East Kingdom Gazette

Syndicate content East Kingdom Gazette
Covering the Eastern Realm of the SCA
Updated: 1 hour 5 min ago

Eastern Results on the January 2016 LoAR

Tue, 2016-03-29 14:42

Eastern Results on the January 2016 LoAR

The Society College of Heralds runs on monthly cycles and letters.  Each month, the College processes name and armory submissions from all of the Kingdoms.  Final decisions on submissions are made at the monthly meetings of the Pelican Queen of Arms (names) and the Wreath Queen of Arms (armory).  Pelican and Wreath then write up their decisions in a Letter of Acceptances and Return (LoAR).  After review and proofreading, LoARs generally are released two months after the meeting where the decisions are made.

An “acceptance” indicates that the item(s) listed are now registered with the Society.  A “return” indicates that the item is returned to the submitter for additional work.  Most items are registered without comments.  Sometimes, the LoAR will address specific issues about the name or armory or will praise the submitter/herald on putting together a very nice historically accurate item.

The following results are from the January 2016 Wreath and Pelican meetings; these items were submitted to the East Kingdom at Pennsic 2015.


Aildreda de Tamworthe. Badge. (Fieldless) An estoile azure.

Nice badge!

Andrea Caitlin MacIntire. Device. Per chevron azure and gules, a chevron rompu between two quatrefoils pierced and a fireball argent.

Ástríðr Elfvensdottir. Badge. (Fieldless) A hedgehog rampant Or maintaining a needle sable.

Aveline d’Amiens. Name and device. Per fess embattled argent and azure, in chief three rats rampant sable.

Both elements are found in Paris in 1292, making this an excellent late 13th century French name!

Conall Ó Suibhne. Device change. Or, a wolfhound statant between three trefoils vert.

The submitter’s old device, Per bend embattled argent and vert, two talbots passant contourny counterchanged, is released.

Eckhart Wurm. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Both elements are found in Nürnberg in 1497, making this an excellent late 15th century German name!

This name does not conflict with the registered name Eckehard Thurn. The byname is substantially different in sound and appearance under PN3C3 of SENA.

Edwarde Midnight. Name and device. Per bend sinister gules and argent, a tower Or and a four-leaved clover slipped vert.

Eirný Bergsdóttir. Name and device. Per bend purpure and argent, a beorc rune and a mountain counterchanged.

Elaine Howys of Morningthorpe. Name reconsideration from Eliane Howys of Morningthorpe and device. Or, a chevron sable platy between three jerkins gules, a chief sable platy.

The submitter requested authenticity for an unspecified place and time. This name is authentic for 16th century England.

Elaine Howys of Morningthorpe. Badge. (Fieldless) A jerkin per pale gules and Or.

Elizabeth Vynehorn. Badge. Argent, a quatrefoil per bend gules and azure.

Nice badge!

Eva von Kölln. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Eva von Köln, the submitter requested authenticity for a 15th century German name. Eva is documented in multiple German cities in a 1495 tax roll, and Köln is found in an unmarked locative byname in Germany dated to 1636. The form von Kölln (possibly von Kolln) is found in a charter dated to 1470 (http://monasterium.net/mom/ArdCan/1470_VI_07/charter?q=%22von%20K%C3%B6lln%22). We have changed the byname to von Kölln to meet the submitter’s request for a 15th century name.

Francesco Gaetano Greco d’Edessa. Badge. Per fess gules and vert, a cross and in canton a pearled coronet Or.

The submitter is a court baron and thus entitled to the display of a coronet.

This is the submitter’s sixth piece of registered armory.

Gerhard Stormeclocke. Badge. (Fieldless) On a tower sable, a lightning bolt palewise Or.

There is a step from period practice for the use of a lightning bolt not as part of a thunderbolt.

Giana di Nicholò da Firenze. Name and device. Vert, on a pile indented argent an owl’s head cabossed sable.

Please advise the submitter to draw the pile with more indentations and to add internal details on the owl’s head to improve its identifiability.

Gunnarr askasmiðr Óláfsson. Name and device. Sable, in saltire a rapier inverted argent and a guitar Or, in chief a death’s head argent.

Hans Ferdinand Engel. Name and device. Quarterly gules and azure, a sword inverted winged at the blade argent transfixing a harp Or.

Hasanah bint al-Khalil ibn Habib. Name and device. Erminois, an elephant’s head cabossed gules, a chief sable.

Jadwiga Piwowarka Miodunka. Name and device. Gyronny argent and gules, in pale a demi-weasel sable issuant from a mug purpure.

Piwowarka is the feminine form of the occupational byname meaning “beer brewer”. Miodunka/Miodanka is a common noun meaning “lungwort” (the herb).

Commenters questioned the pattern of two descriptive bynames. However, the submitter’s previous submission also used this pattern, and the need to document the pattern was not mentioned in the return. Therefore, we will not penalize the submitter for using the same pattern. We note that one example of this pattern, Matheus przasnek piekut (1640-1), was found in Abramovicz et al., Slownik Historycznych Nazw Osobowych Bialostocczyzny, vol. 2, s.n. Pi(e)kut.

Janna von Guggenberg. Name and device. Gules, on a bend Or two domestic cats courant sable.

Submitted as Janna von Guggisberg, the Letter of Intent documented the place name Guggisberg as a modern form. Ælfwynn Leoflæde dohtor documented the following forms: Gugenberch (1282) and Guckhenberger (1590), found in Brechenmacher, s.n. Guggenberg(er); andGugansperk (1291) and gukansperg (1287), found in Socin. In addition, the spelling Guggenbergk is found in 16th century Switzerland in the FamilySearch Historical Records.

As the submitter requested “a late period form of that name that is relatively similar to the modern form if it can be identified.” We have changed the name to Guggenberg, which has been interpolated from the above forms. If the submitter prefers one of the attested spellings, or if she wants to change to the lingua Anglica form of Guggisberg, she can submit a request for reconsideration.

Janna is the submitter’s legal given name. It is also found as a given name from Prussia, dated to the early 1600s, in the FamilySearch Historical Records. Therefore, the submitter need not rely on the legal name allowance.

Jaspar van Doorne. Device. Per pale azure and argent, a chevron cotised between three mullets of eight points counterchanged.

Kenric æt Essexe. Device change. Per pale and chevronelly Or and sable.

This conflicts with the device of Gustaf Rikardsson: Per pale Or and sable, three chevronels counterchanged and in canton a hand issuant from a wing fesswise maintaining a sword reversed fesswise sable. However, the submitter has permission from Gustaf to conflict with his device.

The submitter’s old device, Per chevron argent and gules, three increscents counterchanged, is retained as a badge.

Nice device!

Roland de la Mar. Name change from Roland de Endeweard and device. Per chevron inverted argent and azure, a phoenix counterchanged.

The given name Roland is grandfathered to the submitter. It is also found in Amsterdam dated to 1592 in the FamilySearch Historical Records. Therefore the submitter need not rely upon the grandfather clause.

The submitter may wish to know that the byname de la Mar is also found in Amsterdam, dated to 1630.

The submitter’s previous name, Roland de Endeweard, is released.

Rosa Linda degli Uccelli. Name and device. Gules, on an owl affronty maintaining in its talons a rose slipped and leaved argent, a heart gules and in chief a cross bottony and a fleur-de-lys Or.

This name combines an Italian given name, a Swiss German given name, and an Italian byname. The combination of Italian and German is an acceptable lingual mix under Appendix C of SENA.

This device does not violate SENA A3D2a, “slot machine” armory, which means a design having more than two types of charge in a single group. Maintained charges are their own secondary group and thus the rose here is not in the same group as the cross and the fleur.

Rose Steel. Name and device. Per bend sinister gules and argent, a rose slipped and leaved argent and a domestic cat rampant sable, a bordure sable semy of acorns argent.

Nice 14th century English name!

Roseia Posey. Device. Argent, a lighthouse gules between three fountains.

This device does not conflict with the device of Máel Brigte ingenue Aimirgin: Argent, a brazier gules. There is a DC for the difference between a lighthouse and a brazier and another DC for adding the secondary fountains.

Sarah Gerlyn Easthope. Name and device. Per bend sinister azure and gules, two domestic cats sejant contourny Or each maintaining a heart argent, a bordure Or.

Please advise the submitter to draw the hearts larger so they are more easily identifiable.

Sarra atte Brouk. Badge. (Fieldless) A stick shuttle fesswise sable.

Simon Caspar Joder. Name change from Simon Caspar Joder von Steffisburg.

All elements in this name are grandfathered to the submitter.

The submitter’s previous name, Simon Caspar Joder von Steffisburg, is released.

Therion Sean Storie. Household name House of the Lemming (see RETURNS for badge).

Lemming is a lingua Anglica form of the Early Modern English Lemmar or Lemmus.

Ulrich Reinhart. Device. Argent, on a bend sinister between two ships azure three plates.

Una inghean Chonain. Device. Quarterly azure and gules, a lily of the valley slipped and leaved argent.

William of Wyndhaven. Name.

In commentary, Metron Ariston documented place names using the prototheme Wynd-, including Wyndriche/WyndrisheWynderusheWyndesore ParkNova Wyndsore, and Wyndeham, all found in Watts, s.nn. Windrush, Windsor Great Park, Old Windsor, and Wineham.


Eckhart Wurm. Device. Per pale embattled Or and gules, a wingless dunghill cock and a dragon respectant, a chief counterchanged.

This device is returned for violating SENA A2C1 which states that “Elements must be drawn in their period forms”. The issue here is the posture of the cock. While having one leg raised is considered a variant of close, all of the medieval images show the leg lower than horizontal. We are unaware of period depictions with a leg raised anywhere near as high as the one in this submission, with the elevated leg at a 45 degree angle above the horizontal.

Eva von Kölln. Device. Argent, surmounting a cross sable between in chief two oak leaves and in base two otters combattant vert, a heart gules.

This device is returned for redraw, for violating SENA A2C2 which states “Elements must be drawn to be identifiable.” Commenters had trouble identifying the otters, which were generally perceived as lizards.

Therion Sean Storie. Badge. Azure, on a saltire argent a lemming salient contourny sable, a bordure Or.

This device is returned for redraw, for violating SENA A2C2 which states “Elements must be drawn to be identifiable.” Commenters had trouble identifying the lemming and it was generally confused with a bear. It might be easier to recognize with a rounder body, a rounder face and shorter legs.

Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: heraldry, LoAR

New Regional Herald for Pennsylvania and Delaware Groups

Tue, 2016-03-29 14:29

Greetings from Ryan Brigantia Principal Herald

The evolution of the Herald’s Office continues! With the Southern Region being so large we have added a new deputy to assist Baroness Treannah as the Southern deputy. Lord Joscelin le Esqurel will be joining the staff as the new Southwestern deputy. We will be determining a proper title for him and for now his email will be Herald.SouthWest@eastkingdom.org. Lord Joscelin will be responsible for reports and administration of all the Pennsylvanian and Delawarean groups.

-Ryan Brigantia Herald of the Kingdom of the East.

Filed under: Heraldry, Local Groups, Official Notices Tagged: heraldry, officers, Reporting

Artifacts of Life III

Mon, 2016-03-21 18:49
The Barony Beyond the Mountain invites the populace of the East to join us in September 2017 for Artifacts of a Life III — an arts and sciences competition with a focus on persona development.

Have you ever looked at your modern family heirlooms and wondered what your SCA persona would leave in your will, or the objects you would have valued during your life? Have you ever wanted to create your own set of grave goods? Of course you have!

Artifacts I and II showcased inspiring displays of work from the populace of the East Kingdom. We’re looking forward to seeing the fruits of your research and hard work at Artifacts III.

How It Works
Entrants may choose to enter the Typical, Elite or Team category. In the Typical category, entries must consist of 3-5 items from a single culture and time. The Elite category requires entries consisting of 6-9 entries from a single time and place. If you’d like to participate as part of a team, the Village category allows you to work with a group of folks to create 6-9 items. Again, they must all be from a single time and place.

Additional Information and Questions
The actual date and event site are TBD. More and updated information to follow as we know it!

Information about the competition rules, judging criteria, and entry registration from Artifacts II may be found at the event website.

If you’ve participated in past Artifacts as an entrant or judge and have any thoughts on how we can improve the event, or if you have any questions, please contact the event stewards: Mistress Elizabeth Vynehorn orBaron Jehan du Lac.

Filed under: Announcements, Arts and Sciences, Events Tagged: Arts and Sciences, events

Pennsic Fencing Melee Champions Team Forming

Sat, 2016-03-19 19:41

Greetings fencers,

Pennsic is going to be fast approaching and it’s time to start assembling the East’s finest blades for the Champ’s teams. I’ll be coordinating and captaining the Melee Champ Team once again this year, and I’m looking for fencers with the skill, comportment and character to represent our kingdom.

If you are interested in being on the Melee Champ’s team this year, please fire me an email at Justin.Aucoin@gmail.com so I can add you to my list of candidates.

Important: I want to make it clear that I want to hear from anyone who’s interested in the melee champs team. It doesn’t matter if you’re a Master of Defense, just got your AoA, or just got authorized two minutes ago. What I care about is that you have the passion and will to represent your kingdom. Once I hear from folks I’ll compile the long list of candidates and will get in touch with them on when/where we’ll work together to get ready for the war point. Barring some sort of catastrophe, the Pennsic Melee Champs team will be chosen from this list, so if you want to represent the East, let me know. Also of note: You can throw your hat in the ring for the melee team and also try to fight your way in for the Pennsic single’s champ team. I have zero issue with that and encourage it. Please forward this notice to your local fencing practices. I don’t want anyone who might be interested on making the team miss out. If you have any questions or concerns, don’t hesitate to get in touch with me. YiS, –Don Remy Delamontagne de Gascogne Captain, EK Rapier Melee Champs
EK Rapier Army Executive Officer Captain, King’s Company of Calivers
Filed under: Rapier, Uncategorized Tagged: Pennsic, Rapier

Unofficial Court Report from Black Rose Ball and Baronial Investiture

Sat, 2016-03-19 15:51

Their Majesties Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri, Barony of the Bridge on 12 March AS L, to attend the occasion of the Black Rose Ball and the Investiture of new Baronial Heads.

King Brennan and Queen Caoilfhionn invited Eloi Abelard, Baron of the Bridge into Their court where he relinquished his Baronial seat and was made a Court Baron.  Baron Eloi swore fealty to Their Majesties in his new estate.

Next did Their Majesties invite into their court Ulric Von Der Insel and Clothilde Von Der Insel  who were invested as Baron and Baroness of the Bridge respectively.  Baron Ulric’s scroll was illuminated by Elizabeth Eleanor Lovell.  Baroness Clothilde’s scroll was illuminated by Shadiya Al-Zahra.  Both scrolls bore calligraphy by Nest verch Tangwistel and words by Alys Mackyntoich

Next did Their Majesties call into their court Aethelthryth Kenricing, and presented her with the garter of the Order of Gawain, and a scroll by Solskinn of Smoking Rocks with words by Nest verch Tangwistel.

The order was not complete, however.  Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri called into their court Ulf the Dragon Slayer who was likewise presented with a garter and a scroll inducting him into the Order of Gawain.  His scroll was also made by Solskinn of Smoking Rocks with words by Nest verch Tangwistel.

Her Majesty called forward all those children who had participated in Her Service Initiative.  They received tokens for their service.

All of the children present were invited before the court.  The toybox was run, and as per usual there was much laughter at the joy of the children.

Their Majesties next called into their court Mahisti of Woodhaven Manor.  They made her a Lady of the Court.  She was Awarded Arms, and received a scroll by Fiona O’Maille ó Chaun Coille.

Their Majesties then called into their court Yamoto Koreyoshi.  They made him a Lord of the Court.  He was Awarded Arms, and received a scroll by Fiona O’Maille ó Chaun Coille with words by Caelia Blackwold that were translated by Yayoi Rosenkrantz

Their Majesties invited into court all those attending their first, second or third event.  They were thanked for attending, and presented tokens to remember the day by.

Their Majesties invited Fortune St Keyne into their court.  They spoke of her artistic skill, presenting her with a medallion, and a scroll illuminated by Melisande of the Gryphon Wood with calligraphy by Jonathan Blaecstan, and thus inducted her into the Order of the Silver Brooch.

The Order not yet complete, Their Majesties called into court Faelin MacLochlainn.  His art widely regarded, he was presented with a medallion, and scroll by Nest verch Tangwistel, and thereby inducted into the Order of the Silver Brooch.

Their Majesties invited before them Sorcha Dhocair inghean Uí Ruairc.  For her exclellent artistic skill she was made a companion of the Order of the Maunche, presented with a medallion, and a scroll by Michel Almond de Champagne.

Their Majesties then invited the artists and organizers of the Beasts of the East calendar fundraising project.

  • Lucie Lovegood of Ramsgate
  • Analeda Falconbridge
  • Aldreda de Tamworthe
  • Catrin o’r Rhyd Fôr
  • Camille des Jardins
  • Aleksei Dmitriev
  • Rhonwen glyn Conwy
  • Cassandra Boell von Bayer
  • Sunniva Ormstung
  • Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova
  • Vettorio Antonello
  • Harold von Auerbach
  • Thyra Eiriksdottir
  • Lada Monguligin
  • Daryl Of Avalon
  • Christiana Crane
  • Alexandre Saint Pierre
  • Eleanor Catlyng
  • Stephen Calvert deGrey

Each was presented with a token of thanks.

Their Majesties called into court the companions of the Order of the Silver Wheel.  Next was Simona bat Leone called before Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri.  For her service she was inducted into the Order of the Silver Wheel, receiving a medallion and a scroll by Magdalena von Kirschberg.

Next did Their Majesties invite into their court Caelia Blackwolf.  Her exemplary service was recognized as she was inducted into the Order of the Silver Crescent.  She was presented with a medallion, and a scroll, and further presented with a scroll by Vettorio Antonello.

Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri next called into their court Vibeka Steensdatter aff Broen.  She answered in the affirmative that she would join the Order, and so the Order of the Laurel was called forth.  Vibeka was elevated to the order, receiving a medallion, along with other appropriate regalia and a scroll by Fiona O’Maille ó Chaun Coille with Danish text by Thomas Frovin.

There being no further business, the court of Their Majesties was closed.  Long live the King and Queen!  Long live the Prince and Princess!  Long live the Kingdom of the East!

Compiled by Gazette Staff from the Court Report of Malcolm Bowman, Eastern Crown Herald with much gratitude to the Heralds for the court Lady Simona bat Leone, Lady Katherine O’Brien, Madame Perronnelle de Croy

Filed under: Court Tagged: Bridge, court report, royal court

Serious Storm Disrupts Gulf Wars

Fri, 2016-03-18 23:33

The East Kingdom Royal cabin turned into an impromptu shelter Thursday night as a severe storm rolled through Gulf Wars XXV.

Reports from those present at the event indicate that the Easterners in attendance at this year’s Gulf Wars are uninjured and in good spirits as the storm continues to bother the event. Many have left site early and those who could not leave have a dry roof over their heads in the Royal cabin.

The Aethelmearc Gazette has shared an excellent article with more details about the storm that left many with waterlogged tents on Thursday night, and caused the war to end early on Friday.



Filed under: Events

East Kingdom Server Planned Outage Notice

Thu, 2016-03-17 07:51

“The East Kingdom Server will undergo a planned upgrade in the early morning of 3/21/16.

This is the first in a series of planned updates this year.

We will be migrating from Xen to KVM, which will appear to be seamless to the End User, but has the ability to use our resources in a more streamlined manner and offer a better user experience.

Time Frame 1am-2:30am Eastern Time

This is expected to run for 49 minutes.

During this time frame all East Kingdom services will be unavailable to the populace.

Tools that backbone or pull from the server will also be affected (IE: Email, Help Desk, List Server, etc).”

Filed under: Announcements, Official Notices

King’s and Queen’s Arts and Sciences Championship

Tue, 2016-03-15 09:56

On February 6th, in the Shire of Barren Sands, an impressive array of artisans and craftspeople convened to compete for the positions of King’s and Queen’s Arts and Sciences Champions. Entries included examples of the vast range of Eastern arts, including pottery, metal-working, period clothing, syrups and sugar work, illumination, research on period hygiene practices, a comparative analysis of period bread-making, and cooking in a working model of a period ceramic oven.

Lady Cassandra Blondel de Seint Alban kindly permitted the Gazette to use her photos of the many lovely works on display. The images below are merely a sample of the day’s excellent works.

By the end of the first round of judging, the following people were chosen for the second round:

  • Elysabeth “Lissa” Underhill
  • Magnus hvalmagi
  • Brunissende Dragonette
  • Alesone Gray of Cranlegh
  • Kataryn “Kit” Mercer
  • Elena Hylton
  • Galefridus Peregrinus

After interviewing all of the seven finalists, their Majesties chose Elysabeth Underhill and Magnus hvalmagi as their Champions.

Mistress Elysabeth, Queen’s Arts and Sciences Champion, recreated three glass bead strings from the Portway Anglo-Saxon Cemetery using data from the Portway excavation report. She placed the bead strings in historical context by comparing and contrasting them using research she had done on Anglo-Saxon bead typologies, the social meaning of beads in Anglo-Saxon England, and the meaning of grave goods in Anglo-Saxon burials.

Master Magnus, the King’s Champion, describes his work as follows: “In 1555, the Swedish archbishop Olaus Magnus published Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus (History of the Northern Peoples), an encyclopedic work detailing all facets of existence in mid-16th-century Scandinavia. Included in the text are writings about the production of malt and beer, but they lack the detail needed to readily redact the recipes. Using supporting information gleaned from contemporary rural Norwegian farmhouse brewing – the kind that grandpa and great-grandpa would’ve done in the Old Country – as well as numerous other sources, I fill in the gaps and attempt to establish plausible connections that allow the contemporary to inform the period practice, in order to take my best shot at recreating the infrastructure and process indicated in the text. The project is broken into 3 parts: Part I, the recreation of the malt (including a malting kiln); Part II, the reconstruction of a rotary hand quern; Part III, the development of a coherent recipe and subsequent beer.”

Filed under: Arts and Sciences, Events Tagged: a&s, a&s champions, Arts and Sciences, champions, King and Queen's Champions, Kings and Queens Champions

SCA 50th Year Help Needed

Tue, 2016-03-15 09:35

The AEthelmearc Gazette has posted information on SCA 50th year Celebration activities, including an opportunity for homebrewers, a persona competition, and a call for performing arts teachers and teachers for youth classes.  You can read the article here – http://aethelmearcgazette.com/2016/03/14/sca-50th-year-help-needed/

Filed under: Uncategorized

Performance Arts at SCA 50 Year

Thu, 2016-03-10 10:47

This article was originally posted at the Midrealm Gazette and is reprinted here in full.

Singers, storytellers, bards and buskers: Want to perform at 50 Year?

Please fill out this Google Form: Click here to submit your application to perform on the outdoor stage, tavern, busking area, or indoor stage. Please note: the application is NOT required for any Bardic Circle. The deadline for applying to perform is May 1.

The staff will be filling slots as we go, so the earlier you submit your application, the better selection of performance opportunities you’ll have.

A note about material in Performing Arts:
The site for SCA 50 Year does not have a performance license; accordingly, the event staff requests that all performers restrict their repertoire to original pieces for which you own the copyright, pieces which you have permission to perform, and pieces in the public domain. Any questions regarding what material can be performed at this event can be directed to the Performing Arts Lead, Lady Sophia the Orange via Performance@sca50year.org

Opportunities for every level of performer are available at this event, and the Performing Arts Staff will assist any performer who submits an application by recommending resources for you. Our crack Performing Arts Team is bringing you a Performers’ Evening Tavern, Bardic Circles, Indoor and Outdoor Stages, Busking areas, and a special Performing Arts Day
Want to know more? Email: Performance@sca50year.org

Filed under: Events Tagged: Bardic, SCA 50 Year

Unofficial Court Report: Estrella War

Tue, 2016-03-08 14:56

The following items were presented at the Court of Their Majesties Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri held on February 23-29, A.S. L (2016) in the Kingdom of Atenveldt at Estrella War XXXII.

Company of the Pennon:
Master Joel the Brewer (West, with permission of TRM West)
Baroness Elisheva bint Sitt al-Sitt (West, with permission of TRM West)
Syr Culann mac Cianain
Sir Luis de Castilla
Lord Antonii Machinevik (previously Antonius)
Lord Bric James Beech
Lord Ryouko’jin of Iron Skies
Lord Martin Wasserspier
Lady Brynhildr Ansvarsdottir
Lord Bjorn inn Kvensami
Lord Indrakshi Aravinda
Lady Ciar of Skye

His Majesty has explained, “The Company of the Pennon is given for exceptional martial prowess or work as support staff at an event in a foreign Kingdom. The Eastern Expeditionary Force was small, but ferocious on the field. They garnered glory and victory against strong and numerically superior foes in several battles.” He went to to mention the gracious hosting by the West Kingdom, particularly Master Joel and Baroness Elisheva, providing the Eastern Contingent with a camp, food, lodging, and all manner of hospitality which allowed the EEF to focus on their duties, and so these two gentles were duly acknowledged for their hospitality.

Order of Valor:
Lady Ciar of Skye
Lord Ryouko’jin of Iron Skies
These two gentles showed outstanding prowess and leadership, on the tourney and melee fields

Lastly the gift Estrella Scrolls were presented to the following kingdoms:

Court Heralds: Baron Mael Eoin mac Echuid (Great Court)
Reporting Herald: King Brennan Ri, Master Malcolm Bowman

Filed under: Court

Unofficial Court Report: King’s & Queen’s Bardic

Mon, 2016-03-07 19:10

Their Majesties Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri, as well as Her Highness Avelina, did visit the Shire of Owlsherst on 5 March AS L, to attend the occasion of the King’s and Queen’s Bardic Championship.

The day began with a short court to send Jamilia al-Suba al-Hadid min Bhakail al-Sheikha and Magnus Hvalmagi to sit vigil to contemplate elevation to the Order of the Pelican and Order of the Laurel respectively.

There were many fine bardic performances for two rounds, when the third round was reached with four finalists.  Drake Oranwood, Sol la Cantor, Alys Mackyntoich and Æthelflied Brewbane.

Not long after these final four performances, on the topic of Valor in a manner chosen by His Majesty Brennan, were complete, Their Majesties did open their court.

The Queen’s Bardic Champion, William the Alchemist, was called forward.  He was thanked for his service.  Her Majesty invited her new champion, Alys Mackyntoich.  Alys was presented with the regalia of her championship, a scroll by Ysemay Sterling, and attended Her Majesty in court.

The King’s Bardic Champion, Ysemay Sterling, was called forward.  She was thanked for her service.  His Majesty invited his new champion, Æthelflied Brewbane.  Æthelflied was presented with the regalia of her championship, a scroll by Ysemay Sterling, and attended His Majesty in court.

All four finalists received tokens from Their Majesties for their entertaining performances.

The Princess Royal, Courtney Rose, did wish to present a scroll of her making to a bard she chose as her champion.  Thus it was that Lianor de Matos was invited into court to receive her accolade.

King Brennan and Queen Caoilfhionn invited representatives of the Shire of Owlsherst to attend court.  They were thus presented with fine gifts, and Their Majesties thanks their hosts for their hospitality.

Next did Their Majesties invite into their court Ben the Rat Catcher.  Though a youth of the Kingdom, they spoke well of his service, and named him a Page to their Court.  The Order of the Tygers’ Cub were called forth.  Ben received a medallion, and a scroll by Harold von Auerbach.

The order was not complete, however.  Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri called into their court Spencer Oranwood.  He was made a Page to their Court and inducted into the Order.  Spencer received a medallion and a scroll featuring calligraphy by Leonete d’Angely, illumination by Tola Knyttir and words by Alys Mackyntoich.

Next did Their Majesties call into their court Sarah-Grace Blakeslee.  Though she was not herself present, they presented for her the garter of the Order of Gawain, and a scroll with calligraphy by Aleksei Dmitriev and illumination by Isa of Ruantallan.

Her Majesty called forward all those children who had participated in Her Service Initiative.  They received tokens for their service.

All of the children present were invited before the court.  The toybox was run, and as per usual there was much laughter at the joy of the children.

Their Majesties next called into their court Emerald Unudottir.  They made her a Lady of the Court.  She was Awarded Arms, and received a scroll by Elsa de Lyon.

Their Majesties invited into court all those attending their first, second or third event.  They were thanked for attending, and presented tokens to remember the day by.

Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri next called into their court Jamilia al-Suba al-Hadid min Bhakail al-Sheikha.  She answered in the affirmative that she would join the Order, and so the Order of the Pelican was called forth.  Suba was elevated to the order, receiving a medallion, robe and hat and a scroll by Saerlaith ingen Chennetig with words by Sabine de Kaerbriant.

Their Majesties next called into their court Siobhan Nic Ghadhra.  They made her a Lady of the Court.  She was Awarded Arms, and received a scroll by Marietta Charay.

Their Majesties invited Hashiji Morikatsu into their court.  They spoke of his combat prowess, presenting him with a medallion and thus inducted him into the Order of the Silver Tyger.

The Order not yet complete, Their Majesties called into court Seamus Mac Neachtain.  His prowess well regarded, he was presented with a medallion and inducted into the Order of the Silver Tyger.

Their Majesties called into court the companions of the Order of the Silver Wheel.  Next was Josceline le esqurel called before Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri.  For his service he was inducted into the Order of the Silver Wheel, receiving a medallion and a scroll by þóra Eiríksdóttir with words in French by Brunissende Dragonette de Brocéliande.

The Order still incomplete, Their Majesties invited before them Robert the Tall.  For his service he was made a member of the Order of the Silver Wheel, presented with a medallion and a scroll by Onóra ingheann Uí Rauirc.

Next did Their Majesties invite into their court Donnchadh Lochlain.  He was Awarded Arms and made a Lord of the Court, and further presented with a scroll by Sorcha Dhocair inghean Uí Ruairc with words by Ulrich Reinhart.

Their Majesties invited into court Drake Oranwood.  Impressed with his performance overall, they named him a companion of the Order of the Silver Brooch.  He would be presented with a medallion of the order after court.

Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri next called into their court Magnus Hvalmagi.  He answered in the affirmative that he would join the Order, and so the Order of the Laurel was called forth.  Magnus was elevated to the order, receiving a medallion, coat and hat and a scroll by Vettorio Antonello, as well as a drinking horn by Frigga with words by Toki Redbeard and Norse poem by Fridrikr Tomasson av Knusslig Hamn.

As Their Majesties went to close their Court, Ruslan Novgorodcev demanded a boon.  So it was he offered to Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri his fealty.

There being no further business, the court of Their Majesties was closed.  Long live the King and Queen!  Long live the Prince and Princess!  Long live the Kingdom of the East!


Malcolm Bowman, Eastern Crown Herald.

A thank you to the Heralds for the court.  Ysemay Sterling, William the Alchemist, Sabine de Kerbriant, Alys Mackyntoich, and Colin Ursell.

Filed under: Court Tagged: Bardic, champions, court report

New King’s and Queen’s Bardic Champions

Sat, 2016-03-05 19:05

The King’s and Queen’s Bardic Champions were announced today at the event held in the Shire of Owlsherst.  The finalists were Lady Aethelfeid Flied Brewbane, Mistress Alys Mackyntoich, Lord Drake Oranwood, and Mistress Sol la Cantor.  Queen’s Champion is Mistress Alys Mackyntoich. King’s Champion is Lady Aethelfleid Brewbane.

Filed under: Arts and Sciences Tagged: bardic champions

Heraldic Display Competition: Mudthaw 2016

Sat, 2016-03-05 17:43

The following detailed information on the Heraldic Display Competition at Mudthaw was provided by Mistress Alys Mackyntoich.

This competition is intended to encourage period and period-style heraldic display. “Heraldic display” is not limited to banners. In period, a person’s armory was placed on any number of personal ad useful items, including household objects and clothing.

There will be multiple categories for entries: Youth (ages 12 and under), Teen (ages 13-17), Novice, Journeyman and Craftsman. Criteria for each category are explained below. Youth and Teens may, at their choice, enter in one of the other categories instead. Prizes will be given for every category in which there are entries. The Baron and Baroness of Settmour Swamp will also be giving out a prize to the artisan(s) of their choice.

Entries in all categories will be judged based on the following criteria:

(1) Heraldic style: Points will be given for the use of SCA-registered or period armory. Extra points will be given if the armory being displayed is good heraldic style. If you are using SCA-registered armory, please be sure to include a note stating to whom it is registered and when.

(2) Period display method: Is this the kind of item that people put heraldry on in period? Is the heraldry displayed on the item in the way period people did it? More points will be awarded for more period methods and motifs.

(3) Artistic merit: Is the item pleasing to the eye? Items that convey a good medieval or Renaissance feel will be assigned more points.

(4) Use of period materials and techniques: As this is an SCA arts and sciences competition, the use of period materials and techniques (or modern techniques replicating period techniques where reasonable) is expected. The more period your techniques and materials, the more points will be awarded.

As to each individual category:

  • Youth (ages 12 and under): Entrants will be judged against other Youth in the same age group. Documentation is not expected. Use of reasonable modern equivalents for period materials and techniques is permitted.
  • Teen (ages 13-17): Entrants will be judged against other Teens in the same age group. Documentation is not required. Use of reasonable modern equivalents for period materials and techniques is permitted.
  • Novice: The Novice category is open to people who have been practicing their art for less than 3 years and have never won an A&S competition in heraldic display. Laurels, Maunches and Silver Brooches (or the equivalent) in heraldry or heraldic display are not eligible for the Novice category. Documentation is not required. The use of reasonable modern equivalents for period materials and techniques is permitted.
  • Journeyman: The Journeyman category is intended for people who have been practicing their art for 3 or more years. Laurels and Maunches (or the equivalent) in heraldry are not eligible for the Journeyman category. Journeyman entries must have documentation. Period materials and techniques are strongly encouraged.
  • The Craftsman category is intended for people who are Laurels or Maunches (or the equivalent) in heraldry or heraldic display or people who have won an A&S competition in heraldry or the art being presented. (For example, Gendulphe won a competition for pottery, and is entering heraldic pottery today, therefore Gendulphe is a Craftsman. Hextilda won a competition for brewing, but is presenting a heraldic surcoat today; Hextilda does not have to enter in the Craftsman category). Craftsman entries must have documentation. Period materials and techniques are expected.

Please note that documentation is required for Journeyman and Craftsman level entries. Even for the categories where documentation is not required, documentation is strongly encouraged and will make the judges very happy. Documentation assistance is available at Mistress Alys’ blog (http://alysprojects.blogspot.com/2016/03/heraldic-display-research-links.html).

Documentation for this competition should address the following issues:

  • Is the device or badge registered by the SCA College of Heralds? If so, to whom? If not, is it actual period armory? If actual period armory, where did you find it?
  • Did medieval/Renaissance people use this method to display heraldry? (For example, is there evidence of heraldry on clothing?)
  • Do you have any examples of this kind of display being done in the way you have done it? (Copies of pictures, woodcuts and the like are strongly encouraged)
  • What techniques did you use to create the display?
  • What materials did you use to create the display?
  • Assume the judges know nothing about your art. What are the most important things for the judges to know about your materials, techniques and methods?
  • What sources did you consult in creating your display?

There is no page limit for documentation.

Filed under: Arts and Sciences, Heraldry

Class Schedule for Hrim Schola

Wed, 2016-03-02 19:35

The Finalized Class Schedule for Hrim Schola which is taking place on March 19th in the Barony of Dragonship Haven (Meriden, CT) has been posted to the event listing on the East Kingdom website.


Filed under: Arts and Sciences, Events Tagged: Arts and Sciences, classes, Hrim Schola

Spring Crown Tournament Letters of Intent/ Tournoi de la Couronne – Lettres d’Intention

Wed, 2016-03-02 18:24
En Français Greetings unto all those intending to enter Spring Crown Tournament, Please be aware that both the combatant and the consort must submit a letter of intent, either through the following link (preferred) or by email to TRH Prince Kenric and Princess Avelina with a copy to the Kingdom Seneschal. If by email, a joint email is preferred.  http://surveys.eastkingdom.org/index.php/925981/lang-en The Letter of Intent must be received by Coronation, April 9, 2016. If using email, the letters of intent must include all of the following information for both combatant and consort: Society name, legal name, address, telephone number, years of residency and be accompanied by proof of membership with membership number & expiration date that is valid at least thirty days after Crown. If both entrants are combatants, then that should be clearly indicated. TRHs also request that combatants bring heraldic shields for the list trees. In Service to the East, I remain Dueña Mercedes Vera de Calafia

En Français:


À tous ceux souhaitant participer au prochain Tournoi de la Couronne.
Soyez avisé(e) que le(la) combattant(e) et son(sa) consort doivent présenter une lettre d’intention, soit en utilisant le lien suivant (ce que nous favorisons) soit par courriel à Leurs Altesses, le Prince Kenric et la Princesse Avelina et en plaçant en copie la Sénéchale du Royaume


Les lettres d’intention devront être reçues avant le Couronnement du 9 avril prochain. Si vous choisissez le courriel, il devra contenir les informations suivantes à propos du(de la) combattant(e) et de son(sa) consort : Nom SCA, nom mondain, adresse, numéro de téléphone, nombre d’années de résidence dans le Royaume et une preuve de membre SCA avec le numéro et la date d’expiration.

Il est à noter que votre membership doit être valide pour au moins 30 jours après la date du Tournoi. Il est important de spécifier si les deux participants(tes) sont des combattants(tes). Leurs Altesses demandent que les combattants(tes) apportent un Écu armorié pour le présentoir de la lice.

Au Service de l’Est, je demeure
Dueña Mercedes Vera de Calafia

Filed under: En français, Events, Official Notices Tagged: Crown Tournament, Letter of Intent, spring crown

Non-Member Surcharge Wording Changes

Wed, 2016-03-02 16:50

From the Seneschal and Exchequer’s offices:

Greetings from Mercedes and Ignatia,

We recently attended the Known World Kingdom Exchequer and Seneschal Symposium in Trimaris where the Society Exchequer announced a change in the wording of event announcements. Many people do not like the way that the non-member surcharge has had to be listed in event announcements as it is a bit off-putting. Society recently related an alternate method for listing the fees to address this.  In the East Kingdom, an event fee will now be referred to in announcements as the REGISTRATION FEE, it should no longer be referred to as a gate fee, site fee, door fee or entry fee in announcements or event calendars.

It is important that all Seneschals, Exchequers and Autocrats comply with this new wording on all event announcement, including ones on platforms other than the Eastkingdom.org calendar. The EK Calendar is being updated to reflect this language.
A discount for minors must be listed or you will be required to collect NMS from non-member minors.  A discount on any ‘group/category of adults’ does not avoid the NMS fee requirement if that person is not a member.  In addition, you may NOT ‘comp’ any non-member to attend an event, ever. This includes paying the NMS out of group funds.  The non-member fees will still be referred to as Non-member surcharges outside of the announcements and will still continue to be reported as NMS.   Feast Fees and/or Day Board Fees are still listed separately.

Below are examples of how you may list your event registration fees so that you can avoid the NMS wording that people find distasteful.  For the purposes of the example below X=$10, which represents the cost of the event fee per person (prior to any NMS amount).
Event Registration Fees Pricing:
1.    Adult(18+):    $X+5=  $15  Member:   $X=  $10      Minor(<18): $X-.50=   $9.50
2.    Non-member:    $X+5=  $15  Member:   $X=  $10      Minor(<18): $X-.50=   $9.50
3.    Registration Fee: $X+5=  $15  Minor(<18): $X-5-.50=   $9.50
Adult Members receive a $5.00 discount on the registration fee with proof of membership. ($10)
4.  I am sure someone will come up with another option for stating the fee structure for an event.

Remember these are only examples – the ‘minor’ prices are normally broken into several categories for most groups.

In Service,
Maestra Ignacia la Ciega,
East Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer


Mercedes Vera de Calafia
East Kingdom Seneschal

Filed under: Law and Policy, Official Notices Tagged: Exchequer, NMS

Going to Gulf Wars? Beware of I-75 Closure

Tue, 2016-03-01 14:45

This article was originally posted on the Midrealm Gazette.

For those of you planning your sojourn to Gulf Wars, please choose an alternate other than I-75. I-75 is closed in Tennessee close to the Kentucky border (north and southbound lanes) for the next several weeks due to rock slides.


Master Aylwin Watkyns
Kingdom Seneschal, Meridies

Filed under: Announcements Tagged: Gulf War

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #7: Life Before Toilet Paper

Tue, 2016-03-01 09:00

Our seventh A&S Research Paper comes to us from Baroness Charitye Dale, of the Barony of Settmour Swamp. She examines a question that would have affected our personas practically every single day – how did people manage before toilet paper? (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

Life Before Toilet Paper

Ancient public toilets in Ephesus

There are some things in our society that are so basic, so integral to our lives that we cannot imagine going without.  Toilet paper is one of these items.  Since 1857, when toilet paper first became commercially available, we have used it to cleanse after using the bathroom.  This begs the question; what did people use to clean themselves before toilet paper?  This work will provide an overview of what people used to cleanse themselves after defecating in Rome, China, Japan, India, the Islamic states and various areas of Europe between 400 C.E. and 1600 C.E.

Buddhist Precepts for Monks in India
Islamic Precepts for Worshippers
Western Europe

We begin in Rome, in the communal toilets adjacent to the city’s bathhouses.  These communal bathrooms were semi-circular or rectangular rooms containing long benches along the walls, with individual round spaces carved into them.  Running water flowed underneath them to wash away the waste.  According to William E. Dunstan in his book Ancient Rome, “Public latrines, though often lavishly decorated with statuary and singing fountains, proved dimly lit and poorly ventilated.  They became overcrowded retreats for the unprivileged living in multistory tenements lacking toilets.” [1]

Lucius Annaeus Seneca, in his series of letters known as Moral Letters to Lucilius references a sponge affixed to a stick as being used for cleansing after defecating.  In his 70th letter, he relates a tale of suicide in which this implement, commonly referred to by scholars as a spongia, played a pivotal role.  “A captured German, who was making ready for the morning exhibition, withdrew in order to relieve himself, the only thing he was allowed to do in secret and without the presence of a guard.  While so engaged, he seized the stick of wood, tipped with a sponge, which was devoted to the vilest uses, and stuffed it, just as it was, down his throat…”[2]  To date, there appears to be no other specific reference to the spongia in ancient text.

Sources speculate that the spongia would be stored in either a bucket of salt water, or would be placed in front of the public toilet in a stream of running water that ran in front of the commode in communal bathrooms.  These spongia were used by everyone who utilized the public toilets.

The Roman elite used chamber pots or toilets within their own homes instead of using the communal commodes whenever possible.  Instead of the spongia, it is conjectured that they cleansed with rosewater and soft wool while in their homes.[3]
Back to Top

Buddhist Precepts for Monks in India
We move from Rome to India, where Buddhist monks were fastidious about cleanliness.  So fastidious, in fact, that they had very particular rules regarding the use of the bathroom.  These rules are outlined, in detail, in early versions of the Vinaya Pitaka, the Buddhist canonical for monks.  Each of the seventeen rules were to be followed each time one used the toilet facility.

  1. One should not defecate outside of the cesspool.
  2. While standing outside, one should clear his throat.
  3. Anyone sitting inside should also clear his throat.
  4. Having put aside the (upper) robe on a bamboo pole or a cord, one should enter the place properly and unhurriedly.
  5. One should not pull up one’s lower robe before entering.
  6. One should pull up one’s lower robe while standing on the toilet shoes.
  7. If the place is splattered it should be washed.
  8. One should not groan or grunt while defecating.
  9. One should not wipe oneself with a rough stick.
  10. One should not drop the wiping stick into the cesspool.
  11. If the basket for wiping sticks is full, the wiping sticks should be thrown away.
  12. One should then cover oneself (with one’s lower robe) while standing on the toilet shoes.
  13. One should not leave hurriedly.
  14. One should not leave with one’s lower robe pulled up.
  15. One should pull it up while standing on the rinsing-room shoes.
  16. One shouldn’t make a smacking sound while rinsing.
  17. One should not leave any water remaining in the rinse vessel.[4]

Further evidence to the Buddhist doctrine of cleansing after defecation is found in an anecdote within their guidelines for monks which tells a story of the consequences of not rinsing oneself after defecating:

“Now at that time a certain bhikkhu, a brahman by birth, didn’t want to rinse himself after defecating, (thinking,) ‘Who would touch this vile, stinking stuff?’ A worm took up residence in his anus. So he told this matter to the bhikkhus. ‘You mean you don’t rinse yourself after defecating?’ (they asked). ‘That’s right, my friends.’ Those bhikkhus who were of few wants … criticized and complained and spread it about, ‘How can a bhikkhu not rinse himself after defecating?’  They reported this matter to the Blessed One…”[5]

The monks utilized what they referred to as a wiping stick to scrape feces after defecating.  The stick was smooth and slightly rounded, and was used to remove large pieces of feces before the monks rinsed themselves with water.
Back to Top

Islamic Precepts for Worshippers
Buddhism is not the only religion that has strict rules about personal hygiene.  Worshippers of Islam had similarly stringent requirements for cleanliness.  The Qur’an is adamant about personal hygiene, which is why it is not surprising that Muslims also had very specific rules when it came to cleansing after defecation.  Abu Hureyrah, companion to the prophet Muhammad, narrated many edicts to the followers of Islam; cleansing after defecation included, between 590 and Muhammad’s death in 632 C.E.  “When any one of you goes to the Gha’it (toilet to defecate), let him take with him three stones and clean himself with them, for that will suffice him.”[6] He also stated, “I never saw the Messenger of Allah come out of the toilet without first (cleansing himself) with water.”[7]

Rules, based on the narrations of Abu Hureyah, are outlined in Qadaa’ Al Haajah.  A redacted set of these rules is itemized below.

  1. When entering the toilet, one should say the A’udhu (isti’adha) and Basmala and then recite a prayer.
  2. When entering the toilet, one should not have in one’s hand anything on which the name of Allahu ta’ala or any verse of the Qur’an al-karim is written.
  3. One should enter the toilet with one’s left foot and exit with one’s right foot.
  4. One should recite the prayer “Alhamdu-lil-laa-hil-la-dhi adh-haba ‘a-nil a-dhaa wa ‘a-faa-ni” when exiting the toilet.
  5. After cleaning one’s private parts, one should cover them immediately.
  6. One should neither face the Qibla nor turn one’s back toward it while urinating or defecating.
  7. One should remove the feces on one’s anus with one’s finger and wash one’s hand. If there are still traces of filth, one should wash them with water.
  8. One should dry one’s private parts with a cloth after washing them.
  9. One should not look at one’s private parts or spit into the toilet.
  10. One must not urinate into any water, on a wall of a mosque, in a cemetery, or on a road.
  11. Cleaning the private parts with stones and similar materials is an acceptable substitute for cleaning them with water.[8]

One will note that the process of cleaning oneself after defecating is specifically addressed.  The utilization of one’s own hand appears to be the preferred method, followed by rinsing and washing the hand.

Japanese wiping sticks. This Wikipedia and Wikimedia Commons image is from the user Chris 73 and is freely available at //commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nara_period_toilet_paper.jpg under the creative commons cc-by-sa 3.0 license.

Back to Top

The Japanese, like the Indian Buddhists, used sticks to clean themselves after defecating.  Flat, rounded sticks, called chu-gi, were uncovered in ancient cisterns dating as far back as 750 in the ancient Japanese capital of Nara.  During what is called the Nara Period, between 710 and 784, the capital had 10-15cm trenches dug and water diverted through them, making a drainage system.  Citizens would squat over these trenches, with a foot on each bank of the trench to urinate and defecate; the waste being washed away from the city.  The dirty sticks would be washed in the running water, and retained for future use, or dropped in the trench for disposal.[9]
Back to Top

Western Europe
In Western Europe, materials available for sanitation varied based on your wealth and social standing.  It is conjectured that rags were used throughout Europe and were the most common materials used for anal cleansing.  Ronald H. Blumer states his work entitled Wiped:  The Curious History of Toilet Paper that clothing too threadbare to be worn would be utilized for anal cleansing repeatedly until it was no longer fit for that purpose as well.[10]  Archeological digs under monasteries in Europe have found remnants of the tattered, holey rags used by monks and nuns for toilet purposes.  Finer wools and linens worn by the elite were used for their sanitary needs once they were no longer suitable to be worn as clothing.

Not everyone used rags, however.  In the household records of Duc de Berry in 1400, for example, there is reference to quantities of flax and hemp being purchased in a raw, unspun state for the express purpose of anal cleansing.[11]  And though few household records like these have survived, literature has.  Toilet humor–also known as scatological humor–is not a wholly modern notion.  La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel, written by François Rabelais between 1532 and 1564, was full of scatological humor.  Chapter 1.XIII, “How Gargantua’s wonderful understanding became known to his father Grangousier, by the invention of a torchecul or wipebreech” is a perfect example.  This chapter of the famous work is solely dedicated to the discussion of anal wiping:

“I have, answered Gargantua, by a long and curious experience, found out a means to wipe my bum, the most lordly, the most excellent, and the most convenient that was ever seen.  What is that? said Grangousier, how is it?  I will tell you by-and-by, said Gargantua.  Once I did wipe me with a gentle-woman’s velvet mask, and found it to be good; for the softness of the silk was very voluptuous and pleasant to my fundament.  Another time with one of their hoods, and in like manner that was comfortable.  At another time with a lady’s neckerchief, and after that I wiped me with some ear-pieces of hers made of crimson satin, but there was such a number of golden spangles in them (turdy round things, a pox take them) that they fetched away all the skin of my tail with a vengeance.  Now I wish St. Antony’s fire burn the bum-gut of the goldsmith that made them, and of her that wore them!  This hurt I cured by wiping myself with a page’s cap, garnished with a feather in the Switzers’ fashion.

“Afterwards, in dunging behind a bush, I found a March-cat, and with it I wiped my breech, but her claws were so sharp that they scratched and exulcerated all my perinee.  Of this I recovered the next morning thereafter, by wiping myself with my mother’s gloves, of a most excellent perfume and scent of the Arabian Benin.  After that I wiped me with sage, with fennel, with anet, with marjoram, with roses, with goud-leaves, with beets, with colewort, with leaves of the vine tree, with mallows, wool-blade, which is a tail-scarlet, with lettuce and with spinach leaves.”[12]

By the end of his diatribe, there is seemingly nothing that the young man won’t use.  In fact, when he comes to wiping with paper, he has this to say, “Who his foul tail with paper wipes, Shall at his ballocks leave some chips.”[13]

Though a humorous work of fiction, it does provide insight to what might have been used for anal cleansing.  The author is clearly utilizing the absurd in the name of his art, but it is not unreasonable to take grains of truth from the document.  It is quite likely that leaves, moss, straw, discarded pieces of clothing, etc. would have been utilized by all walks of life depending upon their region and the materials available to them.

It is suggested in numerous works on the subject that leaves, moss, shells, and the like would have been used for cleaning after defecation, though none of these works have been able to provide evidence to support their assertions.  It is not unreasonable, however, to make such a conjecture.  A soft leaf, unspun wool, and straw would have proved to be useful if no other means of cleansing were available.
Back to Top

While their Western counterparts were using leaves, rags, or sponges soaked in saltwater, and other areas of Asia were using sticks to clean their anuses, the Chinese were manufacturing paper to address their sanitary needs.  There is little written on the invention, manufacture, and use of the predecessor to the modern toilet paper, but there is mention of paper being used in the eliminatory process as far back as the first century.  Joseph Needham, in his collection of works entitled The Science and Civilisation of China, cited that the Chinese used paper made from rice straw for sanitary purposes.  Chinese scholar Yan Zhitu stated in 589 that “paper on which there are quotations or commentaries from Five Classics or the names of sages, I dare not use for toilet purposes.”  Additionally, an Arab explorer during the Tang Dynasty, is noted as having stated “They [the Chinese] are not careful about cleanliness, and they do not wash themselves with water after they have done their necessities, but they only wipe themselves with paper” in his memoirs detailing his travels to China.[14]

The Chinese eventually began manufacturing a specific type of paper to use after defecation, known as tshao chih.  According to Chinese records maintained by the Imperial Bureau of Supplies, over 720,000 sheets of tshao chih were manufactured in 1393 alone.   The imperial family, however, received “…15,000 sheets, three inches square, light yellow, thick but soft, and perfumed.”[15]  In fact, the use of tshao chih was so prevalent, Zhejiang Province (aka Chekiang Province) alone used ten million packages of 1,000 to 10,000 sheets in 1393 for its population of 2,138,225.[16]

Until the 19th century, paper was made exclusively by hand, and therefore, was more expensive to procure.  It would have been more cost effective to use materials that were readily available, such as leaves and old rags instead of paper.  As paper became easier and less expensive to manufacture, its use for cleansing after defecating became more common and eventually took its place as the preferred method for cleaning in most parts of the known world.  Today it is estimated that modern Americans use approximately 100 rolls of toilet paper per year.  With nearly 390,000,000 people in the US, Americans use 39,000,000,000 rolls of toilet paper each year.
Back to Top


Bennett, Howard. “EVER WONDERED about the history of toilet paper?” The Washington Post (2009): 1-2.  Accessed 10/27/2014.

Bhikkhu, Thannissaro, ed.,  The Buddhist Monastic Code II. Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2001.

Blumer, Ronald, H. Wiped:  The Curious History of Toilet Paper.  CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 2nd edition, 2013

Chavez, Amy “From the ditches of nara to the Otohime, a lav story” The Japan Times (2014): Accessed 12/27/2015

Dunstan, William E. Ancient Rome. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2011.

Guanglin Liu, William. The Chinese Market Economy, 1000-1500.  Albany, NY: State University of New York Press (2015).

My Religion Islamic. “Islamic Toilet Etiquette” (2015):  Accessed 12/28/2015

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 5, Part 1:  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1954.

Rabelais, Francois; Translation by Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty. Gargantua et de Pantagruel: 1653

Schofield, Hugh. “Filthy secrets of medieval toilets” BBC News (2003):  Accessed 10/27/2014

Seneca, Lucius Annaeus. “Moral letters to Lucilius” Letter 70 :  Accessed 02/15/2016

“The Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad at Your Fingertips”: Accessed 02/15/2016

“Islamic Toilet Etiquette“: Accessed 02/15/2016
Back to Top


[1] Dunstan, William E. Ancient Rome, pg 359.

[2] “Moral letters to Lucilius/Letter 70”

[3] Dunstan, 359

[4]Bhikkhu, Thannissaro, ed.,  The Buddhist Monastic Code II, pg. 108

[5] Ibid, pg. 107.

[6] Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 44 

[7] Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 354

[8] “Islamic Toilet Etiquette“ 

[9] Chavez, Amy “From the ditches of Nara to the Otohime, a lav story” The Japan Times

[10] Blumer, Ronald, H. Wiped:  The Curious History of Toilet Paper

[11] Ibid

[12] Rabelais, Francois, La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel Chapter 1.XIII

[13] Ibid, pg 78.

[14] Needham, Joseph Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 5, Part 1

[15] Needham, 123

[16] Guanglin Liu, William The Chinese Market Economy, 1000-1500, p 13 Appendix A
Back to Top

Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

Pennsic Choir Registration

Tue, 2016-03-01 08:30

The following article appeared in the The Æthelmearc Gazette yesterday and is reposted with their permission.  Our thanks to them for sharing this wonderful article.

Greetings, choral singers!

Lady Tangwystl verch Gruffydd of the Barony of Northwoods in the Middle Kingdom has graciously volunteered to serve as Director of a Known World Choir at the upcoming SCA 50 Year Celebration event in June!

If you are interested in participating in the KWC performance at this event, please join the group Known World Choir at 50 Year Celebration for updates and information. You can also get updates on the Known World Choir website.

Please also follow this link to fill out a short registration form.

The earlier you register, the better the Director will be able to plan for the 50 Year setlist and the performance itself. You can change/adjust answers later if needed, so please don’t hesitate to sign up today!

Additionally, those who register by March 22nd* will have an opportunity to suggest pieces for our 50 Year Celebration performance.

*Registration will continue after March 22nd, but after that point setlist will be finalized.

Filed under: Announcements, Arts and Sciences, Pennsic Tagged: choir, Music, singing