East Kingdom Gazette

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Covering the Eastern Realm of the SCA
Updated: 39 min 9 sec ago

Experimental Rapier Deputy Sought

Thu, 2017-01-19 13:43

Unto the Kingdom of the East do I, Master Frasier MacLeod, Kingdom Rapier Marshal, send warmest greetings,

I am writing to you today to put out a call for my Experimental Deputy position.  Before I go any further, I would like to take this opportunity to thank Master Alesone Grey for her tireless work in that position up to this point.  This positions’ duties include coordinating with my office any experimental programs and proposals my office receives, reporting progress on a quarterly basis to my office, and assisting those running experimental programs with any questions or concerns they may have and relaying those inquiries to me.

If you are interested in applying for this office, please send your SCA resume and qualifications to my office at: kmof@eastkingdom.org

I remain, in Service,

Master Frasier MacLeod, KRM, East


Filed under: Rapier

Announcement from the Chancellor of the Exchequer

Fri, 2017-01-13 15:58

From the Chancellor of the Exchequer:

The term of office for the East Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer will expire in June 2017. Applications are now being accepted for this office. The initial term for this office is two years. There is the option to request an additional two terms at one year each. Please note that I am NOT going to be requesting the last additional term.  Having served 3 years in this office, I now need to place my attention elsewhere.

Applicant letters of intent, resumes and questions are to be sent to these three addresses/offices.

Kingdom Exchequer

Kingdom Seneschal

Their Majesties

The duties and requirements of the office include:
• Managing SCA assets.
• Maintain current membership in the SCA for the duration of the time in
office.
• Serve as a member on financial councils.
• Is responsible directly to the Crown, but also reports to the Society
Exchequer.
• Will disburse funds in accordance with East Kingdom and Society
Financial Policies.
• Safeguards and maintains records of the monies of the Kingdom and
supervises the finances of the Kingdom.
• Receives monies allocated by East Kingdom Law or donated.
• Disburses the monies of the Kingdom in accordance with East Kingdom
Law.
• Makes a report of the Kingdom finances on a quarterly basis to The
Crown and Kingdom Seneschal.
• Supervises the Lesser Office of Kingdom Archivist.
• Supervises the Lesser Office of Kingdom Chamberlain.
• Supervises the Lesser Office of Kingdom Pennsic Steward.
• Is responsible for maintaining the financial records of the kingdom,
supervising the finances of the kingdom, and assembling financial
reports and submitting them to the Society Chancellor of the Exchequer
in a timely fashion.

Additional descriptions, expectations and or detailed requirements of
this office can be found in CORPORA & SCA governing documents, Society Financial Policy, EK-LAW and East Kingdom Financial Policy.

In service,

Maestra Ignacia la Ciega, East Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer


Filed under: Announcements Tagged: Exchequer, kingdom officers

Leurs Altesses souhaitent recevoir des recommandations pour les ordres votants.

Wed, 2017-01-11 20:22

Salutations à la population de l’Est !

Nous espérons que cette nouvelle année vous trouve en santé et comble vos espérances!

La date limite pour soumettre une recommandation pour le premier scrutin d’un de nos ordres votants sera le 20 janvier 2017. Veuillez envoyer vos recommandations par le site www.eastkingdom.org.

Nous attendons d’avoir de vos nouvelles.

Avec émotion et grand enthousiasme pour le futur,
Princesse Honing et Prince Ioannes

Traduction par: Behi Kirsa Oyutai


Filed under: Announcements, En français, Official Notices

EASTERN RESULTS FROM THE OCTOBER 2016 LoAR

Thu, 2017-01-05 17:52

The Society College of Heralds runs on monthly cycles and letters. Each month, the College processes name and armory submissions from all of the Kingdoms. Final decisions on submissions are made at the monthly meetings of the Pelican Queen of Arms (names) and the Wreath Queen of Arms (armory). Pelican and Wreath then write up their decisions in a Letter of Acceptances and Return (LoAR). After review and proofreading, LoARs generally are released two months after the meeting where the decisions are made.

An “acceptance” indicates that the item(s) listed are now registered with the Society. A “return” indicates that the item is returned to the submitter for additional work. Most items are registered without comments. Sometimes, the LoAR will address specific issues about the name or armory or will praise the submitter/herald on putting together a very nice historically accurate item.

The following results are from the October 2016 Wreath and Pelican meetings.

 

From Laurel: Farewell Lillia

The College of Arms has a rank of Herald Extraordinary that has a long and honored history. The rank was formally created and defined in the July 1981 cover letter by Wilhelm Laurel. The intent of the rank is to recognize and reward “… those heralds who have greatly served the College of Heralds and/or the College of Arms and have achieved the highest level of competence in heraldry.”

In light of her considerable contribution to the College of Arms through her efforts as Pelican Queen of Arms, I confer upon Lillia de Vaux the rank and style of Herald Extraordinary. I charge her to register a title of her choosing with the College of Arms.

I am very grateful for Lillia’s service, and I wish her the best in her future endeavors both within the College of Arms, and without.

 

Society Pages

On December 3, 2016, Master Malcolm Bowman, new Brigantia Herald of the East, named Master Ryan Mac Whyte, retiring Brigantia, a Herald Extraordinary.

 

EAST acceptances

Angelina Foljambe. Household name House of the White Elephant and badge. Azure, an elephant and a bordure argent.

The submitter requested authenticity for English. The inn-sign Black Elephant and the pattern of White + [animal] are found in Lillywhite’s London Signs dated to the 16th century. Therefore, this household name appears to be authentic for 16th century England.

Arabella De Mere. Name.

The submitter may wish to know that the form de Mere is more likely than De Mere. The FamilySearch Historical Records database typically capitalizes prepositions and other elements, even if they were not capitalized in the primary source.

This name combines an English given name with a French byname from the Netherlands. This is an acceptable lingual mix under Appendix C of SENA.

This name does not conflict with the registered name Arabella de la Mer. A syllable has been removed and the vowel changed in Mere versus Mer. Therefore, this name is clear under PN3C1 of SENA.

Arsinoé Dragonette. Name.

Arsinoé is a French literary name.

Brandulfr Sæfinnsson. Name.

Submitted as Brandulfr Saefinnson, the name was changed in kingdom to Brand-Ulfr Sæfinnsson because Brand- and Ulfr- were documented as given names that could not be combined to form another given name. Instead, the name was modified to use Brand- as a prepended descriptive byname, so the name only had a single given name. In addition, the spelling of the patronym was modified from -son to -sson to match the documented form.

In commentary, Siren noted:

Brandulfr is a header form in Fellows Jensen; there’s a Brandulf in the Domesday Book (http://domesday.pase.ac.uk/Domesday?op=6&filterString=brandulf) and Brandlfsike is dated as a place name to the 13th-14th c. She admits that it is not impossible that it’s from a Continental Germanic name.

Therefore we can give the submitter the benefit of the doubt and register the submitted given name.

The submitter requested authenticity for a 10th century Norse name. This name does not meet this request because the given name is dated to the late 11th century from England and the byname is found in Iceland after the 10th century.

Brick James Beech. Device. Sable, on a chevron couched from dexter argent two footprints toes to dexter sable.

There is a step from period practice for the use of footprints.

East, Kingdom of the. Badge for the East Kingdom’s Southern Army. (Fieldless) Five mullets of six points conjoined in cross Or.

“East Kingdom’s Southern Army” is a generic identifier.

East, Kingdom of the. Badge for the East Kingdom’s Southern Army. Azure, five mullets of six points in cross Or.

“East Kingdom’s Southern Army” is a generic identifier.

Elaria Grenway. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for “late 14th cen./early 15th cen. England”. The entire name can be documented to England in the 1580s, but not in the 14th or 15th century. Therefore, this name does not meet the submitter’s request.

Gregor von Medehem. Name.

Nice late 14th century German name!

Grímólfr Skúlason. Badge. (Fieldless) A closed book argent sustaining in chief a wolf couchant sable.

Ile du Dragon Dormant, Baronnie de l’. Order name Award of the Argent Mountain.

Ile du Dragon Dormant, Baronnie de l’. Order name Award of the Gold Mountain.

Ile du Dragon Dormant, Baronnie de l’. Order name Award of the Purple Mountain.

Lorencio Matteo Espinosa. Device. Per pale azure and vert, a covered cup Or within an orle of flames proper.

Merlyn Kuster. Alternate name Eyjolfr dreki.

Muiredach Ua Dálaig. Device. Sable, a fess azure fimbriated between two talbots passant respectant and a cross formy argent.

Ogurr Aðalbrandsson. Name and device. Per pale vert and sable, a drinking horn and a sword in saltire and on a chief argent a pair of shackles sable.

We note that the form {O,}gurr, using an O-ogonek, is found in Geirr Bassi. However, under Appendix D of SENA, we can register this name as submitted instead of changing it to the attested form.

Sigrida Arnsdottir. Name and device. Per bend vert and sable, a bend embattled counter-embattled between an eagle’s head erased and a stag’s attire in annulo conjoined to itself Or.

Siobhán inghean uí Ghadhra. Name and device. Per pale vert and purpure, a unicorn argent between three harps Or.

Urr{a-}ka al-Tha`labiyya. Badge. (Fieldless) A magpie proper perched on and maintaining a rapier fesswise reversed Or.

 

EAST returns

Esa Gray. Name.

This name was pended to allow discussion of whether it presumes upon the name of 19th century botanist Asa Gray. Asa Gray is the original author and current namesake of Gray’s Manual, the standard reference on North American plants, and is considered to be the most important American botanist of his time. In addition, he collaborated with Charles Darwin, arranged for the publishing of On the Origin of Species in the United States, and wrote defenses of the highly controversial theory of evolution. Although his name is largely known only to specialists, his work “significantly shaped the course of science” in the areas of botany and genetics. Thus, Asa Gray is important enough to protect under PN4D1 of SENA.

The submitted name Esa Gray can be identical in sound to the protected Asa Gray, so we are returning this name for presumption.

Upon resubmission, we suggest the addition of a Scots or English locative byname to avoid the appearance of presumption: Esa Gray of X.

This name was pended from the May 2016 Letter of Acceptances and Returns.

Sitt al-Gharb ha-niqret Khazariyya. Badge. (Fieldless) Two winged monkeys combattant each maintaining two daggers the center daggers crossed in saltire Or.

This badge is returned for redraw, for violating SENA A2C2 which states “Elements must be drawn to be identifiable.” Commenters had trouble identifying the winged monkeys, probably because the daggers make the outline more confusing than the one used in her device.

 


Filed under: Uncategorized

Award Recommendations for Their Highnesses

Wed, 2017-01-04 10:05

Greetings to the populace of the East!

We hope the new year finds you all well and hopeful.

We will be accepting award recommendations for our first polling until January 20th 2017. Please send your award recommendations via the www.eastkingdom.org website.

We look forward to hearing from you.

With much love and excitement for the future,
Princess Honig and Prince Ioannes


Filed under: Uncategorized

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #16: The Double Bind: Thomas Campion and Elizabethan Women

Tue, 2017-01-03 16:18

Our sixteenth A&S Research Paper comes to us from Lord Drake Oranwood of the Shire of Rusted Woodlands, who examines the work of the Elizabethan songwriter Thomas Campion, and uses his texts as a way to look closely at the role of women in that complex society. (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

The Double Bind: Thomas Campion and Elizabethan Women

Young Lady Aged 21, possibly Helena Snakenborg, later Marchioness of Northampton. By English School, 16th century [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

The role of women in Elizabethan society is something that quickly called attention to itself from my first studies of Elizabethan popular songs. In developing an Elizabethan persona, I become quite fond of lute songs, as exemplified by John Dowland and his less-celebrated colleague, Thomas Campion. The more of these pieces I learned, however, the more troubling I found the attitudes about women that peeked through (between the lines, as it were). It is no secret that women lacked social equality with men throughout the Medieval and Renaissance period. Still, these pithy bits of popular entertainment provided a surprising window into the conflicting, contradictory, and inescapable demands to which women, particularly young women of the upper classes, were subjected. These quandaries of inequality have existed throughout history, of course, but the writings of the 16th century (written primarily by men) rarely articulated it as such or gave it a name. In the twentieth century a term emerged for this sort of paradoxical dilemma and the strain it places on its subjects: the double bind, which describes “a situation in which a person is confronted with two irreconcilable demands or a choice between two undesirable courses of action.” (Oxford English Dictionary)

In this article, I will examine primarily two songs from Campion’s first songbook, A Book of Airs (1601).[1] These two songs can, if juxtaposed together, be read as telling the story of an Elizabethan relationship first from a man’s perspective, then the woman’s contrasting one. This tale may serve to shed a light on the double bind faced by women Campion observed, and the different constricting forms it took. During Elizabeth’s reign, the power and entitlement men held over women, the conflicting roles and demands placed upon women of status, particularly in matters of sexuality, metastasized into ever more beautiful but suffocating forms.

Song XII.

Thou art not fair, for all thy red and white,
For all those rosy ornaments in thee;
Thou art not sweet, though made of mere delight,
Not fair nor sweet, unless thou pity me.
I will not soothe thy fancies: thou shalt prove
That beauty is no beauty without love.

Yet love not me, nor seek thou to allure
My thoughts with beauty, were it more divine:
Thy smiles and kisses I cannot endure,
I’ll not be wrapt up in those arms of thine:
Now shot it, if thou be a woman right,—
Embrace, and kiss, and love me, in despite!

 

  Song V.

My love hath vowed he will forsake me
And I am already sped.
For other promise he did make me
When he had my maidenhead.
If such danger be in playing
And sport must to earnest turn,
I will go no more a-maying.

Had I foreseen what is ensued,
And what now with pain I prove,
Unhappy then I had eschewed
This unkind event of love.
Maids foreknow their own undoing,
But fear naught till all is done,
When a man alone is wooing.

Dissembling wretch! to gain thy pleasure
What didst thou not vow and swear?
So didst thou rob me of the treasure
Which so long I held so dear.
Now thou prov’st to me a stranger,
Such is the vile guise of men,
When a woman is in danger.

That heart is nearest to misfortune
That will trust a feigned tongue.
When flatt’ring men our loves importune,
They intend us deepest wrong.
If this shame of loves betraying,
But this once I cleanly shun,
I will go no more a-maying.

Our exploration begins with “Thou art not fair”, a fairly typical love song of its time (and indeed many others), but which has a few features of particular interest to us. A male lover’s plea for his lady’s favor, it begins as many such pieces do with sharp accusation:

Thou art not fair, for all thy red and white,
For all those rosy ornaments in thee…

With classic Elizabethan word-play, Campion opens with a heavily loaded phrase: “Thou art not fair”. By punning on the word “fair”, our suitor is actually accusing his lady-friend of falling short of two ideals about English women, both of them double binds. He is calling her ”unfair” in the sense that she is denying him what he is entitled to as a man (and we shall explore that point in detail shortly). He is additionally suggesting she is not “fair”, meaning beautiful according to the standards of the day. But with “for all thy red and white” and “rosy ornaments”, he adds a third, literal, meaning to “fair” that illuminates those standards of beauty: she is not pale-skinned (or less so than she appears). He is accusing her of wearing makeup, which by the end of 16th century had become a special sort of insinuation.

Portrait of Dorothy, Lady Dormer (1577 – ?), daughter of Sir Robert, 1st Baron Dormer, of Wing (1552-1616) and wife of Henry Hudleston of Sawston. By Unknown English: English School (image) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Women’s makeup came into common use in the nobility during Elizabeth’s reign, popularized by the Queen’s copious use of it to achieve a particular idealized standard of beauty: “Pale skin was a sign of nobility, wealth, and (for women) delicacy, and was sought after by many. In a time when skin problems and the pox were commonplace, sunscreen unheard of, and skin creams and ointments out of reach for all but the well-off, smooth, unblemished and pale skin was a rarity.”[2]

Of course, most cosmetic formulations to create this alabaster skin, along with rosy lips and cheeks, were highly toxic and damaged the skin (and when lead was part of the mixture, the brain) with prolonged use. Elizabeth herself, as she aged, suffered from her constant use of cosmetics in public, and thus relied on them ever more heavily, which in turn subjected her to an increasing level of subversive mockery. In living up to men’s expectations of beauty, English noble women found themselves increasingly suspected and accused of being painted impostors wearing false fronts to disguise their bodies’ decay. By late in the reign, literary jabs at noblewomen for their made-up paleness were fairly common. Campion, ever the wit, made use of the trope elsewhere, for example in “I care not for these ladies” from this same songbook:

I care not for these ladies,
That must be wooed and prayed:
Give me kind Amaryllis,
The wanton country maid.
Nature art disdaineth,
Her beauty is her own.
For when we court and kiss,
She cries, “Forsooth, let go!”
But when we come where comfort is,
She never will say no. If I love Amaryllis,
She gives me fruit and flowers:
But if we love these ladies,
We must give golden showers.
Give them gold, that sell love,
Give me the nut-brown lass, …

Campion contrasts the upper-class “ladies” in question with the more accessible earthiness of Amaryllis, whose “beauty is her own” (i.e., not painted on), and whose body, tan from outdoor work, is far more readily available, with much less fuss, to men. Ladies’ makeup is a protective coating which makes them artificially beautiful, and less attainable, and the suitor of “Thou art not fair” mocks his lady’s (likely compulsory) use of it, hoping to lower her defenses:

Thou art not sweet, though made of mere delight,
Not fair nor sweet, unless thou pity me.
I will not soothe thy fancies: thou shalt prove
That beauty is no beauty without love. Yet love not me, nor seek thou to allure
My thoughts with beauty, were it more divine:
Thy smiles and kisses I cannot endure,
I’ll not be wrapt up in those arms of thine:
Now shot it, if thou be a woman right,—
Embrace, and kiss, and love me, in despite!

Lowering her defenses is indeed his aim, and he will carp at her until she bestows her “pity” on him. A classic trope of male entitlement (still widespread today, but rife in songs of the period) is the notion that a woman’s beauty holds such power over a man that it is cruelty beyond measure for her to tempt him with “smiles and kisses” but withhold sexual favors. Her “beauty is no beauty without love,” and note the ascending scale of the demands: “Embrace, and kiss, and love me, in despite!” Thus the suitor makes plain one end of the greater double bind we alluded to earlier—male entitlement. A desirable woman is hateful if she rejects a man’s sexual needs.

No thought is given in the piece to what the woman in question wants, or whether it is compatible with the man’s sense of entitlement; this is a commonplace of the genre. As Theresa D. Kemp observes, “The modes and genre of courtly love…rarely image an inner life or subjectivity for the lady; she is merely the object of the speaker’s desire.” (Women in the Age of Shakespeare, p. 3.)[3]

So, what if she acquiesces to the fervent plea, and gives herself to the poor fellow (as he appears to imagine himself), instead of taunting him with her supposedly deadly power? It is one thing for the low-born Amaryllis to freely enjoy the delights of the flesh with a man, but quite another for a “red and white” painted (and doubly bound) lady to do so. In “My love hath vowed,” Campion unspools the fate of a girl who makes this choice and faces the consequences of yielding to a man’s sexual entitlement. His telling suggests empathy for her plight, and yet surely this would have served as a stern warning and cautionary tale to any young woman of the day who heard it.

My love hath vowed he will forsake me
And I am already sped.
For other promise he did make me
When he had my maidenhead.
If such danger be in playing
And sport must to earnest turn,
I will go no more a-maying.

In contrast to the supposedly romantic sparring of the previous song, here we discover the aftermath of a consummated tryst. This young woman’s lover wastes no time “forsak[ing]” her on learning of her pregnancy, and, she is “already sped” from the scene of her shame. Her confession—that she gave him her “maidenhead”—is startlingly explicit for Elizabethan songs, which referenced sex constantly, but always veiled in coded language and wordplay. (“Maidenhead,” while used a few times by Shakespeare, appears in no other extant lute song of the period.[4]) There is “danger” in “playing” indeed: she has been ruined socially. This, then, is the other side of the double bind of men’s sexual entitlement: a pregnant, unmarried noblewoman has no bright future in this society.

The Elizabethan age was a period of great change, and a number of scholars mark Elizabeth’s coronation as the true beginning of the English Renaissance. To the extent that term “renaissance” means “rebirth”, however, it cannot be said to have been a step forward for women in Europe, and this was as true in England as anywhere.[5] In a world led exclusively by men, the rise of a woman to the supreme power might suggest the possibility of new equalities, but English society at large responded to this development with, if anything, a hardening and tightening of attitudes about power. In the decades prior, social changes had already been working to make life for high-born English women increasingly constricted and binding, more like a vise than a corset.

Crucially, the role of upper-class women had been shaped increasingly by concerns around wealth and inheritance. The jaws of the vise predated this era: the 14th-century establishment of primogeniture (the eldest male heir would now always be first in line for inheritance), and Henry VIII’s abolition of England’s monasteries in 1536 as part of the Reformation (eliminating convents, the one option for women to have an independent livelihood and life of the mind, outside the sway of men to a greater degree than secular life afforded). By Elizabeth’s time, an unmarried woman generally could not own or run a business on her own, and if married, all property was in the husband’s name. The only alternative to marriage was now domestic service.[vi] (Elizabeth herself famously avoided marriage, and the attendant loss of power and status, despite constant public pressure for an heir—and, of course, her choice not to provide one would end the Tudor line and her legacy of power.)

Had I foreseen what is ensued,
And what now with pain I prove,
Unhappy then I had eschewed
This unkind event of love.
Maids foreknow their own undoing,
But fear naught till all is done,
When a man alone is wooing.

In late sixteenth-century English society, then, upper-class women were valued exclusively for their marriageability even more than before. This required them to be as beautiful as possible (as evidenced by the obsession with paleness and cosmetics), but also, crucially, chaste. In a world where a high-status family used daughters to secure wealth, and a wealthy family used daughters to secure status, the assumption of virginity was essential to those transactions. Our song’s heroine has learned this lesson the hard way, through the “pain” of pregnancy and being shunned by society. She reflects how “maids” (in the parlance of the day, virgins) should anticipate “their own undoing,” but do not consider the consequences until too late.

Dissembling wretch! to gain thy pleasure
What didst thou not vow and swear?
So didst thou rob me of the treasure
Which so long I held so dear.
Now thou prov’st to me a stranger,
Such is the vile guise of men,
When a woman is in danger.

Moving from regret to anger, Campion affords his heroine the clarity to cast (legitimate) blame on her suitor, who as she has already hinted, was eager to “vow and swear” his love in order “to gain [his] pleasure” of her. She reminds the audience, lest they forget, of the loss of “the treasure / Which so long I held so dear”: her virginity. But note the harsh language with which she accosts her seducer: he is a liar, a thief, and ultimately a coward, content to evade the consequences of his wants, as she cannot.

It is intriguing that, for once, Campion spares a thought to acknowledge a man’s culpability in the double bind and the plight of this friendless woman. It is noteworthy in particular that (in the lady’s voice) Campion calls the man out for being untrue to her, both before and after getting his “pleasure”. This would appear to be a very conscious reversal of a ubiquitous trope of the time: that it is women who are false, lacking in honesty and courage. At the heart of each of the double binds faced by the Elizabethan woman, is the Elizabethan man’s constant suspicion of her. The cosmetics she wears to present the image that patriarchal society demands, of pristine youth and beauty, becomes proof of her inherent wily deception and falseness. And the man who demands that a girl remain a virgin until marriage, but who sings joyfully of a man’s sport in using his persuasion and power to take that virginity from her as he feels entitled, will ever wonder whether his fiancée, or his bride, is the virgin he takes her to be. If the Elizabethan woman’s power—the only one afforded to her—is her beauty and sexual allure, then every man’s fear is that she will make use of that power to satisfy her wants, rather than her husband’s. This fear appears to have the effect of drawing the vise ever tighter around the women of the age, with constant reminders that the risks in the game of sexual license and deception are not equally shared, but fall almost entirely on women. Thus does “My love hath vowed” conclude, with a doleful reminder and warning:

That heart is nearest to misfortune
That will trust a feigned tongue.
When flatt’ring men our loves importune,
They intend us deepest wrong.
If this shame of loves betraying,
But this once I cleanly shun,
I will go no more a-maying.

Our heroine sees the entitlement double bind clearly, and speaks now to her countrywomen, warning of the “feigned tongue” of men who risk nothing, to entrap women who risk everything for these moments of pleasure. The attendant “shame of loves betraying” has been her “undoing”, and she hopes others will follow her example going forward to “cleanly shun” such exploits.

Thomas Campion devoted over 10% of his creative output—14 songs out of 119—exploring a woman’s perspective, which was highly unusual for a writer of his day. If Campion, in his own essays, claimed not to place particular value on his mostly light-hearted English lyrics (Latin was the language for serious writing), he nevertheless slipped into them some sharp observations about the society he lived in. Certainly he knew well the double bind of the Elizabethan woman: ever primed and encouraged to be the target of male gaze and yearning, but subject to men’s harsh judgment whether she refuse, or respond in kind; ever pressed to be beautiful and alluring, but virginal; her life, freedom, and sexuality suborned in the service of men’s ambitions. In his songs it is hard to miss the dilemma, bound tightly (and pulling in opposite directions) around every noblewoman in England, up to and including Elizabeth herself.

Notes

[1] Philip Rosseter, Campion’s closest friend and a skilled lutenist, published this first book under his own name, but devoted the first half to Campion’s songs. After this Campion went on to publish subsequent songbooks under his own name. Campion was unusual as an Elizabethan songwriter who wrote his words and music together (the common practice was to add the tune or more often the lyrics later, which is why most lyrics for songwriters like John Dowland are considered anonymous). Rosseter, however, is generally credited with helping Campion with tunes and arrangements. The depth of their friendship was such that Campion, who died a bachelor, bequeathed what paltry wealth he possessed entirely to Rosseter, wishing it were more.

[2] Leed, Drea, “Elizabethan Make-up 101”. 

[3] Kemp, Theresa D. Women in the Age of Shakespeare. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2010. Also available at http://www.abc-clio.com.

[4] Karlsson, Katarina A. ‘Think’st Thou to Seduce Me Then?’ Impersonating Female Personas in Songs by Thomas Campion (1567-1620). (p 74) Thesis. University of Gothenburg, 2011. Kållered: Ineko AB, 2011. ResearchGate. ArtMonitor. Web.

[5] Kemp, p. 26.

[6] Kemp, p. 19-36.

 

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Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

In Memorium: Yvan Wolvesbane

Tue, 2016-12-27 18:02

Lord Yvan Wolvesbane passed away suddenly on December 4, 2016. Always an upholder of the chivalrous arts – he was the third Knight Marshal for the Barony of Concordia of the Snows.

Yvan Wolvesbane discovered the SCA while he was in the Navy.  His first assignment on a ship was a great adventure for him.  When his was off duty he explored.  Imagine how surprised he was when he climbed a ladder to go on deck and stepped into a fight practice!

The ship was a successful little shire. The Shire even had permission to have little events on board.  His attempt at medieval clothing for his first event  was to pull the blanket off his cot and pin it on backwards as a cloak.  The blanket was stamped NAVY of course.  Rather deeply.  The ink had soaked through. When he told a shipmate he had not chosen a name, someone laughed and said it was written on his cloak! YVAN was a name that stuck for his entire career in the Game.

Reading was a great passion with Yvan.  There he discovered that choosing a persona was going to be a difficult decision.  He found the fascination with working metal and the fearlessness in battle that comes with believing that death is followed by waking up with your friends in Celtic cultures fascinating.  The Norse focus on fighting, travel, entrepreneurship, and farming was very, very appealing too.  He discovered that the culture in the around early Cornwall was a delicious blend of the two.

After his discharge, Yvan bought a Harley and traveled wherever his whims took him for several years.  But he never missed Pennsic.  He managed to take his armour and tent as well as his garb along with him on the bike, a pole arm sticking out on each end.  When there were fewer rules there he used his bike as a tent pole.  Once!   In a storm that year his tent fell over him!  After that the bike was usually a quiet companion in his tent.  His first air mattress exploded when Yvan hopped into bed.  Every year after that for a long time he broke his bed at Pennsic.   These are stories that will make you laugh for hours.

For him, fighting and metalwork were both arts.  Arts requiring study, research, skill acquired by practice, and creativity.  Making armour for fighting and tools for the forge were just as interesting to him as using them.  His helmet and his forge were prized possessions. Not only did he work at the forge, he found joy and passion in sharing his knowledge with anyone who showed interest. In 2015 he was inducted into the Order of the Maunche.

“Yvan Wolvesbane was a charismatic and honorable man who will be missed by everyone who knew him.  Sail off on your Death Ship, my friend, to Valhalla.  I will meet you there when I come to the Blessed Isle.” Mistress Brid nic Shearlais


Filed under: In Memoriam

Pennsic 46 Rapier Champions Teams Kick-off & Signups

Tue, 2016-12-27 10:00

The Rapier Pennsic Champions Coordinators have announced the tryout and selection process for both the Single’s Team & the Melee Team. Below is the selection committee’s email, originally sent out to the EK Rapier email list.

Greeting unto the East!

Preparations for the rapier champions teams are already underway in order to give everyone plenty of time to plan for next year. Here are the pertinent details.

Selection Process

We will be running tryouts again for both teams. We like how much this allows us to see people in action, how much it makes us travel, and how it gives so many people more excuses to fence.

Don Lupold intends to organize tryout tournaments for the singles team throughout the Kingdom all the way through July. It should be noted that while winning one of these tournaments will certainly put you on the short list of candidates, it is no guarantee that you will be selected.

Don Eldrich intends on running at least half a dozen melee tryouts throughout the Kingdom between January and May so that he can best observe every candidate. His intention is to narrow the list as quickly as possible and produce the final list of team members no later than May so that there is time for the team to prepare together throughout June and July.

In addition to subjective observation of skill, Eldrich will be attempting to harvest more objective data from the tryouts than what was gathered last year. It is our hope that this information will be informative and will reinforce his subjective impressions rather than challenge them. Either way, the data will be used to inform his decisions, but will not be the only deciding factors.

Sign Up

Go sign up! The form is here: Pennsic EK Rapier Champions Signups 2017

In addition to being the starting list from which the champions will eventually be chosen, the sign up list will also guide us when deciding when and where the best places to host tryouts might be.

An Expanded Melee Team

While only ten of us can take the champions melee field at Pennsic, Eldrich believes that the East Kingdom has many more fencers worthy of being called champions and who could contribute to the team’s success. Therefor, there will be a round of cuts around May down to approximately twenty-five semi-finalists. These semi-finalists will be asked to serve as an expanded champions team whose role will be to practice and train in the final months before ten of them will represent the East Kingdom on the field at the champions melee battle at Pennsic. The primary goals are to encourage local training and exercises among the most likely candidates and to provide a dedicated group for the final team to practice with without requiring everyone to travel half-way across the Kingdom on the same weekend.

If you have any questions or wish to volunteer your event or practice to host one of the tryouts, you can email either of us directly at mzurschm@gmail.com or eldrichgaiman@yahoo.com .

General questions or comments for the East Kingdom Rapier command can always be sent to EKRapierArmy@gmail.com .

Yours in service to the East,
Don Lupold Hass, Captain of Rapier Champions & King’s Champion of Fence
Don Eldrich Gaiman, Captain of Rapier Melee Champion

P.S. – Please help share this message with your local fencing communities. Thanks!


Filed under: Pennsic, Rapier Tagged: Pennsic, pennsic 46, pennsic war points, Rapier

An Announcement From TRH Regarding Pennsic Rapier

Mon, 2016-12-26 11:00

Here is the news we have promised and you have all waited with such grace and patience.

We have searched high and low throughout this vast kingdom for a gentle to lead our fencers into war. We are pleased to announce that we have found what we have sought.

Enemies of the East beware for an army of fencers come before you! Their leader is fierce of blade, strong of hand and one helluva dresser!

The next Rapier General of the East – Don Remy Delamontagne de Gascogne

The rest of his illustrious staff:

East Kingdom XOs: Dona Sorcha Dhocair & Gallant Xavier the Sinister
Aide de Camp: Dona Anastasia da Monte 

Northern Army Commander: Master Ogedei Beccinjab Northern Army XO: Lady Elewys Yun Shi of Anglespur   Southern Commander: Duchess Caoilfhionn inghean Fhaolàin Southern XO: Don Eldrich Gaiman  

Champs Coordinator: Don Lupold Hass
Melee Champs Captain: Don Eldrich Gaiman
Champs Advisory Council: Master Donovan Shinnock, Don Devlin MacPhearson & Don Thomas of Effingham

Yours in service,

Princess Honig and Prince Ioannes


Filed under: Announcements, Pennsic, Rapier Tagged: pennsic 46, Rapier, rapier champions

King’s & Queen’s Bardic Champions Has New Website

Fri, 2016-12-23 09:07

King and Queen’s A&S and Bardic Champions will take place on February 11th in the Barony of Concordia of the Snows.

There is a wonderful new website for the event: www.kqchamps.org. Details about the formats and requirements of both competitions can be found on this site. Please read all of the information carefully if you intend to compete. Questions about each competition can be directed to its respective champions.

Please remember that entrants for both competitions must register their intention to compete before the event. Registration information and deadlines can be found on the website. Please note that A&S research papers also have an advanced submission deadline.

Judges are still needed for the A&S competition! If you are willing to volunteer your time, please e-mail here .

Remember, there will also be a Youth A&S Display at the event! Please see the website for more details.


Filed under: Announcements, Arts and Sciences, Youth Activities

East Kingdom 50 Year Event Bids Sought

Sat, 2016-12-10 18:21

Greetings  unto the populace of this great East Kingdom.

Bids are now being accepted from those that want to run an East Kingdom 50 year event.

The East will hit the 50-year mark in 2018.  This results in a really tight window for bids to be received and reviewed by the Council of the Exchequer.

Had it not been for the desire of several people to run such an event, this momentous occasion could have passed by without any acknowledgment at all.

Considering that this event is unique in its nature it will likely have more detail than the standard East Kingdom event bid form. http://seneschal.eastkingdom.org/docs/EK50YearEventBid.docx

Submit all details and costs on the form or in additional attachments.  Include any and all information so that the council has a complete picture of your event and bid.

Your bids are to be sent to the  Kingdom Exchequer and Seneschal as well as Their Majesties and Highnesses. The deadline to receive bids is January 15, 2017.

In Service,

Ignacia,  Kingdom Exchequer

Mercedes, Kingdom Seneschal


Filed under: Announcements, Events, Uncategorized Tagged: EK 50th, Exchequer, seneschal

The Largesse of the Great Heart of Saint Kenric of Blessed Memory

Sat, 2016-12-10 00:21

The following was shared with the Gazette by Meister Ulric von der Insel, Baron Bridge.

It is with humility and reverence that we, Ulric and Clothilde, Baron and Baroness Bridge do announce the rediscovery of the Great Patrimony bestowed upon us in days gone by! Much like the noted Donation of Constantine, whereby the Papal States were formed and which in NO WAY at all might be a forgery, Bridge was the recipient of the Largesse of the Great Heart of Saint Kenric of Blessed Memory, which, also, is in NO WAY a forgery at all! The document was rediscovered and read to the delight of all assembled at the barony’s 43rd birthday. Much as with the miracle of saints’ blood still staying wet over the centuries, herein was a miracle of Saint Kenric that the ink even appeared wet upon the scroll! Here it reads verbatim as follows:


Kenric Masculobarbatus Rex Defender of the East & Patron of Prosperity to All to whom these letters come, especially around AS 51, greetings. Know that Our Crown Barony of the Bridge being home of Our Heart & Body We would ensure its future lest it fall into poverty and so it must also prosper as a fit home for My Dearest Avelina in the unfortunate case of my demise by oh, I don’t know – maybe many black arrows in the chest. Thus do We gift forever said Crown Barony with the full income of the Great Kings Highway from one end to the other without gainsay, hindrance, stay or molestation upon pain of censure, forfeiture of estate, dismemberment and disembowelment. This We command upon this 24th day of September AS 46 being the birthday of Our most beloved brother Ulric. So say We Kenric Rex the First of Three or So.

Kenric

Post Script: This document is in no way a forgery
Signed Kenric’s Scribe’s Notary

This was read by myself – Meister Ulric von der Insel, Baron Bridge – on Sunday December 4 at Bridge Birthday 43. The document was discovered after long laying forgotten in a chest. (Note: It’s a forgery patterned after the famous Donation of Constantine, by which the Papal States were granted to the popes in perpetuity by Emperor Constantine. Really, it’s just for instigation and fun!)

 


Filed under: History Tagged: Barony of Bridge, Kenric and Avelina

East Kingdom Bardic Championship

Tue, 2016-12-06 17:03

The East Kingdom Bardic Championship will take place on February 11, 2017 in the Barony of Concordia of the Snows (Scotia, NY)

East Kingdom Bardic Championship

Photograph courtesy of The Honorable Lord Hugh Tauerner

King Brion and Queen Anna will select their Bardic Champions based on a three-round competition.  Competitors will be judged by Their Majesties and the current Champions, along with an advisory committee, on choice of material, artistic impression, audience impact, technical skill, and individual response.

Questions regarding the competition format or requirements should be directed to the current Queen’s Bard, Mistress Alys Mackyntoich.  Mistress Alys is not on Facebook, but Lady Aethelflied Brewbane, the King’s Bard is, and will answer questions arising in that forum.

***For the first time this year, we are asking those intending to compete to pre-register with Mistress Alys, the Queen’s Bard, by sending her an email at alys.mackyntoich@gmail.com.  Emails must be received by midnight on February 6, 2017 if you wish to compete.  The email need only contain your name and a statement of intent.***

Responsibilities of the Champions

Before competing for the position of Bardic Champion, please consider the responsibilities of the office.  Bardic Champions are expected to:

Photo by The Honorable Lord Hugh Tauerner

  • Make an effort to attend at minimum the Crown Tournaments and Coronations during their tenure, and Pennsic if at all possible, as well as other Kingdom Events and Royal Progresses as the Champion is able.
  • Be willing/able to perform at courts, feasts, and other functions (and at the whim of Their Royal Majesties).
  • Be willing/able to perform something on the spur of the moment (especially in the event of a delay breaking out).
  • Commemorate the history of The Crowns and the East Kingdom in song and story.
  • Advise and assist the Crown in the organization of the competition to choose their successors.
  • Run the East-Middle Bardic Exposition at Pennsic, featuring performances by representatives of the East, the Middle and their “daughter” Kingdoms.
  • In appropriate years, Champions may be asked to organize or provide performances for State Dinner or Queen’s Tea at Pennsic.
Display Option

Time permitting, those who do not wish to compete for the Championship will be allowed time to display their performance skills between rounds of the competition.  If you think you would like to display, please contact Mistress Alys in advance so that we can try to make sufficient time available for you.

Performer Resume

Each performer is asked to submit, prior to the first round, an index-card-sized summary of types of performances and styles the performer would be willing to perform with little or no prior notice.  This “resume” gives the performers a chance to display versatility as well as skill, and gives Their Majesties additional information as they consider their next bardic champions.  Their Majesties will choose something from this list for the final round, so consider well what you may be called upon to perform!

Examples:

Name (list relevant SCA info) what you do as a performer, and what you can do on command.

Queen Thyra Inducts Her Bard: William Photo by Cateline la Broderesse

Romanus Gaius Cantus (SC, OTC, Troubadour)  Roman-style boasts, filk on any topic to the tune of the Maltese Bransle or Greensleeves, good at extemporaneous speaking, can chant war-style marching songs in Latin.  Excellent at theatre-style reading text I have not seen before.

Skihald the Viking (King’s Bard to John VIII, Troubadour, Order of the Maunche, Order of the Laurel) Perform and write Norse-styled poetry in English, tell skaldic tales from 4 to 10 minutes in length from hilarious to morose, excellent teller of jokes, intermediate juggler, have several magic tricks I have worked into period settings.

Ysibeau du Provance Period pieces in French for solo voice or recorder, Latin sacred music of the 12th century, improvisational harp.  Can write small praise poems in French and English with some notice.  Familiar with some music from most SCA periods, and SCA-appropriate songs.  I am good at selecting music for different occasions.

Haven Fortnight (Bard to Baron of the Place) I know a handful of period pieces, but my strengths are really SCA-appropriate non-period songs composed by others (traditional, folk tradition, SCA-composers) or by myself.  I also play guitar.  I can write pieces on commission with some notice.  I can play and stroll at the same time.  I can write in rhyming verse on short notice on nearly any topic and present it.

Structure of the Competition

The competition will take place over three rounds with the following parameters.

FIRST ROUND: a documented period piece, a period-style piece OR a piece written on an SCA theme.

SECOND ROUND: a piece of a different type or style than that done in the first round.  For example, if you performed a documented period piece for round one and wish to perform another documented period piece for round two, the two pieces should differ in some other way, such as mood (happy vs. melancholy), type of performance (poetry vs. song, prose vs. instrumental), etc.

THIRD ROUND: Their Majesties’ choice.  Their Majesties will instruct the competitors on what they wish to hear, guided by their earlier performances, the skills which have been listed in their “resume”, and (possibly) a brief interview of the entrant.  Performers will have a few minutes to prepare.

For this competition, a “period piece” is defined as an actual historical piece of poetry, prose or music, with appropriate documentation.  A “period-style piece” is an original or adapted work using documented period forms.  A “piece on an SCA theme” is any work written about SCA persons, events, or culture, and does not require documentation.

For period or period-style pieces, please provide a brief executive summary, such as would fit on an index card.  Any additional documentation, such as a paper explaining the period style in which the piece was written or documenting the source of the period piece, will be accepted happily and will be counted in favor of the competitor.

**Competitors will have a total of twelve minutes of performance time split over the all three rounds.  For the third round, Their Majesties may add additional time at their whim.**

The new Bardic Champions will be announced and begin their service at Court this day.

FAQ

Note: This list will be maintained and updated as new questions arrive on their own web page.

Do I need to pre-register in order to compete?

Yes, for the first time this year, we are asking Bardic competitors to pre-register with the Champions stating their intent to compete.  Those intending to compete must pre-register with Mistress Alys by February 6, 2017.  Note that this is not the same as pre-registering for the event, although we encourage that as well.

What are the judges looking for?

Both the King’s and Queen’s Bard this year prefer documented period pieces and period-style pieces, and encourage performers to try those forms. Their Majesties are looking for pieces that move them emotionally, and enjoy pieces that evoke SCA history and culture.  So, the whole performing arts spectrum will be represented in the judging.

Do I need documentation in order to compete?

ONLY IF you are performing a period or “period style” piece.  The documentation can be as brief as an index card citing the source of your piece.  E.g., “Now Is The Month Of Maying” by Thomas Morley (1595), found in The Oxford Book of English Madrigals (Oxford University Press, 1978).  However, more documentation, particular if the piece is an original one, written in a period style, will be accepted quite happily and will be counted in the competitor’s favor.

Can I compete as an instrumentalist?

Yes, as long as vocal performance is also part of what you do.  At least one of your first two rounds should involve some sort of vocal presentation, whether spoken word or song.

Can I use a group performance for one of the rounds?

Only individuals can compete to be King’s or Queen’s Bard.  However, a group performance such as a choral song, recorder consort, or a brief mumming may be offered as part of an individual’s body of work IF the exact role of the person actually competing is made clear.  For example, when Lady Hextilda offers a group performance of a recorder piece, she states on her index card and documentation that she wrote the piece in a particular period style and is performing the alto recorder part.

What if I don’t want to be a Royal Bard but I want to get feedback?

Schedule permitting, there will be time between rounds for people to display their performances without competing for either Bardic position.  If you think you would like to display, please contact Mistress Alys in advance so that we can try to make sufficient time available for you.


Filed under: Arts and Sciences Tagged: Bardic, champions, Kings and Queens Champions

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #15: On the Preservation of Lemons

Thu, 2016-12-01 10:09

Our fifteenth A&S Research Paper comes to us from Edmund Beneyt of the Barony of Endewearde, who demonstrates that the delicious preserved lemons of the Middle East have a very long history indeed! (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

On the Preservation of Lemons

Lemons, preserving. Photo by Aildreda de Tamwurthe.

The preservation of food has been an ongoing struggle against Nature since man first started storing food for later use. There is evidence of the most basic form of preservation being used 14,000 years ago in the Middle East[1], and many different strategies have been discovered.

Pickling, the process of preserving food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in a liquid of pH 4.6 or lower, is in use by most cultures across the globe. The range of pickled foods is astounding, from meats and fish to grains. The only limit on what can be pickled seems to be what is available to pickle.

Contents

A Little History
Preparing the Lemons
Bibliography

A Little History
Preserved lemons are an ingredient in North African stews and tagines, especially prevalent in Moroccan and Libyan cooking where they are known as “leems”[2]. Preserved lemon can be used as a flavour intensifier in stews, pot roasts and slow cooked dishes. Within North African cooking, chicken and lamb benefit from having preserved lemon added. Grated or fine chopped it can be added to salads or dressings, julienned it can be served as a snack or as part of an appetizer platter.

Some of the earliest references to the use of preserved lemons point towards a medicinal value. The Indian Ayurvedic cuisine uses the consumption of lemon pickle to remedy stomach disorders[3]; in East African folk medicine lemon pickle is given for excessive growth of the spleen[4].

One of the very earliest proponents of preserved lemons, Abū al-Makārim Hibat Allāh ibn Zayn al-Dīn Ibn Jumay‘ [ Ibn Jumai/Jumay] (b ???? d 1198), was a Egyptian-born Jew who went on to serve as physician to An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Saladin the Sultan)[5].

Ibn Jumay is infamous for bringing the dead back to life. While watching a passing funerary procession he saw that the feet of the corpse were upright rather than flat, a sign that life had not left the body. He stepped in and treated the man, reviving him and preventing his being buried alive. The man had suffered a cataleptic fit, a condition that causes muscle seizures and non responsiveness, which could be mistaken for death[6].

He also wrote a minor treatise; On Lemon, it’s Drinking and Use. A medical cookbook, it is the earliest written source that I could find that details the preservation of lemons. Sadly none of the original documents survived past the 12th Century, but thanks to the work of other scholars (Ibn al-Baitar, Compendium) and the great Islamic translation projects the details are available to us[7]. It has been said that the process Ibn Jumay documented has been universally copied since[8].

Take lemons that are fully ripe and of bright yellow color; cut them open without severing the two halves and introduce plenty of fine salt into the split; place the fruits thus prepared in a glass vessel having a wide opening and pour over them more lemon juice until they are completely submerged; now close the vessel and seal it with wax and let it stand for a fortnight in the sun, after which store it away for at least forty days; but if you wait still longer than this before eating them their taste and fragrance will be still more delicious and their action in stimulating the appetite will be stronger.

– Translated into English by Samuel Tolkowsky, “Hesperides: A History of the Culture and Use of Citrus Fruits” 1938 from the original, “On Lemon, it’s Drinking and Use”; Abū al-Makārim Hibat Allāh ibn Zayn al-Dīn Ibn Jumay‘, 12th century .

If we take this as a true translation, the process as described here is virtually unchanged in modern cooking. The process of opening the soft inner pulp to salt and then covering them in an acidic liquid forces a process known as fermentation. The outer rinds soften as the inner pulp desiccates leaving a vibrant lemon flavour. For use, they are rinsed, the pulp removed and discarded and the rinds used as required.

The climate in Egypt has daytime temperatures are around the 90-100F levels, so my first thought of oven warming would be impossible due to most modern ovens minimum temperature being in the 160-170F range. The only other option that could provide the required temperature range would be a hot water bath, but that would be prohibitive in terms of cost. I reluctantly decided to update my recipe to a more modern room temperature (70F) processing,

This change would also mean adjusting the fermentation time. The original also has a 54 day timeline, 14 days exposure to high temperatures plus 40 days “store away” (by which I would suggest was in a cold store or pantry). After consulting more modern recipes, it appears that between 30 and 45 days at room temperature will suffice to recreate the same quality of product.

The earliest reference to lemons in a European context would be as decorative trees in Southern Italy circa the first century CE. From there the plant was taken to North Africa, appearing in the 10th C. CE in an Arabic treatise on farming, spreading throughout the Arabic sphere of influence. Christopher Columbus transported lemon seeds to the New World in 1493.[9]

While preserved lemons have a wide usage in period North African and Middle East cooking (it is not unreasonable to expect those who went on Crusade to have encountered dishes that contained preserved lemon), lemons were not much used by Northern Europeans for cooking until post Renaissance.[9][10]

Lemons would have been rare and expensive during the medieval period, available to the influential and rich.[11] England imported much of their lemons from the Azores after cultivation began there in 1494. (A more esoteric use was to rub lemon slices on your lips to deepen the colour, something that apparently does work. There is the apocryphal tale of the basket of lemons given to Anne Boleyn by Henry VIII as a courting gift, the last of which she used to deepen her lips colour just before she went to the Headsman’s block.)

There are recipes that use preserved lemons in late Tudor cooking;

To boyle a Capon larded with lemons:

Take a fair capon and truss him, boyl him by himselfe in faire water with a little small Oat-meal, then take mutton broath and half a pint of white-wine, a bundle of herbs, whole mace, season it with Verjuyce, put marrow, dates, season it with sugar, then take preserved lemons and cut them like lard, and with a larding pin, lard in it, then put the capon in a deep dish, thicken your broth with Almonds and poure it on the capon.”

 – Taken from “A New Book of Cookeire…..”; John Murrell, Printed London 1617.

This recipe repeats through later works including the Compleat Cook with almost no deviation in wording.[12]

Preserved lemons are a versatile and simple condiment that can be produced easily.
What follows is the process I used to recreat Ibn Jumay’s recipe.

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Preparing the Lemons
To prepare 1 Quart Mason Jar of Preserved Lemons

6 Medium sized lemons
2 Tablespoon of natural sea salt per lemon
2 Cups of lemon juice

1 Quart Mason preserving jar with sealing lid
Dish to collect juice while working with the lemons
Boil the Mason jar for 10 minutes, fully immersed, to sterilize it. Allow to cool and air dry.

Modern lemons are sprayed with a layer of protective wax-like material for transportation. Gently scrub lemons under warm running water to remove wax from the surface of the lemon. Use only scrubbing pads/foams that have not been used for cleaning or exposed to any soap as the lemon’s skin will absorb detergents very easily. Once the waxy looks has gone, hand dry with paper towel.

Make two opposite cuts into the lemons over the dish, using the tops and bottom stems as guides. Collect any juice.

Remove the top and bottom stems from the lemons.

Taking one lemon at a time, pinch the fruit from top and bottom to open cuts. Shake and press the salt into the cuts. Once all the cuts are well salted, reform the fruit into it original shape and place to one side. Repeat and collect any excess salt and juice.

Fill the Mason jar with the fruit. Leave a ¼ inch gap between the top of the fruit and the start of the jar neck. In the dish that was used for collecting excess juice and salt, mix in one cup of lemon juice. Pour mixture into the jar up to the neck. Use additional lemon juice if necessary to fill jar to ½ inch below the neck.

Seal the Mason jar, shaking gently to distribute the juice evenly and upending the jar to check for a proper seal.

Store at room temperature for 30-45 days.

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Bibliography

Primary source: 

Ibn Jumay (Abū al-Makārim Hibat Allāh ibn Zayn al-Dīn Ibn Jumay‘) d. 1198, “On Lemon, its Drinking and Use” undated (No copy of the original document has survived.)

Secondary source:

Ibn al-Baitar (Ibn al-Bayṭār al-Mālaqī, Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn
Aḥmad) b. 1197 d. 1248, “Compendium on Simple Medicaments and Foods”, 1240.

References

1. Nummer, PhD., Brian A. “Historical Origins of Food Preservation”, National Center for
Home Food Preservation, 2002.

2. Herbst, Sharon. Food Lover’s Companion (3rd ed). Hauppage, NY: Barron’s Educational Series Inc, 2001. p. 492.

3. Johari, Harish. Ayurvedic Healing Cuisine: 200 Vegetarian Recipes for Health, Balance, and Longevity. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions / Bear & Company, 2000. p. 29-30.

4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Traditional food plants: A resource book for promoting the exploitation and consumption of food plants in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid lands of Eastern Africa. New York: Food & Agriculture Organization, 1988. p. 199.

5. Selin, Helaine, ed. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer: Dordrecht, 1997. pp. 421–2

6. Ibn Abi Usaybi‘ah. Uyun al-Anba’ fi Tabaqat al-Atibba, tr A. Müller, 2 vols.
Königsberg, 1884.

7. Sonnerman, Toby. Lemon: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books, 2012. p. 36.

8. Kraemer, Joel L. Maimonides: The Life and World of One of Civilization’s Greatest Minds. New York: Penguin Random House, 2010.

9. Morton, Julia F. Lemon in Fruits of Warm Climates. Miami, FL: Julia F. Morton, 1987. pp. 160–168

10. Lind, James. A treatise on the scurvy. Second edition. London: A. Millar, 1757.

11. Davidson, Alan, and Tom Jaine. The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

12. Anonymous. The Compleat Cook. N Brook at the Angel, 1658.

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Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences