SCA kingdoms and branches

Call for Content – EK Rapier Website

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-04-14 18:31

Unto the Rapier Combatants of the Kingdom of the East do I, Master Frasier MacLeod, send greetings,

We have recently changed Webministers for the EK Rapier website. I would like to extend a heartfelt thank you to Mistress Analeda Falconbridge for stepping in at a difficult time and keeping the site afloat and viable until a permanent Webminister could be found.

Our new Webminister, Lord Brian of Stonemarche, has asked me to put out the call for CONTENT! If there is an article, an essay, a class, a presentation, or anything along those lines you think would make the Rapier website better and more useful, let us know! Feel free to send it along to Brian and myself, with a copy of the SCA Creative Work Copyright Assignment/Grant of Use Form found here: Link to Release so we can use your work legally and with your permission.

The EK Rapier website is for all of YOU, and without you we can’t make it better. Help us turn the site into something other kingdoms will look at and go “Wow, I wish my website was cool like the East’s is”.

In Service,

Master Frasier MacLeod, KRM, East

Filed under: Announcements, Rapier Tagged: call for content, fencing, from the ekmof, marshal of Fence, Rapier, websites

In Memoriam: Mistress Laura Hawkwood

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-04-14 15:02

Mistress Laura Hawkwood (also known as Laura de Segovia), 43rd Laurel of the East, passed away in Carolingia on Tuesday, April 12th. She was awarded arms in AS X at the coronation of Alaric and Yseult, and was one of only 14 inductees into the now closed Order of Fatima, which honored illustrious clothiers and seamstresses. (She also helped design the badge for this order, as well as the badge for the Queen’s Order of Courtesy which is still in use today.) In AS XX, she was recognized as a companion of the Order of the Moon by the Baron of Carolingia for her achievements in the arts which further the progress of those arts in the Barony of Carolingia. She was a founder of House Silverwing, and active in the heraldic community.

Her obituary is available on-line here.

Filed under: Tidings Tagged: barony of carolingia, Carolingia, in memoriam, obit, obituary

Call For Donations To SCA 50 Volunteers

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2016-04-13 13:14

Attention, Talented Artisans of the Society for Creative Anachronism

In the Society for Creative Anachronism, we are a collective of volunteers, each serving in their own way at one point or another so that all may have a chance to play, enjoy, learn and have fun. It is on this mantra that the SCA has gone on for 50 years now, and shall continue to do so.

As we Celebrate 50 Years of the Society, many of our SCA family will be considering attending the SCA 50 Year Celebration Event, June 17th through the 27th of this year and many of them will be giving their time and service to the event, staffing the Gate, serving on the Watch, Marshalling the Lists.

We wish to show appreciation to the Volunteers who give of themselves, from the newest member giving their first hour of service to the Multi-Peer who serves alongside that newest member. The Society works because our Volunteers continue to turn the wheels and drive us forward to fun, adventure, knowledge and my personal favorites, Family and Friendship.

Everyone who volunteers on site during the event will receive a ticket for each hour they serve. These tickets can be dropped into boxes that will labeled with the items you’ve donated: items that our volunteers would proudly use or displayed long after the event is over.

And Artisans, this is where you are most needed. We come seeking donations from the Amazingly Talented populace of the Known World: we are asking you to please consider donating handmade items that people would Buy/Trade/Commission for themselves.
No matter your rank, Laurel or student; professional craftsperson or astonishingly talented amateur: we’re asking all of you to help us recognize the volunteers in service to the Society’s 50th Year Celebration. Please, put forth your beautiful work to be a cherished gift for a Volunteer.

If you’re considering a specialized item (something that must be custom sized or fit, for instance) or you aren’t sure how to submit it to the cause, please contact my Coordinator, THL Justice McArtain, at
All donations can be mailed to His Lordship Justice ahead of the Event or delivered at the SCA 50 Year Celebration Event if you are attending.

To Donate, or if you have any additional questions, simply email the following details to

  • SCA Title and Name
  • Mundane Name
  • Item to be Donated
  • To be mailed or delivered at 50 Year
  • Mailing Address
  • Any additional information / description of your item you wish to include (including pictures of our work if it’s a ‘after raffle’ item.

As a thank you to everyone who contributes, His Lordship Justice will be doing a raffle of his own.
Two artists will be drawn to receive a Gift Card each to get more supplies (or whatever you want to do with the money).
We thank you for your time and hope that you will reach out to offer your talent to support the Volunteers who give of theirs for this once in a lifetime Event.


In Service,

Herr Alexander Adelbrecht von Markelingen

SCA 50 Year Celebration – Volunteer Relations Coordinator


Shared by request of the author.  Original post may be found at the Midrealm Gazette


Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: SCA 50 Year

Crown Tourney Letters of Intent – Deadline Extended

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2016-04-11 15:53
Due to the Crown Tourney Letters of Intent website inadvertently closing early, it has been reactivated and will remain active until approximately 6:00 PM EDT on Tuesday April 12th.


The address is

Mercedes Vera de Calafia East Kingdom Senechal
Filed under: Announcements Tagged: Crown Tournament, Crown Tourney, Letter of Intent

Unofficial Mudthaw Court Report

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-04-07 21:25

The following is the court report from Mudthaw held by Their Majesties Brennan Ri and Caoilfhionn Banri on April 2, AS L.  Court heralds were Master Malcolm Bowman, Mistress Kayleigh MacWhyte, Master Ryan MacWhyte, and Baron Yehuda ben Moshe.

Filed under: Court

East Kingdom Server Planned Outage Notice

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2016-04-05 19:08

“The East Kingdom Server will undergo a planned upgrade during the late evening of Wednesday, 4/6/2016.

This is the third in a series of planned updates this year. (The second update did not require an interruption of services, and was performed last Thursday.)

We will be migrating from our current level of service “Linode 8GB” to the next tier of service “Linode 16GB” with the same Hosting service, which will appear to be seamless to the populace. This will be expanding our available resources and offer a better user experience.

Time Frame 9:00pm-12:30am Eastern Time

This is expected to run for 144 minutes. (I am giving it extra time in case anything happens and a recover is required.)

During this time frame all East Kingdom services will be unavailable to the populace.  Tools that backbone or pull from the server will also be affected (IE: Email, Help Desk, List Server, etc).”

For more information on the EK Server upgrade, please see the EK Webminister’s notice.

Filed under: Announcements, Official Notices

Hilarious Heraldic Hijinks

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2016-04-01 13:07

Every year the heralds of the East (and the Known World) do their best to come up with silly, hilarious, ridiculous and generally foolish – but completely documented – names and armory. We’re pleased to share this year’s efforts with the Gazette and the whole Kingdom.

The names of consulting heralds frequently have been changed to protect the guilty.

Hugs and kisses from the College of Heralds Imaginary, Eastern Branch

1: Bogus Viking – New Name & New Badge  

Per fess argent and sable, a human male affronty armored vert bearing a spear and magic helmet proper

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Sound (BOW-gus) most important.

Consulting Herald: Refr refr

Bogus is a male given name dated to 1222 in Wickenden’s “Russian Names Database”


Viking is the Lingua Anglica form of the Old Norse byname vikingr, found in Geirr Bassi’s The

Old Norse Name at p. 29, where it is marked as coming from the Landnámabók.

Russian and Old Norse can be combined as long as the elements are within 300 years of each other, per Appendix C. As the events of the Landnámabók span between 870 and the 11th century, the submitter should get the benefit of the doubt that the names are within the the necessary time period.


2: Bruce le Hulke – New Name & New Device

Or, a pair of breeches purpure  

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Consulting Heralds: Stan Lee and Jack Kirby

Bruce is a saint’s name. The Middle English Dictionary s.v. lūt(e) (n.(1) dates the following quote to 1445: “For þis holy daunce, mynstralcy ys goode: Now, Seynt Bruce! helpe with þy sounded lute.”

le Hulke is a surname probably meaning “huge, clumsy fellow” is found dated to 1323 in the

Middle English Dictionary s.v. hulk.


3: Calomaria de Mare – New Name

Submitter desires a feminine name.

Consulting Herald: Octa Pode

Calomaria is a female given name dated to 1003 in “A handful of early southern Italian feminine names” by Aryanhwy merch Catmael


de Mare is an Italian byname dated to 1228 found in “Masculine Names from Thirteenth Century Pisa” by Juliana de Luna (


4: Chilax Doode – New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Consulting Herald: Gunðormr Ech Mir ein Herald Imaginary

Chilax is the name of a human character in the play The Mad Lover which was performed at some point prior to 1619. The play is reprinted in Miracle to Masque. Predecessors of Shakespeare. Minor Elizabethan Dramatists at pp. 333-364


Doode is a surname found in “Index of Names in the 1582 Subsidy Roll of London” by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (


5: Crafft Beer – New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Language (German) most important.

Culture (German) most important.

Consulting Herald: Iwan de Best

Crafft is a German male given name found in “German Names from Nürnberg, 1497” by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (

Beer is a German surname found in the Family Search Historical Records: Hans Beer; Male; Marriage; 12 Oct 1579; Neuenbürg, Württemberg, Germany; Batch: M93230-1 (


6: Donn Dona – New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Client requests authenticity for 15th century Gaelic.

Consulting herald: Badde Idea Beare

Donn is a Gaelic male given name found in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada’s “Index of Names in Irish Annals” ( with a relevant Annals date of 1488.

Dona is a Gaelic descriptive byname meaning “[the] Unfortunate/Unlucky/Wretched,” found in Mari’s “Index” ( with an Annals date of 1468.


7: Egon Spengler – New Name & Badge 

(Fieldless) On an open book argent, the phrase “Print is dead” sable

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Consulting Herald: Harold Ramis

Egon is a male given name found in gray-period Germany:

Egon De Weyer; Male; Marriage; 06 May 1640; Sankt Pankatius Roemisch-Katholische, Anholt, Westfalen, Prussia; Batch: M99207-1 ( Spengler is a German byname found in “German Names from Nürnberg, 1497” by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (

Although he has submitted a badge, the submitter does not yet have a device design because he is attempting to document whether spores, mold or fungus were used in period armory.


8: Gendulphe Le Gris – New Name & New Device  

Azure, a pilgrim’s staff argent and in chief two fireballs Or enflamed proper

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Language (French) most important.

Meaning (the gray) most important.

Consulting Herald: Gunðormr Ech Mir ein Herald Imaginary

Gendulphe is the name of a French saint, mentioned at p. 31 of “Le Théâtre des antiquitez de Paris” by Jacques Du Breul, published in 1639 (

Le Gris is a surname found in “French Names from Paris, 1421, 1423, & 1438” by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (


9: Human de la Place – New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Meaning (person from the place) most important.

Consulting Herald: More Cheseandbrede

Human is a male given name found in “Names Found in Commercial Documents from Bordeaux, 1470-1520” by Aryanhwy merch Catmael ( de la Place is a French byname found at p. 5 of “Names from the Rôle des taxes de l’arrière-ban du Bailliage d’Evreux, in 1562,” by Brunissende Dragonette (


10: Ivanna Peach – New Name

Language (Russian) most important.

Consulting Herald: Iwan de Best

Both elements are found in Wickenden’s Russian Names Database.

Ivanna is a given name dated to 1618 s.n. Ioann (m) (

Peach is a surname dated to 1530 s.n. Peach (


11: Jack Harkness – New Household Name & New Badge 

Torchewode Halle

Argent, on a hexagon voided a capital letter T sable

Consulting Herald: Gwen Cooper

The pattern of [place name] + Hall is found in the Middle English Dictionary, with examples including Westmynster Hall dated a.1500 s.v. attǒurnẹ̄ (n.).

Torchewode is a compound English place name based on the pattern of “family name followed by generic toponymic” set out in “Compound Placenames in English” by Juliana de Luna (

Torche is a surname dated to the reign of Edward I (1272-1307) in R&W s.n. Torch.

-wode is a generic toponym referring to a group of living trees, a grove, copse, woods, forest, woodland. The surname atte Wode is found in the MED s.v. wọ̄de (n.(2)) dated to 1346. The MED s.v. wọ̄de (n.(2)) also lists the compound bynames Estwode (1151-54), Cherchwode (1380), Campwode (1380) and Quenewode (1475).

The spelling Halle for “hall” is found in the MED dated to 1225 and later.


12: Jokeford, Shire of – New Branch Name

No major changes.

Language (English) most important.

Culture (English) most important.

Consulting Herald: Gytta Klew

Jokeford is a place name dated to 1203 in the Middle English Dictionary s.v. yōke (n.).

13: Jokeford, Shire of – New Heraldic Title

OSCAR is unable to find the name, either registered or submitted.

Effing Pursuivant

Consulting Herald: Gytta Klew

This heraldic title follows the pattern of creating heraldic titles using English surnames, found in “Heraldic Titles from the Middle Ages and Renaissance: Overview,” by Juliana de Luna ( Effing is an English surname found in the Family Search Historical Records: Richard Effing; Male; Marriage; 1627; Swaffham-Prior, Cambridge, England; Batch: M13535-6 (

14: Justa Doll – New Name

Submitter desires a feminine name.

Culture (Iberian) most important.

Consulting Herald: Rogue Flamenco

Justa is a given name found in “Portuguese Feminine Names from Lisbon, 1565” by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (

Doll is a surname found in “Catalan Names from the 1510 census of Valencia” by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (

Portuguese and Catalan are both part of the Iberian language group under Appendix C.


15: Kylo Ren – New Alternate Name

Ben Solo

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Both elements are found in the Family Search Historical Records:

Ben Sare – christened 6 April 1578, Fairstead, Essex, England


Robtus Solo – christened 1544, Devon, England



16: Manly Man – New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.

No changes.

Sound (Man-lee) most important.

Consulting Herald: Badde Idea Beare

Manly Man is found in the gray period, in England, in the Family Search Historical Records: Manly Man; Male; Christening; 13 Jul 1647; SAINT DUNSTAN,STEPNEY, LONDON, ENGLAND; Batch: C05576-7 (


17: More Cheseandbrede – New Name

Submitter desires a feminine name.

Sound (given name like ‘more’) most important.

Meaning (where’s the dayboard?) most important.

More is an Anglicized Irish female given name dated to 1586 and later in “Names Found in Anglicized Irish Documents” by Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada (

Cheseandbrede is a byname found in the Middle English Dictionary s.v. chẹ̄se (n.) dated to 1303. English and Anglicized Irish are part of the same Language Group under Appendix C and thus can be combined despite the 283-year gap between the elements.


18: Octa Pode – New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Sound (given name like Octa) most important.

Consulting Herald: same

Octa is an Anglo-Saxon male name dated to 731 in Bede’s Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.

Pode is a surname found in R&W s.n. Poad dated to 1230. Because both elements are English, this name just squeaks by with less than 500 years between the given name and the byname.

19: Original Sinne – New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Consulting Herald: Eve atte Gardyne

Original is a male given name found in Bardsley’s Curiosities of Puritan Nomenclature at pp. 128-129, dated to 1606 and 1619.

Synne is an English surname found in the Family Search Historical Records: Mary Synne; Female; Marriage; 16 Jan 1614; Saint Andrew, Plymouth, Devon, England; Batch: M00183-1 (

The i/y swap is well-established in late-period English.


20: Petit Prince – New Name & New Device 

Azure, on a serpent argent an elephant passant contourny proper

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Consulting herald: Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Petit is an English surname dated to 1591 in “English Names found in Brass Enscriptions” by Julian Goodwyn ( Such surnames can be used as given names by precedent. [Alton of Grimfells, 4/2010 LoAR, A-East].

Prince is an English surname found in “Names from 15th Century York” by Karen Larsdatter (


21: Polly Puss – New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Client requests authenticity for 16th cen. Baden, Germany.

Language (German) most important.

Consulting Herald: Octa Pode

Polly is a German male given name found in the Family Search Historical Record:

Polly Hauser; Male; Death; 14 Jan 1608; Wintersweiler, Loerrach, Baden, Deutschland; Batch: B06196-4 (

Polly Winter; Male; Marriage; 27 Apr 1594; Evangelisch, Haltingen, Loerrach, Baden;

Batch: M93574-2 (

Puss is a German surname also found in the Family Search Historical Records: Martinus Puss; Male; Christening; 08 Nov 1597; DOMPFARREI KATHOLISCH, FREIBURG, FREIBURG, BADEN; Batch: C93394-1(

As both name elements are found in Baden within 3 years of each other, this name meets the submitter’s authenticity request.


22: Poole Boy – New Name & New Device 

Argent, a cartouche azure

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Language (Anglicized Irish) most important.

Culture (16th cen. Ireland) most important.

Consulting Herald: Frend MacEnemy

Poole is an Anglicized Irish male given name dated to 1601 in Mari ingen Briain meic

Donnchada’s “Names found in Anglicized Irish Documents” ( s.n. Paul.

Boy is a descriptive byname, probably from the Gaelic Buide meaning “yellow.” Mari’s “Names found in Anglicized Irish Documents”

( contains numerous examples of this byname, including:

Teig boy O Mollan (1599)

Tho. boye (1600)

Phelim boye (1598)

Mortagh boy O Birne (1600)

Hugh Boy (1614).


23: Refr refr – New Name

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Meaning (Fox) most important.

Consulting Herald: Badde Idea Beare

Refr is a male given name found at p. 14 of Geirr Bassi’s The Old Norse Name. refr is a descriptive byname meaning “fox” found at p. 26 of Geirr Bassi.


24: Rogue Fave – New Name

Rogue is a Spanish male given name found in the Family Search Historical Records:

Rogue Garcia Rodriguez; Male, Christening; 26 Sep 1593; SANTA MARIA LA MAYOR, TORDESILLAS, VALLADOLID, SPAIN; Batch: C87369-1 (

Fave is a French byname found in the Family Search Historical Records: Marie Fave; Female, Baptism; 09 Mar 1603; Mazamet, Tarn, France ( While there is no batch number, an image of the document is available and the name is visible onthe far right of Line 2, Paragraph 2.

Spanish and French elements can be combined under SENA Appendix C.

This name is well clear of previously registered and/or submitted Rogue Panda, Rogue Espada, and Rogue Flamenco.


25: Studley Greathead – New Name

Submitter has no desire as to gender.

Meaning (the name speaks for itself) most important.

Consulting Herald: Badde Idea Beare

Studley is an English given name found in the gray period in the Family Search Historical


Studley Hawes; Female; 08 Feb 1619; LITTLE BADDOW, ESSEX, ENGLAND; Batch:

C03600-1 (

Greathead is an English surname dated to 1592, 1596 and 1607 in “Surnames in Durham and Northumberland, 1521-1615” by Juetta Copin (


26: Sweinchild in the dich – New Name & New Device 

Per chevron inverted argent and sable, a boar passant gules

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Consulting Herald: Bunny Ditchborne

Sweinchild is a personal name found in the Middle English Dictionary s.v. chīld (n.) dated to 1195. in the dich is a surname found in the MED s.v. dī̆ch(e) dated to 1327.


27: Úlfr inn illi – New Name & New Device  

Sable semy of domed ovens argent vented semy, a wolf dormant Or and in canton a hand one

finger extended to sinister base Or.

Submitter desires a masculine name.

Meaning (Bad Wolf) most important.

Consulting Herald: Roesia Tygheler

Úlfr is a male given name found at p. 15 of Geirr Bassi’s The Old Norse Name.

in illi is a descriptive byname found on p. 23 of Geirr Bassi, meaning “evil, bad.”


28: Victory Lapp – New Name

Submitter desires a feminine name.

Consulting Herald: Ama Panda

Victory is an English given name found in the Family Search Historical Records:

Victory Milles; Female; Christening; 22 Mar 1553; Wartling, Sussex, England; Batch: C14798-1 (

Joanna Lapp; Female; Marriage; 29 Nov 1544; Ugborough, Devon, England; Batch: M05177-1 (


29: Walt de Iseny – New Name

Submitter has no desire as to gender.

Consulting Herald: Butterscotch Crampet

Walt is a given name found in the Middle English Dictionary s.v. bōst dated to 1327. de Iseny is found as part of a manor name, (glossed as “Norton held by the d’Isney family”), dated to 1299 in Watts, s.n. Norton~Disney.


30: Werwulf of London – New Household Name

Hellepit House

No changes.

Sound (‘Hell Pit’) most important.

Consulting Herald: Roland Thompson Gunner

The submitter’s personal name appears on the April 1, 2012 East Kingdom LoI, which is due to be decided “any day now.” The pattern placename + House in English is established in the Dec. 2007 LoAR: “we would recommend late period household names following either of these patterns [surname] + [house or hall], [surname]+s + [house, hall, or lodge], [place name] + [house, hall, or lodge].” [Sythe Blackwolfe, Calontir-R]

Hellepit is a place name dated to 1240 in the Middle English Dictionary s.v. pit (n.)

The spelling house is dated to 1398 in the Middle English Dictionary s.v. hǒus (n.)


31: Yo Dawgs – New Name

Language (16th century English) most important.

Culture (16th century English) most important.

Consulting herald: Supp Doode

Yo is a feminine given name in FamilySearch ( C7Z), but only in an I-batch: Yo Bygges Female Christening Date 02 Feb 1605 Christening Place Brumstead, Norfolk, England Batch: I03226-9

Names found in I-batches are generally not registerable without additional documentation. However, Yoe is also a 16th century English surname found in ‘Henry VIII: July 1535, 1-10’, in Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 8, January-July 1535, James Gairdner, editor (pp. 379-402; 16th and early 17th century English surnames are registerable as given names.

Examples of -oe/-o pairs can be found in FamilySearch: Joe/Jo, Fardinandoe/Fardinando, Noe/No, Barbaroe/Barbaro, and Mungoe/Mungo. Therefore, the spelling Yo appears to be a plausible variant of the surname Yoe.

Dawgs is an English surname found in the FamilySearch Historical Records ( Giles Dawgs Male Christening Date 19 Jan 1587 Christening Place CHIGWELL,ESSEX,ENGLAND Father’s Name Wm. Dawgs Batch: C04186-1


Filed under: Heraldry

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #8: Matthew Paris and the Volcano

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2016-04-01 11:40

Our eighth A&S Research Paper comes to us from Sir Michael of York of the Barony of Carolingia. He examines a catastrophic climatological event with both modern and historical records, and in the telling introduces us to a very interesting chronicler. (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

Matthew Paris and the Volcano

Self-Portrait by Matthew Paris (c.1200-1259).
Photograph by the British Library. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

In the middle of the 13th century, a massive volcanic eruption occurred in Indonesia. The effects of this eruption changed the weather around the world for years. Modern climate research combined with recent archeological evidence and the medieval chronicles of Matthew Paris paint a haunting picture of a world-wide disaster that has no parallel for the previous several thousand years.

The Famous 1258 Volcano
Modern Understanding
Matthew of Paris Chronicles The Volcano’s Effect

The Famous 1258 Volcano

In the fall of 2013 (A.S. XLVIII) the scientific world was all aflutter—a new science paper announced that the location of “the famous 1258 volcano” had been determined. First identified in the 1980’s via ice-core and tree-ring data—the location of the 1258 volcanic eruption had been a decades-long puzzle for geologists. This new research showed location of the eruption (Lombok, Indonesia) and documented that it had been one of the largest of its kind, ejecting huge amounts of volcanic dust and gases high into the stratosphere.

My SCA persona is 13th century English, and when I heard this announcement my first question was “what famous 1258 volcanic eruption”?  I’d heard of Krakatoa (1883) and Mount Vesuvius (A.D. 79), but I’d never heard of any other large volcanic eruptions. As a child, I had walked across a volcano in Hawaii and had read about and seen television reports of more modern dramatic eruptions (Mount St Helens 1980, Mount Pinatubo 1991, and Eyjafjallajökull 2010), but apparently, this “famous 1258 volcanic eruption” was something much different.

At the time, for other reasons, I happened to be reading excerpts from a 13th century chronicler’s works. The Illustrated Chronicles of Matthew Paris: Observations of Thirteenth-Century Life had been loaned to me by a friend. In perusing it, I had learned that Matthew Paris was a garrulous monk with lots of opinions, observations and commentary about both the natural world and about every aspect of religious and royal politics. I’d noticed his descriptions of weather, strange events in the sea, eclipses and weird cloud formations alongside all of his various observations about political events, and rants on church and state policies. His Chronicles cover the time from 1235 until his death in 1259.

After hearing about this new volcano—I ran to see what Matthew had to say. I was disappointed to find that this specific book only covered his writings to the year 1250. It took a while to get his complete works—but in the process, I found lots of other news about that specific volcanic eruption: climate data analysis, cemetery burial data, descriptions of how much it changed the global environment et cetera.  Within days, I had the whole tale. It’s an amazing story.
Back to Top

Modern Understanding

The volcano itself (named “Mount Samalas” by the research team that identified it) is located on the island of Lombok in the Indonesian chain of islands. This island is 770 miles (1240KM) and a couple of islands east of Krakatoa.  Today all that is left is a caldera lake with a small cinder cone in the center—the entire mountain having been blasted away by the eruption.

Volcanic Eruption Types. The left-most image is a Plinian Eruption. Illustration, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online, accessed March 29, 2016,

Like Mount Vesuvius and some other violent eruptions, this eruption was a “Plinian” eruption. The name comes from a description written by the Younger Pliny in A.D. 79. He compared the plume of ash and gasses from Mount Vesuvius to the shape of a “stone pine tree“—a narrow rising trunk with an umbrella-top splaying out immediately. This is the most explosive of the volcanic eruption types and can be responsible for global weather effects. The column of ash from these kinds of eruptions can rise all the way to the stratosphere—over 40 KM above the earth’s surface and then be spread around the globe.  This NASA article highlights the effects of the much smaller Mount Pinatubo eruption (1991) as documented by the SAGE II satellite (even though the article is actually about the SAGE III new effort). According to this report,  “The aerosols in the tropics increased by almost a factor of 100 immediately following the eruption. … had spread into the Earth’s mid-latitudes three months later. … slowly decreased in the atmosphere over several years.”

The effects were immediate and lasted years – and this was for a small eruption. The Mt Samalas eruption was much larger—with much more rock-turned-ash vaulted into the stratosphere.

The Mt Samalas eruption was first detected by examination of ice-cores and tree-ring data during the 1980’s. In various samples, the effects of the eruption were very clearly visible. Ice cores capture dust and ash that falls and is buried by subsequent snowfall. Trees that have a low-growth year have narrow rings in the core of the tree for those years.

The team that determined the location of this volcanic eruption (Dr. Lavigne et al) was able to compare the chemicals in the ice-core deposits to the ash deposits found on Lombok. The samples matched both in composition and date. Their report states that the eruption occurred in the summer of 1257 and that it ejected the most ash and sulfates into the atmosphere of any other volcano in the last 7000 years. Some parts of the island of Lombok are covered by 35 meters of ash—showing that the eruption was huge. Pictures included in their report are astonishing—the ash-fall is clearly visible at the coast where the ocean has eroded the shore.

Their report also mentions that there is evidence (from Indonesian records) of an entire Kingdom buried under all of that ash (like Pompeii). What is most interesting is that they can deduce the time of year of the eruption due to the way the ash from the eruption is spread on the island itself and surrounding areas: the trade winds blow from the east to the west in the summer, and the deposits of ash are much greater to the west of the volcano itself.

Tree ring temperature estimation. Image courtesy of Michael E. Mann, Jose D. Fuentes & Scott Rutherford, Nature Geoscience.

It is well understood that the ice-core data provides atmospheric composition changes, and that tree-ring data shows environment changes that affect plant growth. Modern evidence from modern volcanic eruptions (e.g., Mt. Saint Helens, Mt. Pinatubo) demonstrates that lower world-wide temperatures occur when such Plinian eruptions occur. The blocking of sunlight caused by the ash and chemicals inserted into the atmosphere reduces the strength of the sun’s warming radiation. By comparing the ice-core data and the tree-ring data from modern (well recorded events), scientists can extrapolate and estimate the world-wide temperature of the Earth for historic events. The data shows that 1258 and the period just afterwards were substantially colder than usual on a global scale.  Both sets of data (tree-ring, ice-core) show that the world-wide temperature was reduced between 0.75 and 2.5 degrees Celsius depending on how you read the data and which prediction model you use. (For those of you that are in America, this is 1.0 to 4.5 degrees Fahrenheit.)

What is most interesting is that further study shows localized weather effects that are contrary to global averages. For instance, this study shows that Plinian eruptions, when they occur in the tropics, make Northern Europe warmer in winter and cooler only in the summer. Another study shows that when this happens, the weather in Northern Europe is wetter and the Southern European climate is drier. This is due to changes in the heating of the Atlantic Ocean and the resulting effects on weather patterns caused by the atmospheric pollution. Look up the term “North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)” for more information.

What this means is that different parts of the world get vastly different effects from the injected ash and sulfates from the eruption. Northern Europe gets hammered with weird weather – wetter warmer winters, colder wetter summers. Southern Europe gets drier than average weather with general cooling overall. You can imagine what this does to the farming industry which depends on specific “wet periods” and “dry periods” and specific temperatures.

In my searches for information about this volcano, I ran across stories about an archeological site that was linked with the “famous 1258 volcano”. The links pointed to burial data from a 1991-2007 archeological dig done in London by the London Museum of Archeology at the site of the SpitalFields Market. Their research demonstrates that in the middle of the 13th century, decades before the Black Death (1340’s) there was a period of mass-burial sites in one cemetery in London belonging to St Mary Spital, an Augustine Priory and hospital just north of the Tower of London. According to the report, the priory was in active use from the 1100’s through 1539 AD.  Although the data is not precisely datable, it is clear that in the late 1250’s and early 1260’s there was a period where some burial pits had as many as 20 sets of remains—a very unusual pattern, as normally, burials were singular or perhaps two remains in one site. In addition, the research shows that the likely cause of the deaths was not violence. This suggests that famine or diseases are the major causes of death in this era. The images that are available are haunting.

Excavations at St. Mary Spital. Image courtesy of the Museum of London Archaeology.

One data point from the burial site suggests that as many as 4000 bodies were recovered from this short period (late 1250’s, early 1260’s) for this one hospital – mostly in mass burial graves. There were other priory hospitals in other parts of England at the time, and several in London alone. If the burial data for any of those other active 13th century hospitals shows the same pattern, we can deduce that something was very wrong.

So—today we know that there were immediate world-wide effects of the volcanic eruption that occurred during the summer of 1257, and that the effects changed the weather, blocked the sunlight and covered the globe with a volcanic haze in the atmosphere. We see burial data suggesting massive deaths, as well as plant evidence (tree-rings) showing reduced growing seasons and cooling.
Back to Top

Matthew of Paris Chronicles The Volcano’s Effects

What can we learn about what happened in the Middle Ages? How did all of this effect their lives and events in their times? What happened and what can we see?

Matthew of Paris only lives till 1259, but his words describe this event very clearly from what happens to his world. He doesn’t have the slightest idea that there’s this volcano half-a-world away. He just writes what he can see – and with this new view from scientific research, we can understand what he says all too well.

What follows here is a brief set of quotes from his Chronica Majora that illustrate what he saw at the time. Matthew of Paris’ writings are sometimes confusing because he apparently had a practice of taking notes and then entering them into his chronicles at some later time. There are some sections where events that happen months apart are put together in one sentence or two simultaneous sentences. This makes finely-detailed chronology hard to understand from his writings. Sometimes dates appear incorrect—and it appears that he exaggerates—although, now that I have read the science literature, I believe that he was not exaggerating when he wrote these entries.

One other note concerning chronology! Matthew’s “year” runs from the end of October through to the end of October because he uses Royal Year dates—Henry III was first crowned King on October 28th in 1216.  But oddly, Matthew uses the following year—so the year 1257 starts in October of 1256. There is a confusing aspect to the seasons as well since the calendar is 10 days off from our calendar (they were using the Julian Calendar, not the newer 18th-century Gregorian Calendar). Matthew also appears to use the planting cycle for his seasons. “Winter” is the end of September through Christmas. “Spring” is January through March.

Read on to see it in his own words. I’ve added personal notes in italics to illuminate essential points. The text is that of the Reverend James Giles’ 1883 translation.

1253 – This year throughout was abundant in corn and fruit; so much so that the price of a measure of corn fell to thirty pence.

Things are going well.

1254 – This year throughout was abundantly productive in fruit and corn, so that the price of a measure of corn fell to two shillings; and like proportion oats, and all other kinds of corn and pulse fell in price to the benefit of the poor plebeians.

Lots of good produce.

1255 – [This year] was throughout so productive in corn and fruit, that a measure of wheat fell in price to two shillings and the same quantity of oats to twelvepence.

Note the prices—two shillings for a measure of wheat and 12 pence for a measure of oats.

1256 … (on 10 Aug), an extraordinary storm, or succession of storms of wind and rain, accompanied by hail, thunder, and lightning, alarmed men’s heads, and caused irreparable damage. One might see the wheels of mills torn from their axles and carried by the violence of the wind to great distances, destroying in their course the neighbouring houses; and what the water did to the water-mills, the wind did not fail to do to the wind-mills. Piles of bridges, stacks of hay, the huts of fisherman with their nets and poles, and even children in their cradles, were suddenly carried away, so that the deluge of Deucalion seemed to be renewed. Not to mention other places, Bedford, which is watered by the Ouse, suffered incomputable damages, as it had done a few years before. Indeed, in one place, six houses immediately adjoining each other were carried away by the rapidity of the torrents, their inhabitants having much difficulty in saving themselves; and other places contiguous to that river were exposed to similar perils.

This is a major event—he described it using a reference to “Deucalion”, the son of Prometheus, who survived a flood brought by Zeus by building a chest with his father and staying afloat till the storm passed.

1256 – Then closed this year, which had been tolerably productive of fruit and corn. … It was beyond measure stormy and rainy, so that, indeed, the times of Deucalion seemed to be renewed. From the day of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (Aug 15) to the anniversary of her Purification (Feb 2), the rain ceased not to fall daily in deluges, which rendered the roads impassable and the fields barren. Hence at the end of autumn, the corn was rotted in the ear.

Note that there was good produce, but the summer corn crop was lost to the rain. Note also that the dates here are confusing.  If the rain starts in August 1256, then it has to continue till February 1257.  This demonstrates that his entries are made long after the fact.

1257 – Of the extraordinary fall of rain, and the thunder during the winter. On the Innocents’ Day in this year such a quantity of rain fell that it covered the surface of the ground, and the times of Deucalion seemed to be renewed. The furrows looked like caves or rivers, and the rivers covered the meadows and all the neighbouring country, so that it presented the appearance of a sea. That from one case other similar ones may be understood, I may mention, that one river alone in the northern parts of England carried away seven large bridges of wood and stone, the mills, too, and the neighbouring houses, were carried away by the violence of the torrent-swollen streams and destroyed.

There are two possible interpretations of “Innocents Day”. One is the end of December – where the “Innocents” are the children. It is also the case that July 28 is “St. Innocent’s Day” (St Innocent was a Pope). This latter choice matches the likely eruption date for the volcano (summer).

On the aforesaid day, too, a fierce whirlwind, accompanied by a violent hail-storm, disturbed the atmosphere and obscured the sky with darkness like that of night. The clouds collected together, and from them the lightning darted forth with fearful vividness, followed by claps of thunder. This thunder was clearly a bad omen, for it was mid-winter, and the cold was equal to that generally felt in February. This weather was followed by sickly unseasonable weather, which lasted about three months.

This is a sudden onslaught of cold weather and fierce storms. The word “midwinter” suggests that this was in the late October or early November time frame. (“Winter” is late September through the end of December). The date very confusing because he just said 28-Dec (Innocent’s Day) which is at the end of “winter” but in an earlier note he says the rain started in mid August. My conclusion is that it rained pretty much all the time with lots of stormy weather. If the volcano erupted in the summer – it would take a month or three for the volcanic emissions to get to the northern latitudes, so this fits with the scientific evidence we have.

1257—The Summary of the Year—This year was throughout barren and meagre; for whatever had been sown in winter had budded in spring, and grown ripe in summer, was stifled and destroyed by the autumnal inundations. The scarcity of money, brought on by the spoilation practiced by the king and the pope in England brought unusual poverty. The land lay uncultivated, and great numbers of people died from starvation. About Christmas, the price of a measure of wheat rose to ten shillings. Apples were scarce, pears more so, figs, beechnuts, cherries, plums—in short, all fruits which are preserved in jars were completely spoiled.

Note the price of wheat—ten shillings. Note that fruit and other crops were destroyed by the autumnal rains—this is two years in a row (1256 and 1257) where there was rain that damages the crops in the fall.

…This pestiferous year, moreover, gave rise to mortal fevers, which raged to such an extent that, not to mention other cases, at St Edmund’s alone, more than two thousand dead bodies were placed in the large cemetery during the summer, the largest portion of them during the dog-days. There were old men, who had formerly seen a measure of wheat sold for a mark, and even twenty shillings without the people being starved to death. … This year too generated chronic complaints, which scarcely allowed free power of breathing to anyone labouring under them. Not a single fine or frosty day occurred, nor was the surface of the lakes at all hardened by the frost as was usual; neither did icicles hang from the ledges of houses; but uninterrupted heavy falls of rain and mist obscured the sky until the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

This reference to mortal fevers clearly indicates disease (e.g., dysentery, influenza). He mentions a large numbers of deaths. The chronic complaints about breathing suggest air pollution from the volcanic ash, or perhaps mold from the damp weather. The weather is off—The Feast of the Purification is in early February, so this winter is warm.

1258 – Of the arrival in England of some ships laden with wheat. At this same time, too, whilst an extraordinary famine was prevailing to such a degree that numbers pined away in themselves and died, a measure of corn being sold at London for nine shillings or more, about fifty large ships arrived there from the continent, having been sent by Richard, king of Germany, laden with corn, wheat, and bread. … It was stated as positive fact, that any three counties of England united had not produced so much corn as was brought by these vessels.

Richard, the King of Germany is Henry III’s son. Notice the price of corn. Notice the complete loss of crops.

1258—Of the remarkable nature of the season. In this same year, the calm temperature of autumn lasted to the end of January, so that the surface of the water was not frozen in any place during that time. But from about that time, that is to say, from the Purification of the Blessed Virgin till the end of March, the north wind blew without intermission, a continued frost prevailed, accompanied by snow and such unendurable cold, that it bound up the face of the earth, sorely afflicted the poor, suspended all cultivation, and killed the young of the cattle to such an extent that it seemed as if a general plague was raging amongst the sheep and lambs.

The winter started mild and then turned bitter cold in the spring.

1258—Of the great famine which prevailed throughout the whole of England. About the feast of the Trinity (May 19) in this year, an awful and intolerable pestilence attacked the people, especially those of the lower orders, and spread death among them in a most lamentable degree. In the city of London, fifteen thousand of the poor had already perished. … In fact famine prevailed in England to such great extent, that many thousand human beings died of hunger; for the crops only arrived at maturity so late in the autumn, in consequence of the heavy rains, that the harvest was only got in by All Saints’ day in several parts of the kingdom, and a measure of corn was sold for sixteen shillings.

There are no crops and this causes disease and death. Notice that 15,000 die in London which at the time had a population of about 45,000 to 50,000. Notice the price of corn.

1258—Of the mortality caused by the famine amongst the people. About the same time, such great famine and mortality prevailed in the country, that a measure of wheat rose in price to fifteen shillings and more, … and numberless dead bodies were lying about the streets. … Unless corn had been brought for sale from the continent, the rich would scarcely have been able to escape death. … the dead lay about, swollen up and there was scarcely any one to bury them; nor did the citizens dare or choose to receive the dead into their houses, for fear of contagion. … if corn could have been sold for a small price per measure, scarcely any one could have been found with the means of buying it.

Notice the price of wheat. The bodies accumulate too fast for normal burial—hence mass burials are likely.

… At this time, too, that is, at the end of July and beginning of August, … such misery, want and famine prevailed, that those who usually aided others were now amongst the unfortunates who perished from want. What alarmed the lower orders more than the nobles, was the continued heavy falls of rain, which threatened destruction to the rich crops which God had given hopes of previously. To sum up briefly, England would have failed in herself, had she not been restored to life by the arrival of some vessels, belonging to traders on the continent, which were laden with corn and bread for sale, brought from Germany and Holland; still many who spent all their money, died of hunger and want.

Even the people who help others are now perishing. Without food imports, there was no chance. Notice it is still raining.

At the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (Aug 15), when generally the barns are filled with the yearly crops of corn, scarcely even a shingle sheaf was ripe; and as the rain increased daily, the hired labourers and their cattle caused a great expense daily, without being able to leave their houses or to do any good in the fields. In consequence, a circumstance hitherto unknown, at the feast of All Saints, the corn was standing about the country ready to be cut down, but useless and spoiled almost. In some places, indeed, although late and the crop of little use, it was cut and carried, whilst in many others it was left altogether in the fields to be used as manure to enrich the soil. It should be known also, that in that year the land produced such an abundant crop, that, had it all been saved, it would have been sufficient for nearly two years’ consumption.

The rain ruins the crops despite wonderful promise (lots of crops—just all spoiled).

1258—Of the general disposition of events during the whole year. This year throughout was very dissimilar to all previous ones, bringing disease and death, and heavy storms of wind and rain. Although in the summer-time a fair promise of abundant crops of corn and fruit was given, yet in the autumn the continual heavy rains spoiled the corn, fruit and all kinds of pulse; and at the Advent of our Lord, in some parts of England, as above stated, the barns remained empty, and the crops remained ready to be cut, but entirely spoiled: for as the corn shot up, the ear and the straw rotted together, and as men died from the want of corn, so the cattle died from the want of fodder; and though England was drained of money on many pretexts, yet the people were obliged, at the instigation of hunger, to pay sixteen shillings for a measure of corn, whilst still moist and shooting; and consequently the poor pined away with hunger, and died.

The yearly summary includes a political stab at the King (England being drained by him of money on many pretexts). The poor don’t have warehouses filled with grain and can’t buy grain—so they perish.

…The dying staggered away into different by-places to yield their last wretched breath; and of these there was such a great number, that the gravediggers were overcome with weariness and threw several bodies into one grave. The people of the middle class, seeing their food failing them, sold their flocks, diminished the number of their household, and left their land uncultivated, whereby all hope of rising from this abyss, which hope generally consoles those despairing, was entirely extinguished. Had not corn been brought for sale from the continent, there is no doubt but England would have perished in herself.

Proof that mass-burials became necessary. A repetition of the import of food from the mainland shows how much worse the UK was affected by this weather.

In the same [year], when the sun was in Cancer (late June thru July), an unexpected pestilence and mortality fell upon mankind; and to say nothing of the great numbers that died in other places, in Paris alone, more than a thousand human beings were consigned to the tomb. Oil, wine, and corn also were spoiled. As the two-handed sword of death, which spares no-one, strikes sometimes one and sometimes another, and hurries from the world the rich and the poor alike, so Fulk, bishop of London, died during that deadly pestilence…

This looks like a repetition of the previous entries except for the mention of Paris. Oil and wine don’t keep long—so what reserves would be spoiled due to age. Bishop Fulk was very-well regarded.
Back to Top


Matthew Paris died in 1259, probably from old-age – he was nearly 60. It’s also possible that the depredations of the time made survival harder and that he was one of the fatalities from the agricultural and environmental changes wrought by the volcanic eruption. So far, I’ve found no other written records on the mainland or other parts of England that are as detailed as Matthew’s work.

The astute reader will notice that the nasty weather starts almost exactly one year before the volcano erupts and the descriptions sound just like the global cooling effects of the weather one expects from the volcanic eruption. Combined with Matthew’s repeated phrases (e.g., references to the Deucalion and specific dates) one wonders whether there are errors in Matthew’s chronicle (he was getting old) – or translation errors or perhaps errors in the scientific literature.

However, if you read Matthew’s Chronicles, you will find lots of repeated stock phrases and milestone dates. (For instance, he seems to favor dates associated with the Blessed Virgin Mary).  In addition, as noted above, Matthew is noted for poor chronology because he makes notes which are put into the Chronicle long after the events occurred.  I’ve been able to validate some of his dates from other sources so I’m fairly sure that many are accurate.  Given what we know now, the only real conclusion one can draw is that England got a double-whammy of an uncharacteristically bad year followed by the volcanic winter. This makes the events described here all the more tragic.

If you want to know more about the amazing stories of Matthew of Paris, you can find copies of his work in Latin (Henry Richard Luard made the canonical transliteration), or in English (Reverend James Allen Giles made the canonical English translation), or look up the works of Professor Richard Vaughan, a modern historian who wrote several works about Matthew. Look also for Susan Lewis’ work on Matthew’s art.

Matthew’s work is an inspiration for me. His writings contain countless little snippets that become stories for the campfire or other venues. His opinions enlighten our understanding of how that world worked and provide a rare insight into that period. His tales of plots, political shenanigans and the movements of the major actors in that period show us a vital, dynamic, widely aware population of smart people.  Almost every page of his Chronica can be used as a starting point for yet another story or search for understanding.
Back to Top


If you want another story like this one, look for a book published in 2014 by Gillen D’Arcy Wood (see citations below). The author chronicles an equivalent world-wide volcanic disaster that takes place in 1815 on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa right next to Lombok. The volcano (named Tambora) produced an eruption that was about half the size of the Mt. Samalas eruption. According to the author’s research, that eruption is responsible for many well-known social memories (“the year without a summer”, Frankenstein, Dracula). As I was discovering Matthew of Paris and his story about Mt. Samalas, this story about Tambora was published. The descriptions of events in this book are as chilling as Matthew’s story. It reinforced my belief that indeed, what Matthew reports is very accurate.

Sir Michael can be contacted via email at
Back to Top


Connell, B., A. G. Jones, R. Redfern & D. Walker (2012), A bioarchaeological study of medieval burials on the site of St Mary Spital: excavations at Spitalfields Market, London E1, 1991–2007, MOLA 2012. ISBN 978-1-907586-11-8

D’Arcy, Gillen, (2015), Tambora: The Eruption That Changed the World, Princeton University Press , Princeton, NJ.

Fischer, E. M., J. Luterbacher, E. Zorita, S. F. B. Tett, C. Casty, and H. Wanner (2007), European climate response to tropical volcanic eruptions over the last half millennium, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L05707, doi:10.1029/2006GL027992.

Giles, J.A. (trans.), Matthew Paris’s English History from the year 1235 to 1273. H.G. Bohn, London, 1853, Three Volumes (multiple editions available from various publishers).

Lavigne, F., J. Degeai, J. Komorowski, S. Guillet, V. Robert, P. Lahitte, C. Oppenheimer. M. Stoffel, C. M. Vidal, Surono, I. Pratomo, P. Wassmer, Irka Hajdas, D. S. Hadmoko & E. de Belizal (2013) Source of the great A.D. 1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Indonesia, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110: 16742–16747, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1307520110 .

Mann, M., J. D. Fuentes, S. Rutherford, Underestimation of volcanic cooling in tree-ring-based reconstructions of hemispheric temperatures (2012), Nature Geoscience 5, 202–205 (2012), 2012. doi: 10.1038/ngeo1394  (See image:

NASA Sage III, Verified March 2016

Oppenheimer, C. (2003), Ice core and palaeoclimatic evidence for the timing and nature of the great mid-13th century volcanic eruption. International Journal of Climatology, 23: 417–426. doi: 10.1002/joc.891

Pauling, A., J. Luterbacher, C. Casty & H. Wanner (2006), Five hundred years of gridded high-resolution precipitation reconstructions over Europe and the connection to large-scale circulation, Climate Dynamics 26: 387–405, doi: 10.1007/s00382-005-0090-8

Timmreck, C., S. J. Lorenz, T. J. Crowley, S. Kinne, T. J. Raddatz, M. A. Thomas, and J. H. Jungclaus (2009), Limited temperature response to the very large AD 1258 volcanic eruption, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L21708, doi:10.1029/2009GL040083.

Vaughan, Richard, (trans.), (1993), The Illustrated Chronicles of Matthew Paris: Observations of Thirteenth-Century Life, Alan Sutton Publishing, Gloucestershire, UK.

Back to Top

Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

Wed, 1969-12-31 20:00