  • Left-Handed Calligraphy Class– Padraig O’Branduibh
  • Essential Oils in the Middle Ages– Baroness Rosemund von Glinde
  • Spoon Carving– Iohn Spooner
  • Yonec & Caerwent– Thomas of Petersham
  • Syrup of Lemon- Baron Caleb Reynolds
  • Emergency Preparedness for the Kitchen, or What to do When it All Goes Wrong– Andrew of Thescorre
  • Easy Ottoman Turkish Garb-Baroness Katja Davidova Orlova Khazarina
  • The Amazing T-Tunic– Genevote Nau d’Anjou
  • Basic Beginner Brocading– Hrolfr a Fjarfelli
  • The Single Heraldic Supporter, Décor, and Design– Baron Rhiannon Elandris of Glyndrvdwy
  • The Truth about Boleyn Green– Renata Rouge
  • On Being a Chatelaine– THL Maeve Ni Siurtain
  • Beginning Dance for Children– THL Maeve Ni Siurtain
  • Beginning Dance– THL Maeve Ni Siurtain
  • Making a Personal Body Block for Custom Patterns– Abigail Kelhoge
  • Cut and thrust road show, part 1, 2, and 3– Raev Halle
  • Winning Documentation for Scribal Entries– Mistress Alicia Langland
  • Kokki-fukurei: How Not to Embarrass Yourself in Medieval Japan– Sǫlveig Þrándardóttir
  • Sweet Scents: Making scented hand waters and perfumes– Mistress Francesca della Rovere and Lady Elisabeta da Venezia
  • Happy Feasting! or How to get the most from your feast experience– Baroness Sadira bint Wassouf
  • Strength, Flexibility and Balance: the 3 pillars of injury prevention– Irene von Schmetterling
  • Modern Tricks and Old tactics in Fencing– THL Gytha Oggsdottir
  • Talking with Your Hands– THL Gytha Oggsdottir
  • Putting “authenticity” in Re-created Clothing: The art of conspicuous consumption in the 15th and 16th centuries– Maistresse Marguerite d’Honfleur

The class list is still growing, but slots are filling fast. Contact Lady Nicole du Marais  about teaching!

A schedule should be posted within a few weeks.

Rather than having a couple of marshals working all day, it is our hope to have numerous warranted marshals help for just an hour or two each, thus enabling everyone to participate in classes or fighting as they wish. If you are able to volunteer, please contact Sir Dominic McMorland (Micah Nelson) to assist with fighting or Baron Eric De LaBarre (Eric France) to assist with fencing.

Lunch and Feast Menus (subject to change)

Lunch, inspired by Nordic sources:

  • Viking barley cakes made fresh & hot to order
  • Hard-boiled eggs
  • Stuffed olives
  • Fresh raw vegetables
  • Bread with butters and/or soft cheese
  • Meat pasties (will be chicken or pork, some veg and gluten-free will be available to those who ask)
  • Lentil soup
  • Meat soup (likely lamb)
  • Hazelnut treats
  • Apples or other fresh fruit
  • Hot and cold beverage

Dinner, inspired by 16th century French:

  • Bread & butters
  • Fresh grapes or other fruit
  • Green salad
  • Stuffed eggs
  • Rabbit pate
  • Grape juice or other beverage
  • Chicken bread pudding/strata (roast parts on side for GF)
  • Squash soup
  • Herbed peas
  • Roast beef with sauces on side
  • Cheese gnocchi (plain rice available for GF)
  • Turnips with bacon
  • Crepes with fruit and sauces
  • Orange cheesecake
  • Applesauce

Visit the event Facebook group for latest class lists, other updates, or pre-registration info.

Categories: SCA news sites

Michigan State to create vast slave trade database

History Blog - Sat, 2018-01-13 23:04

Funded by a grant of $1.47 million from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Michigan State University will create a massive database that brings together scattered information about enslaved people as a priceless research hub for scholars and the public alike. The project, entitled Enslaved: The People of the Historic Slave Trade, will be one-stop-shop for people seeking slave data for academic, genealogical and personal interest purposes. They will be able to search for specific individuals, create charts, map routes and analyze demographic data.

MSU has long been at the forefront of African studies — US News and World Report ranked its African history graduate program the best in the country — and they are eminently equipped to combine scholarship with digital resources that students, researchers and anybody else who wants to delve deeper into the subject can use. This is the raison d’etre of MSU’s Matrix: The Center for Digital Humanities and Social Sciences which will be one of the databases linked together with other world-class databases to create the Enslaved tool.

“‘Enslaved’ brings new digital tools and analytical approaches to the study of African slavery and the Atlantic slave trade,” said project co-investigator Walter Hawthorne, professor and chair of MSU’s Department of History. “By linking data compiled by some of the world’s foremost historians, it will allow scholars and the public to learn about individuals’ lives and to draw new, broad conclusions about processes that had an indelible impact on the world.” […]

The partner projects in phase one are “African Origins and Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database” led by David Eltis, professor emeritus, Emory University, and Paul Lachance; “The Slave Societies Digital Archive” led by Jane Landers, Vanderbilt University; “Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography” and “Dictionary of African Biography and African American National Biography” led by Henry Louis Gates Jr., Steven Niven and Abby Wolf, Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University; “Freedom Narratives” led by Paul Lovejoy, York University; “Legacies of British Slave-Ownership” led by Keith McClelland, University College, London; and “The Liberated Africans Project” led by Henry Lovejoy, University of Colorado Boulder; and “Slave Biographies” led by Daryle Williams, University of Maryland.

The first phase of the project is expected to about 18 months. The goal is develop a functional framework that proves that it’s even possible to link the eight online collections in the initial pilot into one searchable, cross-navigable, publicly accessible database. After that’s done, they can get down to the real nuts and bolts of getting so many moving parts to work together in harmony. It’s going to be a while, but the results could be groundbreaking. Dean Rehberger, director of Matrix and one the leaders of the project:

“In bringing together data from a number of highly successful projects, we have the opportunity from many small threads of data to weave together lives of enslaved individuals once thought lost to history.”

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Duke Kenric Missing, Presumed Lost

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2018-01-13 18:27

With heavy hearts, we are forwarding this from our sister East Kingdom Gazette:

“On the afternoon of Friday January 12, Duke Kenric disappeared while kayaking off the coast of his hometown in Rhode Island. An extensive search was conducted by local law enforcement and the Coast Guard. At noon today, the authorities changed the nature of the search from one of rescue to one of recovery. This generally means that they no longer have an expectation of finding him alive.”

The entire article, including links to a GoFundMe campaign for his wife, can be found here.

Our hearts go out to his family and friends.

Categories: SCA news sites

Duke Kenric Missing, Presumed Lost/Disparition de Duc Kenric

East Kingdom Gazette - Sat, 2018-01-13 17:31

En français

On the afternoon of Friday January 12, Duke Kenric disappeared while kayaking off the coast of his hometown in Rhode Island. An extensive search was conducted by local law enforcement and the Coast Guard. At noon today, the authorities changed the nature of the search from one of rescue to one of recovery. This generally means that they no longer have an expectation of finding him alive.

Duke Kenric is a pillar of our community and it is understandable that many in the East will want to share their memories of Kenric with others. Comments are open on this post in order to provide a space for these. A GoFundMe campaign has been established for those who want to provide financial support to Duchess Avelina and their daughter during this difficult time.

En français

Au courant de l’après-midi du vendredi 12 janvier, duc Kenric a été porté disparu lors d’une excursion en kayak sur les côtes du Rhode Island. Des recherches exhaustives ont été entreprises par la garde-côtes et les autorités locales. Aujourd’hui sur le midi, ces dernières ont changé la nature de ces recherches, les faisant passer de sauvetage à récupération. Il peut être inféré qu’ils n’ont plus d’attentes à le retrouver sain et sauf.

Duc Kenric est un pilier de notre communauté. Il est donc compréhensible que plusieurs dans le royaume de l’Est voudront partager leurs mémoires de ce dernier. À cet effet, les commentaires sont ouverts sur cette publication. Une campagne GoFundMe a été levée pour ceux qui voudraient, en ces temps difficiles, offrir un support financier à duchesse Avelina et leur fille.

Traduction par Sir Pellandres

Scarlet Apron III Competition Planned for AE War Practice

AEthelmearc Gazette - Fri, 2018-01-12 23:15

Lady Elska, winner of the first Scarlet Apron competition, with its organizer, Edelvrouw Lijsbet de Keukere. Photo by Lady Àine ny Allane.

Good Gentles! War Practice is almost here!

…… Okay, maybe not *almost,* but it is close enough to start thinking about the Scarlet Apron Cooking Competition! The challenge for 2018 will require a bit more time to prepare, so we wanted to make our announcement early. We hope you will join us!

The next Scarlet Apron will be held on Saturday, May 19, 2018, at Æthelmearc War Practice.

Your challenge: Period Food Preservation! Those wishing to compete should plan on presenting a medieval food item that has been preserved using techniques outlined or described in SCA-appropriate food and cooking resources. We’re looking for food that has been pickled, brined, cured, dried, candied, en confit, or fermented — if it was made to last, we want to see it on the entry table! (Please keep in mind – documentation is required for this challenge!)

Contestants should plan to have a portion of their medieval preserves available to be sampled by the judges and populace, as well as some to remain untouched to be left on display for presentation purposes.

More information will be provided as arrangements are made. In the meantime, please send any questions to Edelvrouw Lijsbet de Keukere (Facebook Messenger is preferred – Keirin Lazauskas-Ralff).

Categories: SCA news sites

Precise date of Porta Nigra in Trier identified

History Blog - Fri, 2018-01-12 22:32

Archaeologists have discovered the precise date of the Porta Nigra, the majestic Roman gate in the ancient city walls of Trier that is the largest ancient city gate north of the Alps. Researchers have determined conclusively that the Porta Nigra was built in 170 A.D. Up until now it was only possible to estimate a date range, a fairly broad one at that of between 150 and 320 A.D. Later modifications obscured the original structure, and while there are date markers on some of the sandstone blocks in the western tower, they are incomplete.

Its massive size also suggested that it was built at least in part to fend off regular attacks from Germanic tribes during the turbulent 3rd century like other large, highly fortified gates from the period. The city walls of Trier (Colonia Augusta Treverorum) were built during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180 A.D.) which was relatively peaceful. The battles Marcus Aurelius fought against Germanic tribes were east of the Danube. Trier was way west of the hot zone. There wouldn’t have been an obvious need at that point to build a gate with such extensive defensive features. The need, it turns out, was probably the sort of motivation that often underpins monumental construction: to convey the power and prestige of the city.

It was trees that made this discovery possible, trees, water and the science of dendrochronology (tree ring analysis). In the fall of 2017, archaeologists seeking to answer the question of when the gate was built dug a deep cylindrical shaft at a site adjacent to the Porta Nigra where the ancient walls (demolished by shortsighted wretches after the unification of Germany in 1871) once stood. The site was carefully chosen because the Mosel River flowed through it in Roman times. The team hoped the waterlogged substrate might have preserved timbers used in construction of the gate.

At first they came up empty. Then to their jubilation they found two planks and a round piling, but it was a very tempered, serious archaeologically skeptical jubilation because not every piece of wood can be tree-ring dated. In fact it seemed their worry was well justified. The wood looked good from the outside, but were so soft that couldn’t even take the necessary samples. Freezing the pieces helped, making it possible to take a cross-section and get some partial information, but you need more that a piece of a tree to calculate the exact year it was felled. The dendrochronological gods were on their side, however, and the scientists found a small piece of park on one of the timbers that completed the annual tree ring record.

“This is a milestone in the history of the city of Trier,” said the director of Trier’s Rheinisches Landesmuseum, as the results of the findings were made public on Friday. […]

The fact that the ancient oak wood that was found could be dated to the winter of 169/170 AD was a “stroke of luck,” said Mechthild Neyses-Eiden, an expert in dendrochronology — the science of three-ring dating — who led the research at the Trier museum. At the time, wood was used for construction immediately after being felled, she explained.

Trier was founded by Augustus Caesar in 16 B.C., but very little is known about the first couple of centuries of its existence. (The orgy of destruction after unification didn’t help.) Finally getting a firm date for the Porta Nigra, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an iconic symbol of the city, helps sharpen an otherwise very hazy picture.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Penn Museum training loot-detecting dogs

History Blog - Thu, 2018-01-11 23:09

The Penn Museum is deploying one of nature’s highest precision weapons, the canine olfactory sense, in the fight against artifact looting. The museum, the Penn Vet Working Dog Center and the nonprofit Red Arch Cultural Heritage Law and Policy Research are working together on a project that will train dogs to detect and protect smuggled artifacts.

No longer a matter of local desperadoes trying to make a quick buck, artifact smuggling is big business now, generating an estimated four to six billion a year in blood-drenched profits for the criminal and terrorist organizations.

“[K-9 Artifact Finders is] an innovative way to disrupt the market in illicit antiquities, and that’s really what needs to happen to slow down the pace of looting and theft in conflict zones,” consulting scholar for the Penn Museum and 2000 Penn doctoral graduate Michael Danti said. “Currently, art crime, that means fine arts, antiques, antiquities, is usually ranked as the fourth or fifth largest grossing dollar criminal activity in the world on an annual basis.”

Danti said terrorist organizations often use stolen cultural artifacts to fund their operations, deliberately destroying them and using them for propaganda and “click-bait.” He added that high-profile groups like the Islamic State have continuously done this, setting a precedent for other similar organizations to employ the same techniques.

The K-9 Artifact Finders program is still in the initial setup phase at this point. The plan is divided into three parts, much like Caesar did to Gaul. To narrow down the almost impossibly broad range of smells associated with cultural heritage objects, trainers will focus on the Fertile Crescent which has been devastated by war, instability and increasingly professional organized criminals that treat the area’s immense cultural patrimony like their personal piggy bank. Penn Museum’s world-class collection of Mesopotamian artifacts will be invaluable in this pursuit.

Four dogs from the Working Dog Center’s, carefully selected for their noses and temperament, will learn to distinguish between up to three types of newly excavated objects. Once the dogs have completed the scent imprinting and recognize what they’re supposed to look for, the trainers will teach them to distinguish between different subsets of odor.

[Penn Vet professor Cynthia] Otto said there is a special procedure to introduce the smell of artifacts to dogs without compromising the artifacts.

“Our main training approach will be to use cotton balls and let the artifacts and cotton sit together in a closed non-permeable bag. That way the odor from the artifacts is absorbed by the cotton and we don’t have to risk damage to the artifacts,” Otto said. “We will also train the dogs to ignore the odor of the plain cotton and other things that might be similar but not the actual artifact.”

The second phase will be on-the-ground testing and the third a demonstration program that would give customs officers the tools to train their own K-9 units to find smuggled artifacts. Phases II and III don’t have all the funding they need yet. To make a tax deductible donation to help get the program from theory to practice, click here.

There are a lot of unknowns about this ground-breaking idea, like whether it’s even possible for dogs to distinguish between artifacts and things that smell like them due to a shared environment or what have you. I bet it is. One should never underestimate the power of the canine nose, and the anti-looter squad wouldn’t be the first dogs used in aid of archaeologists. Migaloo, a very good girl from Brisbane, Australia, was trained to detect human remains of archaeological age. Cadaver dogs have been around a long time, but Migaloo was the first to have the nose and the training to detect ossified remains, not decaying flesh. She found 600-year-old skeletal remains buried eight feet underground during one her tests.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Interview: Authorizations Clerk Mistress Maria Christina de Cordoba

AEthelmearc Gazette - Thu, 2018-01-11 20:41

Mistress Maria Christina de Cordoba, Kingdom Authorizations Clerk

As of Kingdom Twelfth Night, Æthelmearc has a new Authorizations Clerk: Mistress Maria Christina de Cordoba, who is returning to the office after having previously served as Kingdom Minister of the Lists and then taking a break of a few years. Mistress Tiercelin recently asked her some questions.

Please tell us a little about yourself.

I join the SCA over 25 years ago in a small group (Shire of Riversmeet) in Charleston, WV. I have held several office since then, but my passion is working with the fighting community.

What’s the most important thing people should know about their authorization card?

The authorization card allows you to participate in combat activities within the SCA.

How much lead time should people give to get one when they send in the paperwork?

The form states 60 days, my aim is 10 business from the day I receive the completed form. However, it may take longer during peak times of the year.

Would you like stamps?

Yes please, it is not required but would be greatly appreciated.

Mistress Maria Christina can be reached at: ae.authorization@aethelmearc.org, or Donna M Parsons, PO Box 794, Saint Albans, WV 25177.

Categories: SCA news sites

First book remains found in Blackbeard’s ship

History Blog - Wed, 2018-01-10 23:15

Conservators at the Queen Anne’s Revenge Conservation Lab in Greenville, North Carolina, have discovered something they never expected to find on a shipwreck: paper, wadded up into a plug and stuffed down the barrel of a breech-loaded cannon, one that would have been fired by men under the command of infamous English pirate Edward Teach, aka Blackbeard. The Queen Anne’s Revenge was the flagship of his fleet. It ran aground in the treacherous waters of the Inner Banks of North Carolina in 1718 and was discovered in 1997.

The North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources (NCDCR) conservation team have been cleaning, conserving and documenting artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge shipwreck site off the coast of Beaufort Inlet since 2006, and committed to full recovery of all the archaeological materials in 2014. We’re talking hundreds of thousands of objects, 280,000 of them recovered before the decision was made to leave no Blackbeardiana behind. It was during the course of this ambitious project that the paper was found in the cannon.

These fragments survived 300 years on the coastal seabed of North Carolina because they were protected by being balled up tight in a confined space. The wadding and cannon coffin kept them from dissolving into nothingness. In that context, the waterlogging was the key to its preservation rather than a means of destruction.

That’s not to say that the paper was in tip-top shape and could be read like a Kindle. The QAR Lab’s artifact conservators teamed up with paper conservation experts, art conservators and scientists to do examine the mass. Upon closer examination, conservators found that the plug of sodden paper were all that was left of a book, tiny fragments of pages at the most the size of a quarter. Still, there was faint text still legible on some of the fragments.

With such small snippets to work with, researchers had to spend months investigating the source of the pages. They were finally able to identify it as the 1712 first edition of A Voyage to the South Sea, and Round the World by Captain Edward Cooke.

As the prolix full title indicates, the book documents Captain Cooke’s voyages undertaken in 1708, 1709, 1710 and 1711. It’s a journal of routes, weather patterns, notable events, an atlas with current maps of coastlines, details on native flora and fauna and histories of the countries and their residents. The notable events have something of a recurring theme: the taking of “prizes,” meaning the overt and unrepentant assaults on Spanish treasure galleons along the Manilla route. Cooke talks about it constantly, which ships they took, when and where. It’s really something of pirate’s manual to despoiling Spanish shipping, truth be told, complete with essential navigation details of relatively fresh date. I can see why Blackbeard’s crew would be into it. The feeling would not have been mutual.

Cooke’s book was a “voyage narrative” describing his adventures on an expedition made by two ships, Duke and Dutchess, which sailed from Bristol, England in 1708. The expedition leader was Captain Woodes Rogers, who also published an account of the expedition, and who was later sent in 1718 as Royal Governor to rid the Bahamas of pirates.

Voyage narratives were popular literature in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, inspiring new voyages both real and fictional. Both Cooke’s and Rogers’ works describe the rescue of Alexander Selkirk from an island on which he had been marooned for four years. Selkirk’s story became the inspiration for Daniel Defoe’s 1719 novel, “Robinson Crusoe.” Although books like these voyage narratives would have been relatively common on ships of the early 18th century, archaeological evidence for them is exceedingly rare, and this find represents a glimpse into the reading habits of a pirate crew.

This unique find from the wreckage of Queen Anne’s Revenge provides archaeological evidence for books carried on ships in the early 18th century, and adds to our knowledge of the history of Blackbeard’s flagship and those who sailed her. The historical record has several references to books aboard vessels in Blackbeard’s fleet, but provides no specific titles; this find is the first archaeological evidence for their presence on QAR.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Known World Heralds & Scribes in Æthelmearc!

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2018-01-10 20:40

Greetings from Baron Alaric, Event Steward for the 2018 Known World Heralds and Scribes!

A lot of behind-the-scenes work has been going on over the past couple of months and we’re thrilled to announce the following:

Teachers! Please visit our classes page to submit your class proposals.
Everyone! See the list of planned fun and interesting classes.

Would you like to contribute to our Heraldic and Scribal Library, or see what references others are bringing? Check out our library page.

Please visit our merchant page for instructions on contacting our Merchant Coordinator to reserve space.

Are you flying to the event?  See our transportation page to coordinate transportation with other attendees!

If you wish to contribute to the proceedings for the 2018 KWHSS Event, please see our proceedings page.

Hotel Information
For those driving to the event, our Hotel Information page now includes driving directions. This is also where you can make room reservations.

The Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands and the Shire of Sunderoak are looking forward to your visit to Æthelmearc this coming June!

The home page for the event is here.

We’ll post updates to the website over the coming months and announce them here.

Please feel free to share this announcement.

In Service,
Baron Alaric, OP, OL
Event Steward KWHS 2018

Categories: SCA news sites

Tournaments Illuminated Has a Quest: Site Favours I have Known

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2018-01-10 08:09

The Editors of TI have a quest theme for the Second Quarter issue: Site Favours I have Known, with guest editor Kirsten O’Brien / Rekon of Saaremaa. “Site tokens, site favours, event tokens, these items are known by many names across the Known Worlde. Over the years they’ve gone from sometime curiosities to occasional commemoratives to sought-after collectors’ items. From bits of ribbon to beads on string, from stamped clay tokens to struck coins, from paternosters to pewter trinkets, site favours continue to evolve to reflect the needs, desires and abilities of Society artisans, event organizers and attendees. Have you made them? Do you collect them? Share your favorites and the stories behind them. Send your anecdote to tieditor by February 7 and it may be included in the Second Quarter 2018 issue of Tournaments Illuminated. If you’d like to share a photo, please write for image specs.
Thank you,
Baniarla CiarLasse MacGregor, OP, Caid”

As always, contributions included in the TI will receive a gratis copy of the issue in which their contribution appears.
Also, please include a short Bio of yourself, SCA and real life, 50-100 words or so.
Submission of any work to TI constitutes permission to publish said work without compensation in any form, including but not limited to electronically on a publicly accessible webpage. The author retains all original copyrights to the submission.

Email Migration Update from the Webministry / Mise à jour sur la migration des courriels, provenant du Webmestre du Royaume

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2018-01-10 07:15

En français
Greetings again from the Webministry of the Kingdom of the East!

We made a big push to try and get half of the branches within the Kingdom migrated over to Google for Nonprofits before the end of the year. The schedule is locked in, and sadly we are going to miss that target by 2. However, we’re going to manage to have 5 1/2 Kingdom Offices moved over as well, and our original target by 12/31 was not to have started those yet at all. So out of 62 branches, 11 Kingdom Offices, 3 event sites, and 9 guilds, we will have moved 29 branches and 5.5 Kingdom Offices. (Yes, a previous post said 67 branches. We realized that 5 of them were inactive.)

Problem is, now we have nothing more to schedule. Every group at every level that has so far provided information on their Officers will be migrated by some time over night on New Year’s Eve (the last one of the year is scheduled for “right before I leave for a NYE party” and will run as the ball drops) and then we have no more to do.

If you’re a branch Seneschal, please look for an email from webminister@eastkingdom.org that was sent to your official email account asking for information on your Officers. It might have slipped in to your spam folder. The first would have been in mid-November. There have been others since.

If you’re a branch officer and you haven’t either been migrated to Google or gotten notices about your upcoming migration, if you could kindly poke your Seneschal about getting your information in to the Webministry so we can get you moved over. The new system is much easier to use than the old, gets far less spam, and is just generally better. You’ll be glad to be moved over, and it will bring us that much closer to the end of this massive project.

If you are a Kingdom Great Officer of State, please look for an email from webminister@eastkingdom.org and try to get us the information on all your people. We’d love to get all if the Offices moved as soon as possible, and some of them are large enough that scheduling is tricky. (The Earl Marshal’s team is probably going to take an entire weekend.)

If you hold a position with a Kingdom Department and haven’t been migrated or gotten messages about your upcoming migration, please reach out to your Kingdom Superior about what information they need to gather to send over to the Webministry.

As always, please direct any questions or concerns to gfnp@eastkingdom.org.

In Service,
Joel Messerer
East Kingdom Deputy Webminister for Services


En français

Salutations à nouveau de la part de l’office du Webmestre du Royaume de l’Est !

Nous avons donné un grand coup afin d’essayer de migrer la moitié des chapitres du Royaume sur Google pour les organismes sans but lucratif avant la fin de l’année. Notre planification est serrée, et malheureusement nous manquerons cet objectif par 2. Cependant, nous auront aussi réussi à migrer 5 offices du Royaume et demi, et notre objectif original du 31 décembre ne comprenait aucune migration de ce type. Donc, de 62 chapitres, 11 offices du Royaume, 3 sites d’événements et 9 guildes, nous avons déplacé 29 chapitres et 5,5 offices du Royaume. (Oui, un post précédent mentionnait 67 chapitres. Nous avons réalisé par la suite que 5 d’entres eux étaient inactifs.)

Le problème, est que maintenant nous n’avons rien de plus à planifier. Chaque groupe à chaque niveau ayant fourni les informations de leurs Officiers seront migrés à un moment quelconque de la veille du jour de l’an (le dernier de l’année étant planifié pour “juste avant que je quitte pour une veillée du nouvel an” et se produira en même temps que le décompte final) et ensuite, nous n’avons plus rien à faire.

Si vous êtes Sénéchal d’un chapitre, veuillez regarder pour un courriel provenant de webminister@eastkingdom.org qui a été envoyé sur votre compte courriel officiel, demandant de l’information sur vos Officiers. Il se pourrait qu’il se soit glissé dans votre boîte de courrier indésirable. Le premier devrait être autour de la mi-novembre. Il y en a eu plus depuis.

Si vous êtes un Officier d’un chapitre, et que vous n’avez pas encore été migré, ou que vous n’avez pas reçu de notices concernant votre migration prochaine, veuillez gentiment aviser votre Sénéchal d’envoyer vos informations au Webmestre pour que nous puissions effectuer votre migration. Le nouveau système est bien plus facile d’utilisation que l’ancien, reçoit moins de courrier indésirable, et est tout simplement généralement supérieur. Vous serez heureux d’avoir effectué la migration, et cela nous amènera encore plus près de la fin de ce gigantesque projet.

Si vous êtes un Grand Officier d’État, veuillez rechercher un courriel de la part de webminister@eastkingdom.org et essayer de nous fournir l’information concernant vos gens. Nous aimerions être en mesure de pouvoir migrer tous les Offices le plus tôt possible, et certains de ceux-ci sont assez gros pour rendre la planification ardue. (L’équipe du Earl Marshal prendra probablement une fin de semaine au complet.)

Si vous détenez une position avec un Département du Royaume et n’avez pas encore été migré ou n’avez reçu de messages au sujet de votre migration imminente, veuillez contacter votre Supérieur au niveau du Royaume avec l’information dont ils ont besoin pour envoyer au Webmestre.

Comme toujours, veuillez diriger toute question ou préoccupation à gfnp@eastkingdom.org.

En Service,
Joel Messerer
Député Webmestre pour les Services du Royaume de l’Est

2,500-year-old dragon bed pieced back together

History Blog - Tue, 2018-01-09 23:02

Dismantling, cleaning, conserving and coating the largest the expanse of medieval glass in the UK took a decade. Piecing together a single lacquer bed frame took almost two. The dragon bed was unearthed in 2000 from a tomb complex on Commercial Street in downtown Chengdu, capital of China’s southcentral Sichuan province, but it was not arranged for ease of interpretation. It was in pieces, various sections of it placed in multiple coffins. First the archaeologists had to locate every part — 45 in total, the largest more than 10 feet long, the smallest about eight inches long — and then they had to immediately conserve the water-logged wood to ensure it didn’t dry up, shrink, crack and suffer irremediable paint and lacquer loss.

For 10 years, from 2000 until 2010, the wood parts were kept underwater for their own protection. In 2010, the dehydration process began. The bed pieces were soaked in a combination of chemicals that replaced the water content with an air-stable waxy substance similar to the way PEG was used in the preservation of the Mary Rose. This stage took four years. Next was a very slow drying stage that according to national regulations must be carefully monitored to ensure there is no more than 5% shrinkage. The conservators at the Cultural Relics and Rehabilitation Center of the Chengdu Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology managed to keep the shrinkage rate even lower than that, 3%.

Once dried and stabilized, the bed was ready for reconstruction. The problem was that it was hard to even know where to start, like a thousand piece jigsaw without a map on the underside of the box lid. Then the ghosts of Shu spoke to the engineers and conservators through little engraved icons near each joint. They look like a child’s line drawing, not proportional or to scale, more like symbols on a Mahjong set, but each symbol near a mortise has a match near a tenon. Fit the joints with the matching symbols together and you have yourself a 2,500-year-old dragon bed.

All told, it has taken 17 years, but they finally accomplished it. The lacquer bed is one majestic piece again, 2.55 meters (8.37 feet) long, 1.3 meters (4.3 feet) wide and 1.8 meters (5.9 feet) high. Named after the cinnabar dragons that decorate its long sides, the bed is the largest, oldest ancient lacquer bed ever discovered in China, and it is exceptionally well-preserved, with all of its original mortise and tenon joints still in fine functioning order.

“Parts of the bed were scattered in a number of boat-shaped coffins at the time of the discovery, and it took archeologists and their staff 17 years to restore the bed to its original form to the best of their ability, using various techniques,” said Xiao Lin, who heads the restoration department of the institute.

“Based on its structure and patterns, the bed is very likely to have been used by an ancient king of Shu State, who ruled the region in the early Warring States period 2,500 years ago,” said Yan Jinsong, an archeologist who headed the excavation work of the tomb complex. “The signs that makers left on the bed are highly related to the language used in the Shu State, offering new and valuable clues to archeologists keen to decode the mysterious ancient language.”

According to later chroniclers (all of whom were keen to connect their emperors or rulers with mythical godlike power figures of the distance past), the Bronze Age Shu culture has legendary antecedents going back thousands of years. There isn’t any archaeological evidence connecting the Shu to, say, the “Yellow Emperor,” but there are remains of settlements and artifacts dating as early as 2,000 B.C. By the 5th century B.C., the Shu kings were firmly established and founded Chengdu as their new capital. It’s around this time that the dragon bed was made, like for one of the Shu kings or princes. They didn’t have long to enjoy it. The Shu kingdom was conquered by the state of Qin in 316 B.C. during the Warring States period and victorious Qin general Zhang Yi rebuilt Chengdu.

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History

Reprise: Post-Contest Comment Analysis of K&Qs A&S Champs Competition 2017

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2018-01-09 21:45

As this year’s King’s & Queen’s Arts & Sciences Championship approaches, the Gazette is please to remind folks that this article about last year’s competition has a good deal of information that may prove useful for this year’s entrants.

Post-Contest Comment Analysis of K&Qs A&S Champs Competition 2017

Unofficial Court Report from East Kingdom 12th Night

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2018-01-09 19:43

Tzar Ivan and Tzaritsa Mathilde at East Kingdom 12th Night AS 52. Photo by Baron Brendan Crane.

While in the Society it remains the 52 nd year, in the Mundane World a New Year has begun. Thus it was that Their Majesties, Tsar Ivan and Tsaritsa Matilde, on the 6 th day of January, ventured to the Northern Region. There, they would partake of the Kingdom Twelfth Night Celebration in their Barony of Endewearde.
At the start of the day, Their Majesties did hold a brief court. They called forth their Deputy Seneschal for the Northern Region, Molly Schofield. They spoke of her service, and then, to her utter surprise, called in the companions of the Order of the Pelican. Molly would sit vigil, and contemplate elevation to the order.
It was a good day of much revelry, and in the afternoon Tsar Ivan and Tsaritsa Matilde held court.
Their Excellencies Endewearde, Baroness Sylvia du Vey and Baron Ané du Vey, exchanged gifts with Their Majesties, and swore fealty.
Their Majesties proceeded to present the following awards to the following gentles:

Catarina Dughall, Award of Arms (Scroll by: Christiana Crane with words: Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova)
Fenrir Øxnhálsson, Tyger’s Cub (Scroll by: Aelisif Hoarr Kona)
Anne Forneau, Award of Arms (Scroll illumination: Ciaran Ua Meic Thire, Caligraphy & Words: Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova)
Slàine An Doire, Award of Arms
Oguri Tatsuko, Award of Arms (Scroll by: Audrye Beneyt and Christiana Crane with Japanese text by Ambrose the Gutless of Atenveldt)
Techán Mac Gothraidh, Award of Arms (Scroll by: Audrye Beneyt and Christiana Crane)

Saruca bint Lazari and the Assembled Silver Crescents. Photo courtesy of Baron Brendan Crane

Saruca bint Lazari, Silver Crescent (Scroll by: Shoshana Gryffyth)
Maxton Gunn,  Silver Crescent (Scroll by: Camille des Jardins with words by Nichol mac Donnachaidh)
Anders Carlson, Award of Arms (Scroll by: Techan MacGothraidh)
Beatrice de Warynton, Seamstress to the Crown (Scroll by: Morwenna O Hurlihie)
Audrye Beneyt, Silver Wheel (Scroll by: Mari Clock van Horne)
Lillian Stanhope, Silver Mantle (Scroll by: Christiana Crane with words by Nichol mac Donnachaidh)
Bia di Firenze, Silver Mantle (Scroll by: Aesa feilinn Jossursdottir called Feilinn)
Vopiscus Rufius Donatus, Silver Mantle
Lorencio Matteo Despinoza, Silver Mantle (Scroll by: Audrye Beneyt)
Anna Mickel von Salm, Sagitarius (Scroll by: Thyra (Þóra) Eiríksdóttir with words by Nichol mac Donnachaidh)
Syr Cedric of Thanet was recognized as a Master Thrower
Nicol mac Donnachaidh, Silver Brooch (Scroll by: Embla Knútrdottir with words by Matthew MacGyver)
Hrefna Hrodbjortsdottir, Silver Brooch (Scroll by: Agatha Wanderer)

Mistress Molly Schofield, moments after he elevation to the Order of the Pelican. Photo courtesy of Baron Brendan Crane

Solveig Bjarnardottir, Silver Brooch (Scroll by: Anna Mickel von Salm)
Keziah Planchet, Silver Brooch (Scroll illumination: Harold von Auerbach Calligraphy: Carmelina da Vicari)
Molly Schofield, Order of the Pelican (Scroll credits: Illumination: Ro Honig Von Sommerfeldt Calligraphy: Christian Crane Words: Angus Pembridge)

Additionally, during the court, the children got run by Ketilfastr Thorkilson.

Newcomers received tokens from Tsar Ivan and Tsaritsa Matilde.
Godric of Hamtun and his household presented a crossbow and bolts to Tsar Ivan, and a longbow and arrows to Tsaritsa Matilde.
Agatha the Wanderer thanked the participants and announced the winner of the Gift Chest Challenge.
Their Majesties thus closed their court.

During the feast that evening, Tsar Ivan and Tsaritsa Matilde reopened their court.

Audrye Beneyt reports the following:
Between the 1st and 2nd course, Their Majesties held a brief court.

Lord Seamus na Coille Aosda, as Warden of the East Kingdom Royal Foresters Guild was called forth to give gifts to Their Majesties.  Her Majesty Matilde was gifted with ermine pelts from her forests.  His Majesty Ivan was gifted with a hand crafted hunting horn and baldric.  They were also gifted with a take down frame saw for their encampment crafted by Lord Poplyr Childs.  In addition, they were gifted 5 fire
starter kits to be given as largesse.

Their Majesties having further business with Seamus, kept him in place to receive the rank of Expert Thrower in the East Kingdom, presenting him a medallion which was previously given to them by Syr Cedric of Thanet, newest Master Thrower.

There being no further business, their court was closed.

Thus concluded an excellent Twelfth Night. Long Live the Kingdom of the East!
Malcolm Bowman, Brigantia Principal Herald
PS – Thank you to the court heralds for the day: Mylisant Grey, Maria von Ossenheim, Audrye Beneyt, Marian Kirkpatrick, Conall An Doire, Þórý Veðardóttir, Simona bat Leon, Techan Mac Gothraidh, and Aloysius of Ravensbridge.

12 Things to Do at Debatable Lands Twelfth Night!

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2018-01-09 19:19
Celebrate Twelfth Night with us in the Barony Marche of the Debatable Lands!

Saturday, January 13 @ 10:00 am – 10:00 pm

All are Welcome on this day to enjoy music and song and dancing, good food, and good friends!

What is a Debatable Lands Twelfth Night like? Here are the top 12 things to do!

1. Bring some food to share. Our event is free, even the food! It’s a potluck. All kinds of food are welcome! (Mmmm, cheese balls)

2. Bring and/or taste some cookies! A perennial favorite, Master Urho runs our favorite cookie competition of the year. Bring some to enter, or just munch on the entries and vote for a populace choice winner!

3. Bring your A&S project to display! The event features the Debatable Lands’ Arts & Sciences Championship and Display. There are no limitations, bring your projects, old or new, finished or in progress, to display. You can even request feedback from our top artisans. And if you’re from the Debatable Lands, enter the competition!

4. Bring some beverages. Wet site. Nuff said.

5. Snowball fight! Jasmine of Clan Tarn has her elves working overtime making stuffed “snowballs” for an epic tourney for young and old alike!

6. Get ready to laugh. The Best Commedia dell’Arte troupe in the Knowne World – I Genesii – will be *cough* performing *cough* …multiple times. Don’t miss the most beloved court of Misrule.

7. Bards welcome – the Debatable Lands Bardic Championship is also taking place. Only Debatable Landers are eligible for the Championship, but all are welcome to perform. The theme is the Old and the New.

8. Speaking of performances, the Barony’s own Debatable Choir will perform at 5pm. Let their dulcet tones wash over your ears and hearts.

9. Stuff and cash, cash and stuff… our Twelfth Night Auction of Forgotten Treasures will delight you with the garb, gear, stuff and do-dads available at this silent auction. Have stuff you don’t need? Bring it to donate! But wait, there’s more! We also have a few fine merchants.. peruse their artwork, chainmail, and more!

10. Courts and vigils and courts, oh my! The event features Mistress Graidhne’s vigil and induction into the Order of the Laurel, as well as many other awards, Kingdom and Baronial.

11. Stay for the dancing! After evening Court, our event always has one of the best dances of the season in the entire Kingdom. Don’t worry, we’ll teach you!

12. Bring a donation for Paladin’s Pantry! The Greater Pittsburgh Food Bank needs food items, blankets, and more. Read more here!

See you there!
Categories: SCA news sites

Date limite pour les recommendations de Leurs Altesses Royales

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2018-01-09 14:31

This post was published separately in English


Leurs Altesses Caoilfhionn et Brennan souhaitent rendre connu de tous qu’ils accepteront des recommandations pour leur premier vote jusqu’au dimanche 14 janvier.

Souvenez-vous que vous n’avez pas besoin d’être membre d’un ordre afin de recommander une personne que vous pensez méritante. Si vous pensez que des gens que vous connaîssez sont méritoires, il y a un formulaire en ligne facile à remplir afin que leur candidature soit considérée au travers de http://surveys.eastkingdom.org/index.php/945932

Plusieurs réponses à propos du processus entourant la remise de reconnaissances peuvent être trouvées dans cet excellent article par Sa Graçe Avelina.


Restoration of York Minster’s Great East Window complete

History Blog - Mon, 2018-01-08 23:19

A decade after it began, the restoration and reinstallation of the Great East Window of York Minster is complete. The window was design by master glazier John Thornton of Coventry in the first decade of the 15th century. It only took him and the gifted assistants in his workshop three years, from 1405 until 1408, to design, cut and execute the sweeping, majestic richly colored vista of Biblical scenes from the Creation of the world in Genesis to the end of it in the Book of Revelation. He was paid £56 by the Chapter of York for this masterpiece.

Composed of 311 individual panes, the Great East Window is the largest expanse of medieval stained glass in the UK. Experts believe it also the largest depiction of the Apocalypse in the world. It survived German bombs in World War II, something Thornton’s windows in Coventry Cathedral were unable to do because while they were taken down for their protection and technically made it through the Blitz, they were stored haphazardly with no references whatsoever to their original configuration and so could not be pieced back together.

The window panes were last conserved after World War II, so a thorough refurbishment was very much in order. The Great East Window conservation became a key component of the York Minster Revealed project. In 2008, the experts at the York Glaziers Trust dismantled the window, taking down all 311 panels and removing them to their restoration lab. For five years, every individual piece of glass, large or small, was painstakingly studied, cleaned, conserved and examined in the Bedern Glaziers Studio where visitors could see the conservation team at work. Broken pieces and ones misplaced in previous conservation efforts were fixed. The latest and greatest protective coating was applied to keep the newly refreshed colors from fading or suffering damage from UV rays.

The cost of the restoration was £11.5 million, much of it contributed by a grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund. Between 2011 and 2017, conservators spent a cumulative 92,400 hours working to repair and protect the window for future generations. Halfway through, in 2015, the first half of the restored glass panels (157 of them) were returned to the window. Visitors could see the revived color in situ again. Gradually the other 154 panels were returned to their original locations in the Tracery and Old Testament areas.

The last of the 311 panes was installed on Tuesday, January 2nd, ushering in a very auspicious New Year. It was money and time very well-spent. The revived Great East Window is so pristine and vivid now it’s much easier to follow the complexity of the Biblical narrative, and the pioneering use of technology will be a template for future glazing restorations at York Minster and beyond.

Sarah Brown, Director at York Glaziers Trust, said: “This has been a once in a lifetime project for the team and it’s a huge privilege to be part of this milestone in the Minster’s history.

“The Great East Window is one of the great artistic achievements of the Middle Ages, a stunning expanse of stained glass of unparalleled size and beauty in Britain. The work undertaken as part of this project will ensure this masterpiece is preserved for hundreds of years to come.”

The Dean of York, The Very Reverend Vivienne Faull, added: “It’s a triumph to have the Great East Window complete once again and we look forward to seeing it in all its glory when the scaffolding is removed and the project formally completed in the spring.

“Its completion marks the start of a multi-million pound campaign in partnership with the York Minster Fund and the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) to provide state-of-the-art protective glazing to all 128 of our medieval stained glass windows.

“It will take us 20 years to achieve this but the environmental protection will stop the corrosion and decay caused by the glass being exposed to the elements, buying us much needed time for vital conservation work which will preserve the irreplaceable windows for generations to come.”

The glass panels have all been returned to the Great East Window but there's still lots to be done at the East End to get it game-ready.
We'll keep you up to date on how things are looking ahead of the big reveal later in the year! #BehindTheScenes pic.twitter.com/fXKDwWkXkb

— York Minster (@York_Minster) January 5, 2018

Big start to the New Year for a big project! After 10 years, 311 panels & an average of 500 hours spent on each – the FINAL panel of the Great East Window is installed!
Well done to @yorkglaziers on a fantastic job

Categories: Arts and Sciences, History