SCA kingdoms and branches

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #20: Knit Purses in 14thC Switzerland

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-07-19 16:08

Our twentieth A&S Research Paper comes to us from Lady Tola knitýr, of the Shire of Quintavia. She examines the history and background of these beautiful small purses, and then demonstrates how they can be made by a skilled modern craftsperson. (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

Knit Purses in 14thC Switzerland

Detail of Lady Tola’s reconstruction of a fourteenth-century knitted purse.

Table of Contents
I. Historical Overview of Knitting
II. Textiles and Religion
III. The Knit Purses of Sion and Chur
IV. Recreating a Sion-style purse
V. Conclusion
VI. References

I. Historical Overview of Knitting

The oldest items that can be truly defined as knit (rather than made with naalbinding techniques), are knitted cotton fragments from Egypt, approximately 11th to 12th Century.  Slightly later, but still in Egypt, knit cotton socks appear, with museum authorities estimating that they were made somewhere from 1200-1500.  These Egyptian pieces were the first knit in stockinette stitch in the round, where a tube is knit with needles that are pointed on both ends.  In The History of Handknitting, Richard Rutt indicates that these were almost certainly knit with rods, that may have been hooked.  Very few extant knitting needles have been found, which may be a result of the simplicity of double-pointed needles, but an excavation in York discovered two copper alloy rods with a rounded point on each end, dated to the late 14th century, that scholars suggest may have been used as knitting needles.

Copper alloy knitting needles, photo from The Archaeology of York 17/15, Finds from Medieval York, Craft, Industry and Everyday Life, Patrick Ottaway and Nicola Rogers, p. 2743.

In Europe, the earliest knit pieces appeared in the mid to late 13th century, as a Spanish glove, Spanish cushion covers, and a mitten fragment from Estonia. Following these pieces are five knitted purses from Sion, Switzerland and a sixth purse found in Chur, in the German-speaking eastern Switzerland.  All six are dated to the 14th century.  The purses were all knit with silk thread, very finely knitted from the top down, closed at the bottom with a three-needle bind-off, and usually used two colors at a time to create a pattern.

A number of paintings in the middle ages show Mary, mother of Jesus, knitting with double pointed needles.  The “knitting Madonnas” lead me to believe that at this time, knitting was done by women in the home, rather than in guilds, as was the case towards the end of the Middle Ages.

Detail from the right panel of the Buxtehude Altar, Master Bertram, c. 1400

“Madonna dell’Umiltà”, Vitale da Bologna, c. 1353.

Detail from “The Holy Family”, Ambrogio Lorenzetti, c. 1345

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II. Textiles and Religion

Across Europe, the Roman Catholic church was a vital part of life in the Middle Ages.  The papal states in Italy were the seat of power, and became independent from the Holy Roman Empire, which allowed the church to hold land as a sovereign entity. Massive landholdings as well as financial gifts to the church in the form of tithing helped the church become powerful politically.  Because of the great importance and wealth of the church, the finest materials were used in furnishing churches and clothing the clergy.  Precious metals like gold and silver, as well as luxurious silk, ivory, and gems, were crafted into decorations, vestments, and reliquaries used to hold the remains of holy places, saints, or items they had touched.  Because of the importance of the church to this day, many textiles in the form of garments and reliquaries were preserved through the ages.

Detail from “Altarpiece of the Virgin and Saint George”, c. 1400, Lluis Borrassa, showing girls working on embroideries for the Church.

Many of these textiles were created by women, both nuns and laywomen, to show their piety and devotion to the church.  Because of the importance of the textiles, which were largely in the form of intricate embroidered items, the Church kept detailed records of many of these donations.  In some cases, it is unclear as to whether the names of the women who donated the textile items were the artisans, or commissioned the pieces for the church.  Many Queens, such as Queen Matilda, wife of William the Conqueror, are listed as the donors of embroidered items.  Queen Margaret of Scotland even established a workshop for noble women to gather and create religious textiles.  While embroidery gets most of the attention in historical study and recreation, a number of church textiles were also knitted items.

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III. The knit purses of Sion and Chur

The city of Sion is home to the oldest Roman Catholic diocese in Switzerland.  Historical records reflect bishops there as early as the 4th Century.  Several churches have stood in Sion over the centuries, and construction on the present-day cathedral began in 1450.

In the early 20th Century, Ernst Alfred Stückelberg was granted access to relics in the treasury of the cathedral of Sion.  Stückelberg was a professor of Christian antiquarian studies at the University of Basel as well as a researcher and lecturer of Christian archaeology and monuments.  Stückelberg’s essays do not detail the excavation of the artifacts, which could provide greater context for the items, but we do know that one of the items that he found was a wooden chest studded with gold-plated silver, which contained five knitted purses.  During the Middle Ages, purses were used for both secular and religious purposes.  The Sion purses are thought to have been used as reliquary bags, to hold the remains of saints.

Sion chest, from Mittelalterliche Textilien in Kirchen Und Klöstern Der Schweiz: Katalog, p. 283.

The Sion purses appear in Richard Rutt’s A History of Handknitting, but were first studied by Brigitta Schmedding in Mittelalterliche Textilien in Kirchen Und Klöstern Der Schweiz (Medieval Textiles in Churches and Monasteries of Switzerland).  Schmedding had a doctorate from the University of Freiburg, having written her dissertation on the Romanesque Madonnas of Switzerland in the 12th and 13th century, and also graduated from the Abegg Foundation’s three-year training in textile preservation.  The purses are currently located in the Château de Valère, the historical museum in Sion.  I have attempted to contact the staff of the museum to obtain color pictures of the purses, but have not received any response.

Schmedding also studied a sixth purse, found in Chur, Switzerland, which is generally referred to as the Chur purse and is strikingly similar to the Sion purses.  Both Schmedding and Rutt conclude that the purses likely came from the same creator or workshop due to the similarities.  I believe that these purses were likely knit by one woman, who then gave them to the church, since they are very similar and could represent devotion to the church.

The purses were all knit with silk thread, very finely knitted from the top down, closed at the bottom with a three-needle bind-off, and usually used two colors at a time to create a pattern.  Schmedding indicates that the threads are s-spun (spun in a clockwise manner), but does not indicate whether they were singles or plied.  Silk thread from the same time period used in embroidery and sewing was 2-ply, with the single threads Z-spun and the two threads plied together with an S-spin.

Diagram of yarn structure, courtesy Britannica Online.

For the technique, Schmedding describes the knit in the round technique, describes the bottom of the purse being laid flat and knit together, and indicates that it was probably knit on a frame.  Her description of the bottom of the purse matches the technique of a three-needle bind off, which is a technique used to join two pieces of knitting that are still on the needles, essentially binding off the stitches and seaming them together at the same time.  With regard to Schmedding’s suggestion of a frame, the stocking knitting frame was not invented until 1589.  There are, however, images of double-pointed knitting needles in art from the Middle Ages, as referenced earlier, so I would conclude that these purses were likely knit on double-pointed knitting needles.

The following analysis relies mostly on Schmedding, but also references Rutt.  Since Rutt’s names for the bags are simpler, each bag is referenced first with Rutt’s naming convention, then Schmedding’s, with the associated catalog number.  I also created my own charts, because I found that I was not satisfied with Rutt’s interpretations (and Schmedding doesn’t have any charts).  Rutt’s charts can serve as a starting point, but close examination of photos often reveals mistakes or omissions.  There is even a case where he indicates different colors on a purse than Schmedding describes, and as Schmedding had documented hands-on experience restoring the purses, I am inclined to trust her conclusions over his. All photos are taken from Mittelalterliche Textilien in Kirchen Und Klöstern Der Schweiz: Katalog; the charts that follow each description are my own.

Sion relic-purse I (268 Reliquary bag), p. 285

Measurements: Bag is 27 cm x 24 cm (10.6” x 9.4”) Fringe is 17 cm (6.7”) Pattern repeat is 2.7 cm x 1.6 cm (1.1” x 0.6”)
Gauge: 70 stitches and 70 rows = 10 cm (4”) (a note about gauge – knitting gauge is measured by the number of stitches and the number of rows in a 10 cm x 10 cm or 4” x 4” square)
Colors: Red, light green, light blue, white, beige

                                                                                                                              Sion relic-purse II (271 Reliquary bag), p. 287

Measurements: Bag is 31.5 cm x 26 cm (12.4” x 10.2”) Fringe is 16 cm (6.3”)
Gauge: 80 stitches and 70 rows = 10 cm (4”)
Colors: Violet, red, light green, white, beige, light blue

Sion relic-purse III (269 Reliquary bag), p. 286

Measurements: Bag is 23 cm x 19.5 cm (9.1” x 7.7”) Fringe is 16 cm (6.3”) Pattern repeat is 7.4 cm x 1.9 cm (2.9” x 0.75”)
Gauge: 50-60 stitches and 70 rows = 10 cm (4”)
Colors: Violet, red, light green, light blue, white, beige

Sion relic-purse IV (272 Reliquary bag), p. 288

Measurements: Bag is 20.6 cm x 19 cm (8.1” x 7.5”) Fringe is 14 cm (5.5”) Pattern repeat is 3 cm x 1.7 cm (1.2” x 0.67”)
Gauge: 70 stitches and 70 rows = 10 cm (4”)
Colors: Violet, white, beige, light green

Sion relic-purse V (270 Fragment of a reliquary bag), p. 287

Measurements: Fragment is 20.5 cm x 21.8 cm (8.1” x 8.6”) Fringe is not present, because the lower half of the bag is missing. Pattern repeat is 6.5 cm x 2.3 cm (2.6” x 0.9”)
Gauge: 75 stitches and 90 rows = 10 cm (4”)
Colors: Red, light green, beige, white, violet, light blue

Chur purse (92 Reliquary bag), p. 91

Measurements: Bag is 34 cm x 24.5 cm (13.4” x 9.6”) Fringe is 13 cm (5.1”) Pattern repeat is 12 cm x 12-13 cm (4.7” x 5.1”)
Gauge: 90 stitches and 70 rows = 10 cm (4”)
Colors: Red, light blue, dark blue, white, beige, green

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IV. Recreating a Sion-style purse

I chose Sion relic-purse III for my first attempt at recreating one of the Sion purses.  To get the appropriate gauge (50-60 st to 10 cm/4”), I needed to use size 00000 (5/0) needles, which are 1 mm in diameter.  For reference, the knitting website Ravelry has a database of over 400,000 patterns, with the largest percentage of patterns using size 6 needles.  On size 6 needles, a knitter could reasonably expect to get 21-24 stitches to 10 centimeters.  When using standard commercial yarn, even the smallest common gauge range, for size 000-1 needles, is approximately 33-40 stitches to 10 centimeters.

Detail of Sion III reconstruction with penny for scale. Photo by Lady Tola knitýr.

For the thread, I chose Halcyon Yarn’s 2/30 Gemstone Silk.  The 2/30 designation indicates that it is 2-ply and the single plies equal 30 times the standard length of 560 yards, or 16,800 yards.  The larger the second number is, the thinner the yarn is. This yarn was also spun in the same way as silk threads from the time period of the Sion purses, with a Z-spun single and the two threads plied together with an S-spin.

With metal knitting needles and silk thread, there is little resistance to keep the stitches on the needles.  The needles I had on hand were 4” long, so I would recommend longer needles or a circular needle (though not period, it makes things a lot easier) to alleviate the slipping issues.  There are also not point protectors in small enough sizes for 5/0 needles, so I cut pieces of a cork to use for that purpose.

About halfway through knitting the bag, I realized that working the ends of the yarn in as I knit the bag would save me a lot of weaving in work in the end.  There are multiple ways of doing this, but my main technique was just carrying the ends along as if they were part of the colorwork, and twisting them behind the working yarn every three or so stitches.  Some of the different ways to work the ends in can be found here.

To finish the bag, I wove in and trimmed all of the ends, and then blocked the bag.  Blocking serves two purposes – to gently shape the knit object, and to even out stitches.  To block the bag, I soaked it in water and then used metal rods woven through the stitches to shape it into an even rectangle, then let it air dry.  The blocking made a big difference in the appearance of the purse.  After it was blocked, I attached 12 tassels, then used fingerloop braiding to make a drawstring and a carrying loop.  The only pictures I have found of this particular purse are in black and white, but a picture of the Chur purse shows that the tassels, drawstring, and loop were all made of multiple colors, so I concluded that they could be the same on this purse.  It is unclear from the pictures what technique was used to make the strings, so I decided to use fingerloop braiding, since I already knew how to fingerloop braid.  The drawstrings are “A Round Lace of 5 Loops” and the carrying loop is “A Broad Lace of 5 Loops,” both of which were found on medieval purses.

Sion III reconstruction, complete.  Photo by Lady Tola knitýr.

After completing the purse, I discovered that my purse measured considerably smaller than the original.  Sion Purse III measured approximately 9.1″ x 7.7″ and my recreation measured 5.75″ x 5.25″.  The vertical repeats were the same, the horizontal repeats were the same.  I measured the gauge of my purse, and it had a gauge of 88 st and 92 rows = 4″.  The extant piece had a gauge of 50-60 st and 70 rows = 4″.  I realized that the gauge swatch I had knit was in one color.  When knitting colorwork (two or more colors), the knitting will tend to have tighter gauge than when knitting with a single color.  Lesson learned: Knit your gauge swatch in the same manner as you will knit your project.  If it’s in the round, do it in the round (which I did).  If it’s colorwork, do it in colorwork (which I did not).  I could have knit this project with needles the next size up, if not larger.  However, The Sion and Chur purses do vary in gauge, and one purse has gauge of 75 st and 90 rows = 4″ while another has gauge of 90 st and 70 rows = 4″.  So while my gauge is not accurate for the specific purse I was recreating, it is historically accurate for other knit purses.

My next goal is handspinning silk to knit a purse of my own design.  Silkworm cocoons have been used to make silk for thousands of years, and there are two basic varieties: wild and cultivated.  Wild silkworms, since they feed on whatever leaves happen to be available, do not produce a uniform fiber.  They are also usually harvested after the silkworm has emerged from its cocoon, so the cocoon can not be harvested as a single thread, but results in multiple pieces and makes it more difficult to process for spinning purposes.  Cultivated silkworms may be referred to as Bombyx (their scientific name) or Mulberry (after their food source), and produce a much finer and smoother fiber.  These silkworms have been bred in controlled environments for over 5,000 years.  Since they only eat Mulberry leaves, there is much greater consistency across cocoons, and the silk is harvested before the silkworm emerges, so the cocoon can be processed in one unbroken strand.  I was interested in what the difference really looked like when thread was spun and knit, so I tested it out.  In the below picture, the reddish pink is a wild silk, and the white is a cultivated silk.  The difference between the two types is readily apparent when presented side-by-side.  To make the most reliable comparison, I spun and plied each silk within days of each other, trying for the thinnest spin I could manage without breaking, and knit them on the same size needles.  The wild silk was more difficult to spin, and spun thicker despite my attempts to draft it to a smaller thread.  It was dyed, which the cultivated was not, but it was commercially dyed, so the process shouldn’t have affected the fibers in an adverse manner.

Detail of knitted handspun silk sample, with penny for scale.  Photo by Lady Tola knitýr.

In addition to the handspinning, I also decided to try my hand at natural dyeing.  I have done a couple experiments with natural dyes, namely with black walnut hulls, alkanet root, and onion skins, using alum as a mordant.  Mordants are used to help dyes adhere to the fiber, and alum was a commonly used mordant in the middle ages.  All three of the dyestuffs I used were available and used during the middle ages.  The alkanet root and black walnut hulls were purchased as powders, and I gathered the onion skins to create the dyebath myself.  In the below images, the smaller skeins are commercially spun silk while the larger skeins are my handspun.  From left to right, the colors were obtained with alkanet root, black walnut hulls, and onion skins.  My next step with this project will be charting a design with a medieval aesthetic and knitting a purse with my own handspun and natural dyed silk.

Commercial and handspun silk skeins. The purple is dyed with alkanet root, the pale brown with black walnut hulls.  Photo by Lady Tola knitýr.

Commercial and handspun silk skein, dyed with onion skins. Photo by Lady Tola knitýr.

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V. Conclusion

The knit purses that were found in Sion and Chur, Switzerland and dated to the 14th Century were likely reliquary bags, used to hold important religious objects.  They were made from silk, a prized material, and were found with other religious items in cathedrals.  Because several paintings of the same period depict Madonna knitting, I believe that they are the work of a woman, who made them to show her devotion to the church.  Because they have slightly different gauges, they were likely knit over many years, or with different sized needles.  They are intricately designed, finely knit, and show a high level of skill.  The knitter who created them likely also made other objects, since colorwork knitting and knitting on very small needles are skills that take considerable time and practice to get to a competent level.

VI. References

Barber, E.J.W. Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Benns, Elizabeth, and Gina Barrett. Tak v Bowes Departed: A 15th Century Braiding Manual Examined. Great Britain: Soper Lane, 2005.

Boehm, Barbara Drake. “Relics and Reliquaries in Medieval Christianity.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (originally published October 2001, last revised April 2011). 14 May 2017.

Crowfoot, Elisabeth, Frances Pritchard, and Kay Staniland. Textiles and Clothing, C.1150-c.1450. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell, 2006.

Gilbert, Rosalie. “Medieval Dyestuffs, Dyeing & Colour Names.” Rosalie’s Medieval Woman. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2017.

Historic Enterprises. “Colors.” Historic Enterprises. Historic Enterprises, n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2017.

Laning, Chris. “Medieval Masterpieces: The Purses of Sion.” Knitting Traditions Spring 2013: 74-76.

Lins, Joseph. “Sion.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 16 May 2017.

Logan, F. Donald. A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. London: Routledge, 2013. Web. 14 May 2017.

Ottaway, Patrick, and Nicola S.H. Rogers. Craft, industry and everyday life: finds from Medieval York. York: Council for British Archaeology, 2002.

Rutt, Richard. A History of Handknitting. Interweave, 1987.

Schmedding, Brigitta. Mittelalterliche Textilien in Kirchen Und Klöstern Der Schweiz: Katalog. Bern: Stämpfli, 1978.

Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts.  Holy Women and the Needle Arts: Piety, Devotion, and Stitching the Sacred, ca. 500- 1150. In Katherine Allen Smith and Scott Wells (Ed.), Negotiating Community and Difference in Medieval Europe: Gender, Power, Patronage, and the Authority of Religion in Latin Christendom (pp. 83-110), 2009.

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Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

Several Society Level Positions Open

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2017-07-18 18:44

The SCA is seeking candidates for several Society-level positions: Society Seneschal and Vice President of Operations, Society Minister of Arts and Sciences, and Society Webminister.  The full job descriptions as well as details about applying for the positions for each are listed below. 

Society Seneschal and Vice President of Operations.

The Board of Directors of the Society for Creative Anachronism is now accepting applications for the position of Society Seneschal (Vice-President for Operations). This is a part-time, paid position, which requires approximately thirty plus hours per week.

Applicants must possess strong telephone skills, and be very capable of interacting with unique SCA personalities. The ability to process and distill large amounts of information from different sources is a requirement. Organizational and problem solving skills are essential. Having held a Kingdom Seneschal position, while not required, is preferred. Applicants must possess enough space at home for a medium sized office, have immediate access to internet, PC and printer, and possess word processing skills.

Position Requirements and Responsibilities:
–Prior experience in a position of leadership within the SCA or leading volunteer organizations
–Oversee directly and indirectly the planning and implementation of all game side activities.
–Good working knowledge of current SCA corporate documents
–Investigative skills
–Ensure confidentiality of all investigations
–Mediation skills
–Executive management
–Quarterly review of all Kingdom Seneschal Reports
–Interface as a corporate spokesperson for information management
–Explore, evaluate and create new documentation as needed to ensure a positive game side experience
— Management experience with both volunteers and employees
–Report to the Chairman and President regarding matters of significant importance to the SCA, Inc.
–Office, Project and Resource management
–Excellent communication skills both written and oral
–Writing to a mass audience and speaking publicly
–The ability to connect to internet/communicate via internet is required

The Society Seneschal deals with large amounts of correspondence (mostly electronic, some telephone and a portion written) with a wide number of individuals including, but not limited to all kingdom seneschals, royalty, and corporate level offices, especially the President, Vice-President for Corporate Operations and the Executive Assistant to the Board of Directors.

Applicants must be available for the four quarterly Board Discussion Sessions per year (typically held on Fridays), held in addition to the four Board meeting days per year (typically on Saturdays). As Thursdays and Sundays tend to be travel days, each applicant must have sixteen days available per year, of which eight are week days. Additional traveling may be required. Availability for up to eight evening conference calls per year (generally starting at 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time) is also required.

The successful candidate will plan, organize, and facilitate regular Kingdom Seneschals Meetings held via Go To Meeting for purposes of training as needed.

The successful candidate must be available to provide periodic advice to the Seneschals, the Crowns and Their Heirs in the 20 Kingdoms. This will incur a degree of time on the telephone and electronic mail.

The Society Seneschal-Vice President of Operations is responsible for supervising sanction activity as described in Section X of Corpora, and the Uniform Sanction Procedure as noted in the Seneschal handbook and the current Sanction Guide.

Resumes (professional and medieval, including awards and titles) must be sent to SCA Inc., Box 360789, Milpitas CA 95036, or, no later than October 31, 2017. You may also email comments This is an official announcement by the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.; permission is granted to reproduce this announcement in its entirety in newsletters, websites and electronic mailing lists.

Society Minister of Arts and Sciences

The Society for Creative Anachronism is seeking candidates for the position of Society Minister of Arts and Sciences (MOAS), which is a warranted 3-year term of service.
The Minister of Arts and Sciences is the officer responsible for reporting on the artistic programs of the SCA, fostering the study of medieval culture and technology, and for promoting methods for producing historically inspired artifacts and performances.

Duties and responsibilities include:
• coordinating the efforts of kingdom officers in the field;
• promoting the dissemination of accurate information;
• responding to inquiries from the membership and artisans in a courteous and timely manner;
• constructive problem solving;
• ensuring accurate and consistent reporting from A&S officers to meet the SCA’s audited charitable reporting requirements;
• reporting quarterly on the artistic programs of the SCA.
• performing other duties assigned by the Board.

This is an unpaid position. Applicants should be paid members of the Society and able to travel to other kingdoms as approved by the board, and have easy access to phone, computer, mail and e-mail. Experience in both the practice and coordination of the Arts and Sciences as practiced in the SCA is strongly preferred.

Hard copies of résumés (both professional and SCA related, including offices held and honors) must be sent to the attention of ‘The Board of Directors’, SCA, Inc., P.O. Box 360789, Milpitas, CA 95036-0789. Electronic courtesy copies should also be sent to by October 1, 2017.

Society Webminister.

This position reports to the SCA Board of Directors.
The Society Webminister is a supervisory position, and is not involved in maintenance of the Corporate website (

The Society Webminister is responsible for the following duties:

1. Ongoing development and revision of the Society Webminister’s policies and procedures, as detailed in the Society Webminister Handbook.
Said work will not only include making sure that solutions are provided for current issues, but will also include observing trends, being aware of potential issues and streamlining the Webministry as a whole to provide better service to the SCA and potential members thereof.

2. Warranting of kingdom-level Webministers, where necessary.

3. Supervision of all kingdom-level websites, including proper use of domain names, monitoring content, regular reporting from Kingdom Webministers, and enforcement of the Society Webministry policies and procedures.

4. Working with Kingdom Webministers to ensure they develop and
enforce clear guidelines for local SCA group websites based on the standards found in the Society Webminister’s Handbook.

5. Acting as a subject matter expert and resource regarding issues related to electronic publications and websites at the kingdom and local levels, including, but not limited to: copyright issues, privacy issues, and technology-related issues.

6. Quarterly reporting to the Board of Directors for the SCA, Inc.

Required for this position are: dependable email access; dependable phone access; moderate to expert proficiency in web-related technologies(e.g. HTML, Java, PSP, ASP, web hosting issues, etc.); moderate Microsoft Word proficiency; and the ability to clearly communicate via email, phone, and in written reports.

Prior experience as a Webminister in the SCA is required; prior experience as a kingdom webminister is highly desired.

Those interested in the Position of Society Webminister should submit their SCA and modern era resumes to both and The deadline for applications is extended until October 1, 2017.

Comments are strongly encouraged and can be sent to:
SCA Inc.
Box 360789
Milpitas, CA 95036

You may also email

Filed under: Announcements, Official Notices

Staff Positions Available for EK 5Oth Event / Positions disponibles pour l’événement du 50ième anniversaire du Royaume de l’Est

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2017-07-18 17:31

En français


As the autocrat for the East Kingdom 50 Year Celebration to be held next
year, I have a few staff positions that I need to fill.

If you are interested in any of these positions, please e-mail your
intent and list of qualifications to:

Please keep in mind that each department head will also be needing their
own staffs.  If you are interested in being on staff, please keep an eye
on  We will be updating the staff listing and
activating email accounts for each department head.


Merchant Coordinator (hard goods)– This person will be responsible for
coordinating merchants who would like to vend at the event.  Ideally,
this person would be familiar with NYS regulations regarding permits,
etc. (This would include spice merchants as they do not fall under food

Merchant Coordinator (food)– This person will be responsible for
coordinating any food merchants who would like to vend at this event.
Reaching out to food truck vendors in the Albany area would also be a
plus. Ideally, this person would also be familiar with NYS regulations
as pertains to food vending at an event.

Fencing MiC– This person would be in charge of all fencing related
activites at the event.  Coordinating tournies or melees, managing
marshalls and inspections. Set up and tear down of the fencing area.

Disability services– This person would be responsible for coordinating
space in disability camping, coordinating access to medically necessary
charging stations and any other issues that would arise.

Media liaison– This person will be responsible for escorting media thru
the site and managing any other issues as pertains to that position.
Publicity, etc.

Event herald– This person would be responsible for coordinating with TRM
and event staff as to time and place of Opening and Closing Ceremonies,
as well as any processions or other ceremonial functions to happen at
the event outside of normal Court operations.

Royal liaison– This person would be responsible for helping Our and
visiting Royalty with their needs onsite, such as camping space (in
tandem with the Land Office), schedules, setting up viewing
pavilions/sitting areas, etc.

Again, if you are interested in any of these positions, send your
intent, along with contact info and any relevant experience to:

In Service to the Crown and Realm,
I remain,

En français
Traduction: Behi Kirsa Oyutai

Salutations !

En tant qu’Intendante des Célébrations du 50ième anniversaire du Royaume de l’Est, qui auront lieu l’année prochaine, nous sommes toujours à la recherche de personnes pour combler quelques positions restantes.

Si une de ces positions vous intéresse, veuillez envoyer votre lettre d’intention et la liste de vos qualifications par courriel au:

Veuillez garder en mémoire que chaque chef de département devra aussi se trouver du personnel. Si vous aimeriez faire partie du personnel, gardez un oeil sur Nous mettrons à jour la liste du personnel et activerons des addresses courriel pour chaque chef de département.


Coordonnateur des marchands (marchandise)– Cette personne sera responsable de coordonner les marchands qui souhaitent vendre à l’événement. Idéalement, cette personne serait familière avec les lois et régulations de l’État de New York au regard des permis requis, etc. (Ceci inclus les marchands d’épices, comme ils ne tombent pas sous la régulation s’appliquant à la nourriture, ci-dessous.)

Coordonnateur des marchands (nourriture)– Cette personne sera responsable de coordonner tous les vendeurs de nourriture qui aimeraient vendre leurs produits à l’événement. Joindre des propriétaires de camions de bouffe de rue dans la région d’Albany serait un plus. Idéalement, cette personne serait familière avec les lois et régulations de l’État de New York au regard de la vente d’aliments à un événement.

Maréchal en charge de l’Escrime– Cette personne sera en charge de toutes les activités reliées à l’escrime pendant l’événement. Ceci inclus coordonner les tournois ou les mêlées, gérer les maréchaux présents, ainsi que les inspections. Il serait aussi responsable d’organiser la mise en place et le démontage de l’espace réservé à l’escrime.

Services d’invalidité– Cette personne sera responsable de coordonner l’espace disponible pour le campement handicapé, coordonner l’accès aux stations de chargement pour besoins médicaux et toute autre situation reliée se présentant.

Liaison avec les médias– Cette personne sera responsable d’escorter les médias au travers du site et de gérer toute autre situation pertinente à cette position. Cette personne sera aussi en charge de la publicité entourant l’événement, etc.

Héraut d’événement– Cette personne sera responsable de coordonner avec Leurs Royales Majestés et le personnel de l’événement le moment et l’endroit ou auront lieu les Cérémonies d’Ouverture et de Fermeture, ainsi que toute procession ou autre fonction cérémonielle se tenant en dehors des planifications de Cour régulières.

Liaison Royale– Cette personne sera responsable d’aider Notre Royauté, ainsi que toute Royauté visitant notre événement avec leurs besoins sur le site, comme aider avec l’espace de campement (en tandem avec l’Office du Terrain), les horaires, monter des pavillons/espaces de repos, etc.

Encore une fois, si vous êtes intéressés par n’importe laquelle de ces positions, envoyez votre intention, avec vos informations de contact et toute expérience pertinente à:

En Service à la Couronne et au Royaume,
Je demeure,

Filed under: Uncategorized

SCA, Inc. publishes SCA Harassment Policy

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2017-07-18 11:07

The SCA Harassment and Bullying Policy

From the Society Seneschals Handbook:

XXIV. SOCIETY SENESCHAL POLICIES & INTERPRETATIONS 4. Harassment and Bullying The SCA prohibits harassment and bullying of all individuals and groups.

Harassment and bullying includes, but is not limited to the following: offensive or lewd verbal comments directed to an individual; the display of explicit images (drawn or photographic) depicting an individual in an inappropriate manner; photographing or recording individuals inappropriately to abuse or harass the individual; inappropriate physical contact; unwelcome sexual attention; or retaliation for reporting harassment and/or bullying. Participants violating these rules are subject to appropriate sanctions. If an individual feels subjected to harassment, bullying or retaliation, they should contact a seneschal, President of the SCA, or the Kingdom’s Board Ombudsman. If a participant of the SCA becomes aware that someone is being harassed or bullied, they have a responsibility pursuant to the SCA Code of Conduct to come forward and report this behavior to a seneschal, President of the SCA or Kingdom’s Board Ombudsman. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ The following statement must be posted at gate/troll at every SCA event in a size large enough for people to see it as they enter our events.  This language must likewise be quoted in ALL site handouts at every event a site were a handout is made available.
  • Participants engaging in this behavior are subject to appropriate sanctions.
  • If you are subjected to harassment, bullying or retaliation, or if you become aware of anyone being harassed or bullied, contact a seneschal, President of the SCA, or your Kingdom’s Board Ombudsman.

Per the Society Seneschal July 17, 2017


Filed under: Announcements, Corporate, Official Notices

Pennsic Cannon Fire: Messaging Project Goes Live This Pennsic

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2017-07-16 18:18

“Gentles who expressed interest in the messaging project proposed in the [Æthelmearc] Gazette article Whilst the Cannons Fire: Pennsic and PTSD likely will be pleased to learn about the project’s plans for War in two weeks.” Read the rest of this article at The Æthelmearc Gazette.

Filed under: Announcements, Pennsic

Greetings from the East Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer/Salutations de la part de la Chancelière de l’Échiquier du Royaume

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2017-07-16 11:24

En français

Greetings from the East Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer,

Many hands make light work.  The office of the Exchequer is once again understaffed and in need of more hands.  Constance De Saint Denis and Jaquelinne Sauvageon have served us well as the Central and Northern region deputies and I thank them both for the time they put into those offices.

The East Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer is now accepting applications for the following positions:
Northern Region Deputy
Central Region Deputy
Western Region Deputy (PA/DE)
Warranting Deputy
Training (new exchequers)
Pennsic Steward
Council of the Exchequer (financial committee) – several seats available
Paypal assistants – several positions available
Domesday assistant – end of year consolidated reporting

I am not including descriptions of each position in this letter. Descriptions can be found in the SCA governing docs, EK Law and Financial policy of the East.  For all positions please send letters of interest to the Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer (, along with proof of legal age (ex: drivers license) and current SCA membership.  For the Pennsic Steward applicants, you should cc their Majesties at  For ALL applications please include in the SUBJECT line ‘Application for ’  and the position name.

Once there are enough regional applicants, I would like to reorganize the areas that the regional deputies cover, as the exchequer office has to deal with groups by state rather than by the regions defined by the East Kingdom.  Each regional deputy covers between 10 and 15 groups.

In Service,
Maestra Ignacia la Ciega,
East Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer

En français
Traduction: Behi Kirsa Oyutai

Salutations de la part de la Chancelière de l’Échiquier du Royaume,

De nombreuses mains rendent le travail aisé. L’office de l’Échiquier est encore une fois en manque de personnel et aurait besoin d’autres mains. Constance de Saint Denis et Jaquelinne Sauvageon nous ont bien servies en tant que députées des régions Centrales et Nord, et je les remercie toutes deux pour le temps qu’elles ont consacré à ces offices.

Le Chancelier de l’Échiquier du Royaume accepte maintenant les candidatures pour les positions suivantes:
Député de la Région du Nord
Député de la Région Centrale
Député de la Région Ouest (PA/DE)
Député aux Accréditations
Éducation (Nouveaux Échiquiers)
Intendant de Pennsic
Conseil de l’Échiquier (comité financier) – plusieurs sièges disponibles
Assistants Paypal – plusieurs positions disponibles
Assistant au Domesday – Consolidation de fin d’année

Je n’inclus pas les descriptions de chaque position dans cette lettre. Les descriptions peuvent être trouvées dans les documents de gouvernance de la SCA, la Loi du Royaume de l’Est, ainsi que dans les Politiques financières de l’Est. Pour toutes ces positions, veuillez envoyer une lettre d’intérêt au Chancelier de l’Échiquier du Royaume (, avec une preuve de votre âge légal (ex: permis de conduire) et votre carte de membre SCA valide. Pour la position d’Intendant de Pennsic, vous devriez aussi mettre leurs Majestés en copie conforme a Pour TOUTES les candidatures, veuillez inclure dans la ligne SUJET “Candidature pour” suivi du nom de la position.

Une fois que nous auront reçu assez d’applications pour les postes régionaux, j’aimerais réorganiser les régions dont les députés régionaux s’occupent avec des groupes par état au lieu des régions telles que définies par le Royaume de l’Est. Chaque député régional couvre entre 10 et 15 groupes.

En Service,
Maestra Ignacia la Ciega,
Chancelière de l’Échiquier du Royaume


Filed under: Announcements, Official Notices, Tidings Tagged: Exchequer, help wanted

Consultation Tables at Pennsic A&S Display/Tables de consultation à l’exposition d’Arts et Sciences de Pennsic

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2017-07-10 19:35

Queen Avelina, accompanied by Mistress Amy Webbe examines entries at an earlier Pennsic.

En français


A&S Consultation Tables!

Coming to Pennsic War: Known World Arts & Sciences Display, Sunday, August 6, 2017, 1:00 – 5:00 pm

Entrants can voluntarily request feedback based on the higher degree of expectations that happen at more competitive levels.

The focus is on extensive research, historical understanding, and exemplary execution. These are all important for A & S Champions entries, but also for other activities throughout the Society. Even if you never plan to enter A & S competitions, you can use these tables as opportunities for feedback.

Entrants: After you have gone through the registration table, you may sign up at the A&S Consultation Tables for constructive feedback. (This is in addition to your other A&S Display activities and is no way required.)

• You will not receive a score and there is nothing to win. • You will have a chance to talk to experienced judges and walk through their thought process as they examine your entry.

• We can give you directed feedback and we can also walk you through example judging rubrics. It depends on what help you are requesting.

• We will attempt to accommodate as many entries as possible. We will visit you at your table to view your display and talk to you. We can also work with you on scheduling a specific time. Judges: We also welcome volunteer judges. Want to help? Let us know! It’s you who will help make the A & S Consultation Tables successful.

• We’d welcome you for the full four hours; two hour shifts would also help. Let us know what you can do and we’ll work with you.

• Never judged before and want to learn? Let us know. You can be a shadow judge. We’d welcome the company.

• We also hope that this will make the judging experience more constructive and more enjoyable. If you are interested in helping, please contact Honorable Lady Kataryn Mercer.

En français
Traduction: Behi Kirsa Oyutai

Tables de consultation d’Arts et Sciences !
Bientôt à la Guerre de Pennsic: Exposition d’Arts et Sciences du Monde Connu, dimanche le 6 août 2017, entre 1:00 et 5:00 pm
Les participants peuvent volontairement demander de la rétroaction basée sur les plus hautes attentes exigées aux compétitions plus avancées.
L’accent sera mis sur la recherche exhaustive, la compréhension du contexte historique, ainsi que l’exécution exemplaire. Tous ces sujets sont importants lors d’une entrée de compétition, mais ils le sont aussi pour plusieurs autres activités au travers de la Société. Même si vous ne planifiez jamais participer à une compétition d’Arts et Sciences, vous pouvez utiliser cette opportunité d’obtenir de la rétroaction.
Participants: Après avoir visité la table d’enregistrement, vous pouvez vous inscrire aux tables de Consultation d’Arts et Sciences afin d’obtenir de la rétroaction constructive. (Ceci est en plus de vos autres expositions d’Arts et Science et n’est pas requis d’aucune façon.)
• Vous ne recevrez aucun score et il n’y a pas de prix à la clef.
• Vous aurez la chance de parler à des juges expérimentés et d’expérimenter leur processus d’évaluation étape par étape, alors qu’ils examinent votre item.
• Nous pourrons vous donner de la rétroaction dirigée et pourrons vous guider au travers d’exemples de feuilles de critères de jugement. Ceci varie selon le type d’aide demandé.
• Nous tenteront d’accommoder le plus d’entrées possible. Nous vous visiteront à votre table afin d’examiner votre exposition et vous parler. Nous pouvons aussi travailler avec vous afin de planifier une visite à un moment spécifique. Juges: Les juges volontaires sont les bienvenus. Vous souhaitez aider ? Laissez-nous le savoir ! Les tables de consultation d’Arts et Sciences ont besoin de votre aide afin d’être un succès.
• Nous vous accueillerons pour les quatre heures complètes; mais des disponibilités de deux heures aident aussi beaucoup. Laissez-nous savoir vos disponibilités et nous ferons ce que nous pouvons pour travailler selon votre horaire.
• Vous n’avez jamais été juge et souhaitez apprendre ? Dites-le nous. Vous pourriez observer un juge en action. Nous aimons la compagnie.
• Nous espérons aussi que ce projet rendra l’expérience de l’évaluation plus constructive et plus plaisante. Si vous êtes intéressés d’aider, veuillez contacter l’Honorable Dame Kataryn Mercer.

Filed under: Arts and Sciences, En français Tagged: A&S Consultation, Pennsic

Eastern Results from the May 2017 LoAR

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2017-07-09 21:39


The Society College of Arms runs on monthly cycles and letters. Each month, the College processes name and armory submissions from all of the Kingdoms. Final decisions on submissions are made at the monthly meetings of the Pelican Queen of Arms (names) and the Wreath Queen of Arms (armory). Pelican and Wreath then write up their decisions in a Letter of Acceptances and Return (LoAR). After review and proofreading, LoARs generally are released two months after the meeting where the decisions are made.

An “acceptance” indicates that the item(s) listed are now registered with the Society. A “return” indicates that the item is returned to the submitter for additional work. Most items are registered without comments. Sometimes, the LoAR will address specific issues about the name or armory or will praise the submitter/herald on putting together a very nice historically accurate item.

The following results are from the May 2017 Wreath and Pelican meetings.

EAST acceptances

Anneke Valmarsdotter. Name and badge. (Fieldless) A pinecone with stem to chief azure.

Jean Oste de Murat. Badge. (Fieldless) A prawn Or.

The question was raised in commentary about whether a prawn would conflict with a crab, which would bring this badge into conflict with the device of Mór Ruadh: Gules, a crab Or. Crabs and lobsters have been demonstrated to be interchangeable in period, and we do not grant a DC between the two crustaceans. Some commentary suggested that charges that look like lobsters might have been described in cants as prawns, though evidence for that has not yet been provided.

However, the submitter has received permission to conflict from Mór. We therefore decline at this time to rule whether a prawn has a DC from a lobster. We also decline to rule on the precise relationship between prawns and crabs, prawns and lobsters, and crabs and lobsters so far as difference is concerned.

Jean Oste de Murat. Badge. Per bend argent and azure, a hop cone slipped and leaved Or.

This does not conflict with the device of Turold of Normandy, Purpure, a New World pineapple Or leaved vert. The substantial leaves of a New World pineapple sufficiently separate it visually from a hop cone for there to be DC between them.

Lijsbet van Catwiic. Badge. (Fieldless) A mortar and pestle sable charged with an elderflower argent.

Lijsbet van Catwiic. Badge. (Fieldless) An escallop purpure winged Or.

Ravensdale, Stronghold of. Branch name.

Ruantallan, Barony of. Badge for Populace. (Fieldless) On a dolphin haurient argent a tenterhook azure.

Ruantallan, Barony of. Badge for Populace. (Fieldless) On a dolphin haurient contourny argent a tenterhook reversed azure.

Ryan Mac Whyte. Heraldic title Skunk Herald.

Skunk is the lingua Anglica form of the Early Modern English term Squuncke, the plural form of which is found in the OED s.v. skunk dated to 1634.

Samuel Peter Bump. Badge. (Fieldless) A fess wavy within and conjoined to a mascle sable.

Thomas de Marr. Badge. (Fieldless) On a barrel sable a dragon passant Or.

Thomas de Marr. Badge. (Fieldless) In fess a dunghill cock Or conjoined at their tails with a bull rampant contourny gules.

Thomas de Marr. Badge. Per chevron inverted gules and azure, in chief a cockatrice Or.

Whyt Whey, Canton of. Device change. Argent, an apple gules slipped and leaved within a laurel wreath vert and an orle sable.

Nice device change!

Canton’s previous device, Sable, a cockroach tergiant within a laurel wreath and on a chief embattled argent, a pomme, is retained as ancient arms.

Whyt Whey, Canton of. Badge for Populace. Argent, an apple gules slipped and leaved vert within an orle sable.

Nice badge!

Zoya the Orphan. Name (see RETURNS for device).

The byname the Orphan is the lingua Anglica form of the Russian byname Sirot or Sirota, both of which are found in Paul Wickenden of Thanet’s “A Dictionary of Period Russian Names” (


EAST returns

Christiana Crane. Badge. (Fieldless) Six caltrops conjoined in annulo points to center argent.

This badge must be returned for visual conflict via SENA A5D2 with the badge of Clovia Lumi: Sable, a snowflake argent, and with the device of Thorbjorn Wulfgrimmssøn, Per fess azure and Or masoned sable, in chief a snowflake argent. The arrangement of the caltrops left a distinct impression of a snowflake for most commenters, and when considered as a snowflake, there is only one DC from each piece of registered armory for removing the field.

Additionally, this must be returned for lack of identifiability. The overlapping tips of the caltrops caused visual confusion which made the charges themselves difficult to identify, which further led to the assumption by most submitters that the design is a snowflake.

Snowflakes have not been allowed as heraldic charges since August 1994, with subsequent registrations falling under allowances found in SENA A2B3 and similar rules in RfS.

Vígþorn Vetsson. Name.

Submitted as Vígþorn Vetsson, the patronymic does not use the correct genitive (possessive) form of the father’s name. The proper construction is Vetrarson or Vetarson. We would change the name for registration, but the submitter does not allow any changes.

On resubmission, the submitter should be prepared to demonstrate that the name Vetr was used by real people. The only use of Vetr as a personal name in Cleasby-Vigfusson is for a mythological giant who was the son of Vindsvalr or Vindlóni in the Eddas. Without evidence of usage by real people, a name claiming to be the son of a giant is likely to be prohibited by PN4C of SENA as improperly claiming powers.

Zoya the Orphan. Device. Purpure, three Arabian lamps argent.

This device is returned for conflict with Celestinus MacCriomthainn: Vert, three pitchers flammant at the mouths argent. There is a DC for changing the field, but none for enflaming the pitchers. We don’t grant difference between pitchers, ewers, laverpots, and other spouted, handled vessels; the Arabian lamp, not being a period charge, doesn’t get the allowance for period differencing.

Filed under: Heraldry Tagged: heraldry, LoAR

Northern Region War Camp Court Report

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-07-06 20:10

East Kingdom College of Heralds


Court Report Form

  Being the Court of Their Majesties Ioannes and Ro Honig held on July 1, A.S. LII (2017) in the Shire of Glenn Linn at Northern Region War Camp Court Heralds: Master Malcolm Bowman, Mistress Alys Mackyntoich, Mistress Pagan Graeme, Baronin Maria Erika von Ossenheim, Lady Marian Kirkpatrick, Don Lucien de Wyntere, Dona Anastasia da Monte, Rose Erembourc Reporting Herald: Master Malcolm Bowman

Order SCA Name Award C&I    

Xavier the Sinister  


Rhonwen Glyn Conwy   Kenric aet Essex

  OGR  Onora ingheann Ui Rauirc

    Remy Delamontagne de Gascogne

  Silver Brooch  No scroll

    Tsuki no ho Akiha

  Tyger’s Cub  Vettorio Antonello


Rosalia of La Familia Gladiatoria

  Tyger’s Cub  I: Mairi Crawford
C: Mari Clock van Hoorne    Lisette Fournier



I: Mairi Crawford

C: Mari Clock van Hoorne

W: Audrye Beneyt

    Saffir Weaver

  Silver Brooch  Millicent Rowan


Wilhelm Un Bergrekkr AoA

  No scroll





Order SCA Name Award C&I    

Lady Serafina Della Torre Silver Wheel


No scroll    

Tomas an Bhoga O Neill Silver Wheel


Eowyn Eilonwy of Alewife Brook   Angharad verch Moriddig


  Silver Wheel    

C: Thyra (Þóra) Eiríksdóttir

I: Alita of Hartstone

W: Alys Mackyntoich

    Bianca Anguissola


  Silver Wheel    

I: Carmelina da Vicari

C: Aesa feilinn Jossursdottir

W: Malcolm Bowman

    Cassius of La Familia

  Writ for Chivaly

  Fiona O’Maille ó Chuan Coille


Scrooby of Carolingia Silver Rapier

  C&I: Magdalena von Kirschberg

W: Alys Mackyntoich


Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova Laurel


C&I: Isabel Chamberlaine

W: Alidreda de Tamworthe   Gretta Wunderin

  AoA  I: Camille des Jardins

C: Anna Mickel von Salm

W: Alidreda de Tamworthe

    Tola Knityr


  Silver Crescent    

I: Leonete d’Angely &
Nataliia Anastasia Evgenova

W: Catrin o’r Rhyd For

C: Eleanor Catlyng

    Donovan Shinnock

  Silver Crescent   

I: Emma Makilmone
C: Henna Sinclair

W: Ryan MacWhyte


Magnus hvalmagi Silver Crescent


I: Ellesbeth Donofrey
C: Jonathan Blaecstan

    Richard de Troyes

  Silver Crescent

  Thyra (Þóra) Eiríksdóttir



Order SCA Name Award C&I   Kuroma Kenshin Silver Tyger  Scroll in backlog


Dalla Olafskona Pelican

  Vettorio Antonello

    Ogedei Becinjab

  OTC  C&I: Eva Woderose

W: Alys Mackyintoich

    Godric inn hivit ulfr


  C&I: Magdalena Lantfarerin

W: Aislinn Chiabach

    Remy Delamontagne de Gascogne






C&I: Mýrún Leifsdóttir

W: Alys Mackyntoich

French: Brunissende Dragonette de Brocéliande



Filed under: Court, Official Notices

Curia Agenda for July 9, 2017 at Great Northeastern War

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-07-06 08:32
East Kingdom Curia Sunday, July 9 2017, 9:00 am
at Great Northeastern War in the Province of Malagentia (Hebron, ME) 1. Curia Opening 2. Old Business 3. New Business (See Agenda page 2 for details) 3.1 Polling Orders: polling notification lists

Revision to IX.F.6. to reflect current practices.

3.2 Interkingdom Events: The Pennsic War

Revision to VIII.C.2. to reflect a change in the Pennsic War hosting cycle; and deletion of VIII.C.5. (obsolete reference).

3.3 Crown Tourney vs Crown Tournament

Revision to II.B.k. and VIII.F. to eliminate inconsistent terminology.

3.4 Youth Combat Activities

Section XI. deleted (superseded by Rattan and Rapier Armored Combat policies).

4. Officer Reports 5. Curia Closure


EK Law Section III.I. The Agenda for the Curia Regis
1. Any items that The Crown chooses to add to the agenda after the Curia has been called will be added to the agenda under “New Business”.
2. If a Curia notice has been sent according to East Kingdom Law, but another Curia needs to be held before the previously announced one, any items of business held over from the earliest Curia will be automatically added to the agenda of the subsequent Curia under “Old Business”

Filed under: Announcements Tagged: agenda, curia, GNeW

Site Book and Class Schedule for Great Northeastern War Now Available Electronically

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2017-07-03 11:08

The site book and class schedule for Great Northeastern War, taking place in Malagentia July 6-9, are now available for download.

Paper copies will also be available at the event, however the event staff is making these available for early download so that attendees can plan their weekend and download the information to a mobile device if they wish.

Link for the full site book (.pdf format)

Link for the Great Northeastern University book, with full class descriptions and times (.pdf format)

Link for the class “grid” handout (classes listed by location and time, no descriptions) (.pdf format)

Answers to most other questions about the event, including directions, gate opening times, fees, pets, and site rules, can be found at the event website

Please check the web page and the Event page on Facebook for updates and corrections.

Filed under: Events Tagged: class list, classes, east kingdom events, electronic publications, event announcement, Great Northeastern War, Malagentia, site book, Stonemarche

Calling All Artisans

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-06-30 23:09

River War will soon be upon us. Lady Aibhilin inghean Ui Phaidin, the Coordinator of Artisans’ Row and Youth Activities, sends greetings. Join her on Labor Day weekend when there will be ample space under 2 large pavilions for artisans to show their skills.

They are looking for Artisans from a variety of disciplines…glass bead making, metal smithing, cooking, fiber arts, music, scribal arts, etc… Please contact Lady Aibhilin (Erica Janowitz) at if you’d like to be part of Artisans’ Row and have any questions.

Filed under: Arts and Sciences, Events Tagged: a&s

Eastern Results From the April 2017 LoAR

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-06-22 21:58

The Society College of Arms runs on monthly cycles and letters. Each month, the College processes name and armory submissions from all of the Kingdoms. Final decisions on submissions are made at the monthly meetings of the Pelican Queen of Arms (names) and the Wreath Queen of Arms (armory). Pelican and Wreath then write up their decisions in a Letter of Acceptances and Return (LoAR). After review and proofreading, LoARs generally are released two months after the meeting where the decisions are made.

An “acceptance” indicates that the item(s) listed are now registered with the Society. A “return” indicates that the item is returned to the submitter for additional work. Most items are registered without comments. Sometimes, the LoAR will address specific issues about the name or armory or will praise the submitter/herald on putting together a very nice historically accurate item.

The following results are from the April 2017 Wreath and Pelican meetings. The submissions in this letter are from Herald’s Point at Pennsic 2016.

EAST acceptances

Áine Dhána. Name and device. Per chevron sable and vert, three triskelions of spirals counterchanged argent and Or.

Submitted as Áine Dhánae, we have corrected the byname to Dhána_ to make the orthography internally consistent for post-1200 Gaelic.

There is a step from period practice for the use of a triskelion of spirals.

Alaxandair Mórda mac Matha. Name and device. Sable, an escutcheon within an orle Or.

Alton Hewes. Badge. Per chevron throughout sable and azure, in base an annulet Or surmounted by a sword proper.

Artist’s note: Please draw the annulet more centered on the sable portion of the field.

Anne Forneau. Name.

Ato no Sumime. Name.

Brian of Stonemarche. Name and device. Argent, a chevron inverted sable between a chabot gules and two chabots azure.

Stonemarche is the registered name of an SCA branch.

The submitter requested authenticity for “English.” Although Stonemarche is an SCA branch name, it can also be constructed as an English place name from attested elements.

Thus, while the name is not “authentic” as the College defines that term, the construction is consistent with 13th-14th century English naming practices.

This is the defining instance of the chabot in SCA heraldry. The chabot is a fresh-water flatfish, a species of bullhead, found in period armory in the canting arms of Cabos or Cabot, c.1400 [Wapenboek Beyeren, folio 25v]. Unlike most fish in heraldry, the chabot is tergiant by default.

Brien MacShane. Name.

Nice 16th century Anglicized Irish name!

Dagobert Gerhardt von Hohensee. Name and device. Or, three seeblätter one and two, a trimount gules.

Dash of Distant Shore. Holding name and device (see PENDS for name). Per pale Or and gules, a chevron embattled and in chief two mullets of eight points counterchanged.

Submitted under the name Dash Altan.

Fernando de Rivera. Name.

Nice late 15th century Spanish name!

Janna von Guggisberg. Name change from Janna von Guggenberg.

The submitter’s prior name, Janna von Guggenberg, is released.

Joscelyn de Villeroi. Device. Per bend purpure and vert, a falcon striking within an orle of escarbuncles argent.

Artist’s note: Please draw fewer and larger escarbuncles to improve their identifiability.

Madlena Malacky. Name and device. Sable, a crescent pendant and on a point pointed argent a crescent sable, a chief wavy argent.

Madlena Malacky. Badge. Sable, a crescent pendant and on a triangle issuant from base argent a crescent sable.

This was originally blazoned as a point pointed. However, on a badge form, a point pointed would look similar to a chief triangular, with the edges of the point issuant from the lower corners. As this charge originates well away from the corners of the form, we have reblazoned it as a triangle.

Máirghréad Huntley. Name and device. Vert, a winged dog couchant and on a chief argent three square weaver’s tablets vert.

This name combines a Gaelic given name and an English byname, an acceptable lingual mix under Appendix C.

The submitter requested a given name that sounds like “Molly.” The given name Máirghréad does not have that sound; it is closer “Moy-red.” However, Molly is a documented English given name, dated to 1596 in the FamilySearch Historical Records.

If she prefers Molly Huntley, she may make a request for consideration.

Michiel Césaire. Name.

Nice French name for circa 1500!

Nergis bint Mustafa. Device. Per chevron purpure and vert, on a chevron argent three bunches of grapes palewise slipped and leaved proper, in base a bird migrant to chief argent.

A bird migrant to chief is a step from period practice.

Pádraig Ó Brádaig. Name and device. Argent, a bear statant and on a chief sable three shamrocks Or.

Nice 16th century Gaelic name!

Pádraig Ó Brádaig. Badge. Argent, on a saltire sable four shamrocks palewise Or.

Artist’s note: Please draw the shamrocks more centered on each arm of the saltire.

Quintus Lucius Fortunatus. Name and device. Gules, in bend two lion’s heads cabossed and a chief argent.

The submitter requested authenticity for “Roman.” Using evidence from the Epigraphic Database from the University of Heidelberg, Alisoun Metron Ariston confirmed that this name is authentic for “at least the Roman provinces (Baetica in particular) in the first century A.D.”

Rowan Auley. Name.

Nice late 16th century English name!

Suke Arslajin. Name.

Taichleach an Chomhraic mac Ualghairg. Name and device. Per chevron inverted vert and argent, a skull and a serpent nowed counterchanged.

Artist’s note: Please draw the skull so that the field doesn’t show through the eyes and nasal cavity.

Therion Sean Storie. Badge. Azure, on a saltire argent, a lemming statant sable, a bordure Or.

Artist’s note: Please draw the lemming centered on the saltire.

Tristan of Northern Outpost. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Or, within a torii gate a fox’s mask gules.

There is a step from period practice for use of a torii gate.

Submitted under the name Kurama Kitsutarou Makoto.

EAST returns

Gunnvor hausakljúfr. Badge for Raina Hausakljufr. (Fieldless) Two axes in saltire gules each blade charged with a plate.

This must be returned for conflict with Uðr bloðøx: Argent, in saltire two axes embrued gules. There is one DC for the field and nothing for the gouttes. Commentary was mixed, but leaned heavily towards the tertiary charges being too small to count for difference.

When resubmitting, we recommend that the submitter draw the axe heads wider, to give more room for the plates. This will help with recognizability.

Kalos Dumas. Badge. Argent, a tree split, blasted and eradicated, in chief a sword inverted gules.

This badge must be returned for conflict with Tala al-Zahra: Argent, an olive tree fructed and eradicated and a bordure gules, with only one DC for changing the type of secondary charge.

The depiction of the tree as being split has not been registered since 1987, and we have not seen evidence of the motif in period heraldry. Upon resubmission, if the submitter wants to retain this motif, they should supply documentation for it.

Kurama Kitsutarou Makoto. Name.

Although Kurama was documented as a place in Japan that existed in period, not all period place names were used as family names in Japanese. No evidence was provided showing that this particular place name or place names like it were used as a family name prior to the 19th century. Therefore, we are forced to return this name for lack of documentation supporting Kurama as a family name.

His device is registered under the holding name Tristan of Northern Outpost.

EAST pends

Dash Altan. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for mid-13th century Mongol. This request was not summarized on the Letter of Intent. As this issue was not addressed in commentary and we did not receive sufficient information from which to analyze authenticity, we are pending the name for additional commentary on this issue.

His device is registered under the holding name Dash of Distant Shore.

This was item 9 on the East letter of January 31, 2017.

Filed under: Announcements, Heraldry Tagged: heraldry, LoAR

Compte Bancaire de Tir Mara pour les Soumissions Héraldiques

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-06-22 19:45

À la population de l’Est, moi, Malcom Brigantia, Héraut Principal, envoie mes salutations.

Il est de mon plus grand plaisir d’annoncer que le Collège des Hérauts peut maintenant recevoir les paiements pour les soumissions héraldiques venant de Tir Mara à partir de comptes chèques canadiens !
Ce projet est l’aboutissement de trois ans d’efforts; je souhaiterais remercier pour leur travail acharné les hérauts de Tir Mara, le Royaume, les échiquiers  régionnaux et du Royaume, ainsi que mon prédécesseur pour que ce projet voie enfin le jour.
À cause des différences entre les devises, les soumissions payées en fonds canadiens seront au prix de 10$ CAD par item, alors que ceux en fonds US resteront au prix de 9$ USD par item.
Cette nouvelle structure de prix prendra effet à partir du 1er juillet.
Veuillez diriger vos questions à moi-même, ou au député héraut de soumissions de Tir Mara, Jeanne Blue Alaunt.
En Service,



Filed under: Uncategorized

Pennsic Fighters: Check Your Authorization Expiration Date Today

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-06-22 10:06

Unto the Armored and Rapier fighters of the East, the Kingdom Minister of the Lists sends greetings.

If you plan on fighting at Pennsic, please check your authorization card right now an make sure that your authorization doesn’t expire before the end of Pennsic. It’s easy to forget the paperwork in the midst of drilling and training. The cutoff date for mailing your authorization renewal to the East Kingdom Ministry of Lists in order to get your new card in time for Pennsic is Friday, July 7th. Authorization forms postmarked after that date will not get processed in time for you to have a new card by Pennsic. I will be collecting authorization forms directly from Great Northeastern War, so forms filled out at that event will also make the deadline, but please, if you don’t have to, don’t wait until that last minute.

Make it easier on the Marshals and MoL’s who volunteer at Pennsic as well as yourself. Get your authorization renewal forms filled out and mailed in ASAP.

Mail forms to:
PO Box 1168
Westbrook, ME 04098

Download the appropriate forms below:
Armored Combat New/Renewal Authorization
Armored Combat Additional Weapons Form
Rapier Combat New/Renewal Authorization
Rapier Combat Additional Weapons Form

Filed under: Announcements, Heavy List, Pennsic, Rapier

Recommendation Deadline

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2017-06-20 19:40

Their Highnesses Ivan and Matilde will be accepting award recommendations for their 1st polling through July 4th.

Recommendations can be submitted here.

Their Highnesses thank you all in advance for your hard work in noting and commending the good works of the people of the East.

En français Traduction: Behi Kirsa Oyutai

Leurs Altesses Ivan et Matilde accepteront les recommendations pour les différentes reconnaissances jusqu’au 4 juillet, pour leur 1er vote.

Les recommendations peuvent être soumises ici.

Leurs Altesses vous remercient d’avance de votre travail acharné a noter et saluer les excellents travaux des gens du Royaume de l’Est.

Filed under: Announcements Tagged: award recommendations

Tir Mara Bank Account for Heraldic Submissions

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2017-06-19 17:56

Unto the populace of the East does Malcolm Brigantia, Principal Herald, send greetings.

I am deeply pleased to announce that the College of Heralds can now receive submission payments from Tir Mara drawn on Canadian chequing accounts!

This project has been three years in the making, and I would like to thank the hard work of the Tir Maran heralds, the Kingdom, the regional and Kingdom exchequers, and my predecessor in making this finally happen.

Due to the difference in currencies, submissions paid in Canadian funds will be charged $10 CAN per item, while those in US fund will remain $9 per submission.

This new fee structure shall go into effect as of July 1.

Please direct any questions to myself, or the Tir Mara submissions deputy, Jeanne Blue Alaunt.


French Translation:

Filed under: Uncategorized

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #19: Tequila: Is it a Period Beverage? A Brief History of Agave Based Fermented and Distilled Beverages and the Origins of Distillation in West-Central Mexico

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2017-06-19 11:31

Our nineteenth A&S Research Paper comes to us from Lord John Kelton of Greyhorn, Guildmaster of the Honourable Company of Fermenters of the Barony of Concordia of the Snows. He considers the fascinating question of distilled spirits within our historical period – specifically the possibility of such spirits in SCA-period Mexico. (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

Tequila: Is it a Period Beverage? A Brief History of Agave Based Fermented and Distilled Beverages and the Origins of Distillation in West-Central Mexico

Mayahuel, the Aztec goddess of the maguey. From the Rios Codex via Wikimedia Commons.

Table of Contents
The Players
Beverages from the Maguey
When was distillation introduced to Mexico and the Americas?
Distillation prior to European contact


Tequila. There is no other drink that conjures up the mystique and history of Mexico as well as this legendary elixir of the gods. A drink, which comes from a plant, the agave. A plant which has its own goddess and pantheon of drinking gods. Over the past 400 years, tequila has become a symbol of Mexican nationality, pride and culture (Chadwick). However, as Shakespeare would say, aye, there’s the rub – it’s modern. As members of the SCA, we’re not really interested in modern, are we? The question for us then is, could it be period?

The Society for Creative Anachronism (SCA) is a “practical history society, recreating the arts and skills of pre-17th century Europe” ( Over the years I have heard arguments for more specific dates such as 400/450/600 CE – 1600/1650 CE. Further, although the Society’s definition of period refers to Europe, it is common and accepted for members to have personae which are not of European origin. I would have liked to limit this discussion by not considering awareness or accessibility of the product in Europe but it turns out that that is impossible. Spaniards, Mexicans and even Filipinos are intricately bound together in the origins of this beverage (Colunga-GarcíaMarín 1654; Zizumbo-Villarreal 289)

To properly answer the question posed above we need to know when tequila was first produced and who would have been drinking it. Let’s explore then the origins of this beverage. To do this, we need to understand the plant, its related beverages and the peoples involved.

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The Players

The Aztec empire existed from 1345 CE to 1521 CE when it was conquered by the conquistadores. At its greatest extent, it covered most of northern Mesoamerica (modern Mexico). The empire’s date of origin is somewhat flexible depending on one’s definition of empire. It is often dated from 1428 AD with the triple alliance between the cities of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. Nahuatl was the language of the empire and modern versions are still spoken in Mexico. (“Aztec Empire” 2016)

Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485-1547) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. In February 1519, Cortés arrived in Mexico with about 500 soldiers and 100 sailors. By 1524 he had conquered the Aztec empire. He was appointed governor of New Spain by King Charles I of Spain the following year (Bandelier; James).

Surprisingly, Filipinos were also involved. They came to Central America with the Spanish and works as laborers on the palm plantations (Colunga-GarcíaMarín 1654-1655).

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The maguey plant, Agave atrovirens. Photo by the Rodale Institute.

As mentioned, tequila and its close relative mescal are derived from the agave (Chadwick). The agave also known as the maguey is a member of the botanical family Agavaceae which includes over 400 species; it resembles a cactus but is related to the families Amaryllidaceae and Liliceae which includes the amaryllis and lily. The agave is a perennial, native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico, South America and the southern United States. Agaves have thick, succulent, often thorn-edged leaves clustered close to the ground and surrounding a single stout base. The plant can range in size from a few inches to over 12 ft. tall and wide. The Blue agave (A. tequilana Weber var. azul), is the variety specifically used for tequila (Chadwick; Colunga-GarcíaMarín 1653-1654, 1656; Maestri).

Blue agave plant. Photo courtesy of

There is extensive archaeological evidence dating back over 12,000 years that foraging groups made extensive use of the maguey for food and fiber. It has also been used for making string and cordage (for nets, hammocks, and rugs), shoes, textiles, paper (for codices), thatching, food, fuel, soap, bandages and snakebite cures (Maestri 1; Zizumbo-Villarreal 289).

Before corn [(maize) (Zea mays subsp. mays)] became a staple crop, agave was the main source of carbohydrates for the indigenous peoples of western Mexico and the southeast United States. Agave was prepared by cooking the stems and floral peduncles (quiotes) in stone lined pit ovens. This is critically important, to the subject of tequila, as baking the agave body (piña or pineapple) is a necessary step in the manufacture of tequila. We do know that pit ovens used for food preparation are identical to those used for producing mescal (Colunga-GarcíaMarín 1654; Zizumbo-Villarreal1 289).

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Beverages from the Maguey

Two culturally significant alcoholic beverages are produced from the maguey: pulque and mescal.

Pulque, was characteristic of central Mexico. The Spanish described the Otomi Indians (thought by some to have discovered the process of making pulque) as a tribe of half -naked barbarians who went about in an intoxicated state brought on by drinking the liquor made from the maguey. Cortes described pulque in his first letter to King Carlos V: “They sell honey emanated from corn that are as sweet as the sugar obtained from a plant they call maguey and from these plants they make wine and sugar which they sell” (Kolendo).

Pulque is the fermented, but not distilled sap (aquamiel, “honey water”) of the maguey plant. It is a milky white, somewhat thick, slightly foamy beverage with a sour yeasty flavor of 4-8% alcohol by volume (ABV). Pulque played a significant and complex role in the religious practices of Mesoamerican cultures. There is extensive archaeological, pictorial and written evidence that pulque was known to the Maya and central to their religious beliefs long before their empire rose to power. (“Aztec Empire” 2016; Correa-Ascencio; Lappe-Oliveras).

The original name for pulque was iztāc octli, white pulque. The term pulque was probably mistakenly derived by the Spanish from octli poliuhqu(i), which meant “spoiled pulque”. This term may have originated because of pulque’s rapid rate of spoilage. There is debate over the terms linguistic origin. It may derive from the Náhuatl or Mexica languages (“Pulque” 2016, 2013).

An illustration from Codex Mendoza depicting elderly Aztecs smoking and drinking pulque. By en:User:Billycuts [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

In the past, Pulque was reserved for the priesthood and religious ceremonies. Over time, it spread to the general population. It became the dominant fermented drink of Mexico until displaced by beer in the 20th century. Pulque also provided an important and inexpensive source of carbohydrates, amino acids, and vitamins (Chadwick).

The fermented liquid extracted by roasting the plant’s body (piña or pineapple) was characteristic of western Mexico. Once distilled this beverage becomes mescal. However, it may have also been known as mescal prior to distillation. Indeed, mescal can also refer to the plant and to food made from roasting the plant. The etymology of mescal is from the Nahuatl metl plus ixcalli for cooked-agave and so is not a beverage specific term. We do know that a fermented beverage made from the liquid extracted from the cooked plant was in use by the time of the Spanish conquest, but it is not clear if this beverage always had a separate name. Beginning with our (SCA) period the pre-distillation fermented liquid has been known as mescal-crudo and Tubo. (Tubo was a term also used by the Filipinos for coconut spirits). Other than originating from the same plant, mescal and pulque are not related; as noted above, mescal comes from the roasted plant, while pulque is made from the maguey’s sap (Maestri; Valenzuela-Zapata1).

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To brew pulque, the nascent flower stalk is scooped out of the ripe piña before it begins to grow. This procedure is known by the unfortunate term “castration.” Castration creates a reservoir in which the sweet liquid sap (aguamiel) collects. The aguamiel is harvested by hand using a long necked gourd (an acocote) and placed in large wooden barrels. Natural fermentation turns it into alcoholic pulque in just a few days. A maguey may produce 5-8 liters of sap per day for about 3-4 months (Lotter; Maestri).

Aquamiel collecting in the cavity where the plant was castrated. Photo by Rodale Institute.

Pulque does not have a long shelf life. This is commented on in this wonderful quotation from a Spanish traveler in 1552. “There are no dead dogs, nor a bomb, that can clear a path as well as the smell of…. (putrified pulq)” (Carey; Lotter). We can presume from this that the Spanish were certainly familiar with pulque.

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When I started this project, I was under the mistaken assumption that pulque is distilled to produce Tequila and Mescal. Mescal, also mezcal, is quite likely the first distilled spirit of the Americas. The word derives from the Nahuatl mexcalli ‎(cooked maguey; mezcal) from metl ‎(“maguey”) + a derivation of ixca ‎meaning “to cook, bake, roast” (Chadwick, Colunga-GarcíaMarín). Mezcal is if you will a Spanish-Aztec fusion drink; a mestizo, from the Spanish for mixed, implying that it is a combination of European, Filipino and indigenous traditions; distillation from Europe and the Philippines and maguey from the Aztec (Pint).

Mescal can be made from several maguey varieties, whereas tequila is specifically from the Agave tequilana [blue agave (agave azul)]. The cultivars used for pulque are different from those used for either mescal or tequila. Those used to produce pulque, agave pulquero and Agave salmiana (Yetman) are enormous with leaves large enough to cradle an adult (Lotter; Valenzuela-Zapata1).

In mezcal and tequila production, the sugary liquid is extracted from the piñas (or hearts) by roasting and then crushing them. This gives rise to a different liquid base than that used for pulque. Thus if one were to distill pulque, it would not be a form of mezcal, but rather a different drink. I have not come across any references to distilled pulque (Chadwick).

Stone baking pit with trimmed piñas. Photo by Ian Chadwick.

Today name Mescal, like the name Tequila is a protected denominación de orígen. Its production methods, much like Cognac or champagne must meet certain legal requirements. Naturally, this protection and current nomenclature is a modern invention dating to the 19th century (Huhn; “Norma” 2016).

To produce mezcal, the sugar-rich heart of the agave, the piña, is placed in a rock-lined pit oven, covered with layers of moist agave-fiber mats and earth and then steam-baked over charcoal for several days. The charcoal is from a wood fire used to heat the pit and helps gives mezcal its distinctive smoky flavor. Baking the agave in a pit oven is one of the primary differences between tequila and mescal. The baking process caramelizes sugars in the plant which contributes to the flavor (Chadwick, Huhn).

Piñas baking under a large mat. Photo by David Driscoll.

The cooked plants are then cut into pieces and milled into a fibrous pulp (bagazo) with a traditional stone mill (tahona, molino egipcio or molino chileno). The mill may be powered by draft animals, or a machine. In some regions, the baked agave are pounded with wooden mallets rather than processed in a mill. Some feel this produces a better flavor (Huhn).

The pulp along with sufficient water is mashed in open air tanks to allow for natural yeast and bacteria to begin the fermentation process (Lappe-Oliveras). The bagazo is sometimes allowed to dry ferment for several days before water is added. According to regional tradition, the vats may be dugout logs, stone pits or wooden vats. Another traditional method was to ferment in cowhide. The end product, musto, is about 5% alcohol. This fermented beverage is also referred to as tubo, a Filipino term referring to distilled coconut spirits. Interestingly, this is an historic anachronism which hints at the origins of distillation in Mexico. I’ll discuss this further in the section on the history of distillation in Mexico below (Huhn; “Mezcal” 2016, Pint).

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The term tequila derives from the town of Tequila in Jalisco, Mexico, famous for producing this style of mescal. The word itself derives from Nahuatl Tequillan, Tecuila meaning place of tribute (James). Tequila is a type of mescal, but mescal is not tequila. The term is a protected Appellation of Origin in accordance with the Norma Oficial Mexicana and the Tequila Regulatory Council (“Norma” 2016).

As with the relationship of cognac to brandy or champagne to sparkling wine, the term is region, species and technique specific. Tequila is a modern term first used in 1875. Previously, tequila was simply vino-mescal de tequila (Chadwick; Colunga-GarcíaMarín).

Agave processing for tequila is similar to mescal production. There are however some differences. The agave are split then baked in above ground ovens rather than left whole and cooked in stone pits under wet fiber mats and charcoal. Modern ovens use pressurized steam. Before the late 19th century this process was similar to the pit cooking used for mescal; deforestation from the increasing demand for tequila led to the innovation of above ground gas and coal fired heating. A low heat is used to prevent caramelization of the sugars (Chadwick; James). Traditional ovens (horno) are stone or brick-lined. Modern ovens are stainless steel autoclaves. Cooking the agave is a required step for both tequila and mescal. The heat transforms the agave’s natural carbohydrates and starches into fermentable sugars. This is analogous to mashing barley grains in order to brew beer.

As with mescal, initial fermentation takes place in open air vats exposing the musto to natural yeasts and the bacteria Zymomonas mobilis which lives on the skin of the agave plants (Correa-Ascencio; Lappe-Oliveras). Zymomonas species are perhaps the most important alcoholic fermenters of the bacterial world. They are found in sugar rich plant saps and juices, and are integral to the fermentation of agave (Correa-Ascencio; Lappe-Oliveras).

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When was distillation introduced to Mexico and the Americas?

Tequila is a distilled beverage. To answer our question we need to know when distillation began in this area. There is no archaeological or written evidence of distillation in West Central Mexico or the Americas prior to European contact in the 16th Century. Mexican wines made from maguey (not pulque), hog-plum, maize, and cactus pears are documented by the Spanish by 1580 (Zizumbo-Villareal2 414).

The prevailing thought is that distillation was introduced by Filipino sailors and workers who arrived in West Central Mexico with the Spanish via the “Manila Galleon” trade (1565–1815). Other researchers suggest agave distillation began in the 17th century through adaptation of the sugarcane rum model using the Arab style still introduced by the Spanish. Finally, there is a hypothesis for pre-Spanish distillation of agave (Colunga-GarcíaMarín 1654-1655; Valenzuela-Zapata2; Zizumbo-Villareal3 494, 499).

Filipinos were brought in by the Spaniards around 1570 and were primarily occupied with coconut cultivation and production of vino de cocos. This term is somewhat vague and may refer to a fermented coconut wine. However, in addition to the quote above, there is a 1612 reference to vino de cocos which states “ it is incorrect to call it vino de cocos because in reality it is spirits … and to obtain it requires skill, a still and lots of work.” Another source from 1612 notes that large quantities of coconut spirits (232,000 liters annually by 1612) had been made for the past twelve years, whereas before that, very little was made (Colunga-GarcíaMarín 1654-1655, 1665; Zizumbo-Villareal3 499-500).

A clay pot still. Photo by Alvin Starkman.

The stills used today to produce mescal remain similar to the stills used in Mexico and the Philippines by 16th and 17th century Filipinos to produce coconut spirits. Historically the stills were made from hollow tree trunks or pottery and were quite primitive in construction (Bourke). Today of course some producers use more modern stainless steel stills or copper alembics. The type used will affect the final flavor (Pint; Valenzuela-Zapata2, Zizumbo-Villarreal3).

Initially distillation was limited to coconut spirits. This is understandable given that this is what was familiar to the Filipinos. Coconuts were introduced to western Mexico in 1569 although it may also have been brought in as early as 1539. The first documentation for a producing coconut plantation occurs in 1577. In that year Francisco Hernández records that there are two types of palm, one for fruit and one good for spirits (Zizumbo-Villareal3 499-500). Coconut cultivation expanded rapidly which necessitated the incorporation of native Mexican workers (Zizumbo-Villareal3 500).

The Filipino still technology was more easily adapted to local resources than the more elaborate and difficult to reproduce Spanish style alembic (of Arabic origin, also introduced by the Spanish). The Filipino still was also more easily disassembled which in turn kept mescal alive during the following centuries despite the prohibitions, fines and persecution enacted by the authorities. The Spanish did not want the domestic product competing with imported wines. This type of still continues to be used for mescal production (Bourke; Colunga-GarcíaMarín 1664-1665; Zizumbo-Villareal3 500-501).

Because of competition with imported Spanish spirits, prohibitions and restrictions on the sale of coconut spirits were enacted as early as 1603. In 1612 coconut, plantations in Colima were ordered destroyed for the same reasons. This could be taken as a hint as to how productive this industry had become. Interestingly there is speculation that the combination of legal restrictions and prohibitions of coconut spirits combined with increased demand in growing mining areas may have promoted production of agave spirits, i.e. mescal, through adaptation of the Filipino coconut distillation technique (Colunga-GarcíaMarín 1660; Zizumbo-Villareal3 501, 506-507).

Although the first written documentation of mescal appears in 1619, there is ethnohistoric and archaeological evidence that both coconut and agave spirits may have developed simultaneously near Ixtalhuacán, Comala, and Nahualapa Mexico around 1580-1600 (Zizumbo-Villareal3 498-499, 501-502).

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Distillation prior to European contact

At this time distillation in western Mesoamerica prior to European contact remains conjectural and controversial. There is extensive documentation of various fermented beverages in Pre-contact codices. There is no evidence however for distillation. The hypothesis is based on the physical similarity of early Chinese stills to early Capacha era bean pots and steamers (c1500-1000 BCE) from Colima (western Mexico). It does not appear that researchers are proposing cross cultural technology transfer in that period. Rather, they are noting the similarity of the Colima vessels to the Chinese still. This could simply be a case of similar needs resulting in independent development of similar technologies. They do suggest that the native Chinese bean pot/steamer vessel which were characteristic cooking vessels during the Shang and Zhou periods (1600-221 BCE) was the probable origin for the Chinese still as well (Zizumbo-Villareal2 414-415).

(A) Trifid vessel and miniature pot from the Capacha cultural phase (1500–1000 BCE) of Colima, Mexico that could be used as a recipient, on display in the Regional Museum of Guadalajara. (B) Gourd-shape vessel from El Pantano culture (1000–800 BCE) of Jalisco, that could be used as a steamer, on display in the Archaeological Museum of Mascota. Photos by the respective museums.

Distilling requires a means for separating ethanol from water by exploiting ethanol ’ s lower boiling point (78.4°C vs. water’s 100°C). Thus setting a small catch basin on the grating of a Chinese steamer or in the center of the upper portion of a Capacha vessel with a bowl of cold water over the mouth of the vessel above it would mimics the arrangement of a Chinese still. The alcohol containing steam from the heated low alcohol liquid rises condenses on the undersurface of the cool water filled bowl and drips into the catch bowl below. Alcohol having a lower boiling point than water, this process will produce a higher alcohol distillate. Interestingly, researchers in Mexico were able to distill agave spirits with an ABV of 12-32% using reproduction bean pots and steamer pots. Although plausible, the reality of Pre-contact distillation remains an intriguing but unproven hypothesis (Zizumbo-Villareal3 419-422).

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So then, what are we to say our faithful Scadian who wishes to remain in period? He may certainly enjoy a frothy mug of Pulque. This was a drink well known to and often commented on by the Spanish. Our faithful Spanish cleric can slake his thirst on coconut spirits as we have evidence that this was in production as early as 1577 and causing trouble for the authorities by 1603. Unfortunately, the earliest written evidence for agave distillation dates to 1619. However, there is hope. There is always hope. First, some say our period ends in 1650 in which case, mescal is comfortably late period. Others can place their hopes on the supposition that agave distillation quite plausibly occurred simultaneously with coconut distillation as early as 1577. In this case mescal falls into standard definition for SCA period. Tequila however did not arrive on the scene until the mid nineteenth century. Granted, it is a subdivision of mescal, but it cannot be considered as an SCA period beverage.

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Aztec Empire.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 21 July 2016. Web July 2016.

Bandelier, Adolph Francis. “Hernando Cortés.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Web. 27 July 2016 from New Advent. Accessed July 2016.

Bourke, John G. Primitive Distillation Among The Tarascoes. American Anthropologist
Vol. 6, No. 1 (Jan., 1893), pp. 65-70

Carey jr, David. Alcohol in the Atlantic. Latin American History. Oxford Research Encyclopedias. April 2015. Web. July 2016

Chadwick, Ian. An introduction to the spirits of the agave. In Search of the Blue Agave. Tequila and the Heart of Mexico. Ian Chadwick. May 2011. Web. July 2016

Colunga-GarcíaMarín, Patricia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel. Tequila and other Agave spirits from west-central Mexico: current germplasm diversity, conservation and origin. Biodiversity and Conservation 2007, Volume 16, Number 6

Correa-Ascencio, Marisol. Pulque production from fermented agave sap as a dietary supplement in Prehispanic Mesoamerica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 111 no. 39. 2014

Huhn, Axll; Dallman, Nils. Production. Mezcaleria. Web. July 2016.

James, Josh. Tequila. Trade, Culture, & Environment. TED Case Studies #629. (2001)

Kolendo, Jan. The Agave: a plant and its story, part 1. 2002. Web. July 2016.

Lappe-Oliveras, P., Moreno-Terrazas, R., Arrizón-Gaviño, J., Herrera-Suárez, T., García-Mendoza, A. and Gschaedler-Mathis, A. (2008). Yeasts associated with the production of Mexican alcoholic nondistilled and distilled Agave beverages. FEMS Yeast Research, 8: 1037–1052. doi:10.1111/j.1567-1364.2008.00430.x

Lotter, Don. Pulque: Mexico’s unique and vanishing drink. PAN-AMERICAN ADVENTURE: Tepotzotlán, Mexico. Rodale Institute.

Maestri, Nicoletta. The Domestication History of Agave Americana or Maguey. Plant of Ancient Mesoamerica. Updated June 2015

Mezcal.” Memidex. Free Online Dictionary/Thesaurus 2013 . Web. December 2016.

Norma Oficial Mexicana.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 November 2015. Web. July 2016.

Pint, John. Did Tequila Originate in Colima. 2016. Web. July 2016.

Pulque. Memidex. Free Online Dictionary/Thesaurus. 2013. Web. July 2016

(1) Valenzuela-Zapata, Ana G.; Nabhan, Gary Paul. (2004) Tequila: A Natural and Cultural History.  The University of Arizona Press.

(2) Valenzuela-Zapata, A. G., Buell, P. D., “Huichol” Stills: A Century of Anthropology – Technology Transfer and Innovation (2013) Crossroads, 8, 157-191.

What is the SCA.” Society for Creative Anachronism Newcomers Portal. Society for Creative Anachronism. Web. June 2016.

Yetman, David. “Pulque: A Pre-Columbian Alcoholic Beverage of Mexico.” Latin American History. June 2016. Web 25 Dec 2016

(1) Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; González-Zozaya, Fernando. Archaeological Evidence of the Cultural Importance of Agave spp. in Pre-Hispanic Colima, Mexico. Economic Botany September 2009, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 288–302

(2) Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; González-Zozaya, Fernando. Distillation in Western Mesoamerica before European Contact. Economic Botany December 2009, 63:413

(3) Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Colunga-GarcíaMarín, Patricia. Early coconut distillation and the origins of mezcal and tequila spirits in west-central Mexico. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2008) 55:493-510

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Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

New Deadline for Pennsic PreRegistration

East Kingdom Gazette - Sat, 2017-06-17 14:29

Photography by Baroness Cateline la Broderesse

The deadline for paid pre-registration for Pennsic has been extended until 11:59 pm (Eastern Time) on Fri, Jun 23, 2017. The deadline for unpaid pre-registration is 11:59 pm July 7th.

Filed under: Announcements, Pennsic

Q and A with the New East Kingdom Tyger Clerk

East Kingdom Gazette - Sat, 2017-06-17 10:25

En français

Master Nataliia, Tyger Clerk of the Signet.
Photo by Duchess Caoilfhionn.

The Gazette had the pleasure of chatting with Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova, the new Tyger Clerk of the Signet for the East, who took over the position in February of this year.  Nataliia has been in the SCA since around 1994 and resides in the Barony of the Bridge.  Prior to discovering the Society, she studied art and competed in USFA fencing competitions.  Her love of fencing brought her to an SCA fencing practice in the Barony Beyond the Mountain.  While fencing provided an entry to the SCA, and remains one of her biggest passions, she discovered an outlet for her artistic aspirations in the scribal community. Her first scroll was produced in 2001, and she was encouraged to continue by Duchess Katherine Stanhope, the Tyger Clerk of the Signet at the time.   Her favorite artistic medium is painting, particularly with period pigments, and in the early years Nataliia was very fond of pen and ink renderings for representations of period rapier manuals.   She finds calligraphy challenging, but is never one to back down from a challenge.  


What does the Tyger Clerk of the Signet do?

The Tyger Clerk of the Signet (known as the Tyger Clerk or The Signet) is the head of the East Kingdom College of Scribes.  The Tyger Clerk of the Signet:

  1. Coordinates the production of scrolls requested by The Crown;
  2. Promotes the development of calligraphers and illuminators in the East Kingdom and warrants said scribes to perform Signet Office work, and;
  3. Maintains accurate records of scroll assignments.

Close to 150-200 scrolls go out every six months (per reign), approximately 25 – 34 each month.  In my role as Signet I manage approximately 100 scribes who do calligraphy and illumination and wordsmiths who write the words, as well as scribes who do less traditional scrolls such as stained glass, embroidered scrolls, and carved rocks, to name a few.  The artists in the East Kingdom are exemplary and have a reputation of excellence across the Known World, and I am honored to be working with them.

How do people get awards?

That is a longer story, but the short answer is that a member of the populace recommends an individual for an award.  This recommendation is sent to the royals.  Their Majesties then decide whether to give the award.  For many awards a scroll is produced to commemorate the occasion.

Gazette articles on the award process can be found here:
How the Award Process Works, by Duchess Avelina

How to Write an Award Recommendation, by Duchess Avelina

On the Scheduling of Awards, by Duke Brennan

East Kingdom Awards Overview, by Lady Tola knitýr

How is the Signet involved with that?

When the Royalty decide to give an award, they tell their Royal Scheduler, who keeps tracks of their awards. The Royal Scheduler does their best to contact those close to the recipient to schedule the Award. Once the award has been scheduled, the Royal Scheduler contacts the Signet, me, with the list of awards and dates. I then arrange for the scroll by contacting an artist who will make the scroll and deliver it to the Royalty before it needs to be given out.

What do you do once you have the list of scrolls to be done?

Each award with the date, event, award and individual’s name, and the contact information for the person who recommended the individual is emailed from the Scheduler to the Signet.

Each Signet is different in how they manage the office, however, I add the assignments to a worksheet that contains all the events for that reign  The Signet will then choose a scribe from the list of over 100 scribes in the East Kingdom. I prepare an assignment sheet that will be sent to the artist asking them to take the assignment.  The scribe accepts the assignment and starts work on the beautiful pieces of artwork that you see in court.  The scribe makes arrangements for the scroll to get to the event, Their Majesties sign the scroll prior to court and then present the scroll to the worthy individual.  I work with a lot of amazing scribes who also have wonderful management skills to help track the life of the scroll from request to arrival in the hands of a worthy recipient.

How do I join the College of Scribes?

The College of Scribes is always looking for new scribes and wordsmiths!  We love creative people.  No experience is necessary, and all levels of artistic ability are welcome.  You can become a scribe by contacting me or Vettorio, who is the New Scribes Deputy.  We can introduce you to other scribes and point you in the direction of supplies.  No one is required to join the College of Scribes in order to be a scribe, nor is that the only way to explore this type of art.

How can I find other scribes to speak to?

There are a variety of ways to get in touch with the Scribal community.  Many local groups have Scribal get togethers.  Contacting your local Seneschal is a good first place to start.  There are also Scribal regional deputies that are listed on the East Kingdom College of Scribes Webpage under officers.  The EKCoS Webpage also has loads of information for new or returning scribes.  There is a Facebook page for the East Kingdom scribes, as well as a Google Plus group for the East Kingdom Scribes.

What are some of your suggestions that help the scribes with their scrolls?

One of the best things that anyone can do is to make a wiki page in the East Kingdom wiki.  In fact, my East Kingdom wiki page is here. Even if it is no more than a picture and your arms, that is really helpful to a scribe.   If you already have a wiki page, please consider updating it.  If you are aware of an upcoming award for a friend please feel free to contact me and I’ll help in whatever way I can.  Communication is absolutely welcome as more information makes for better art.  I can’t always honor every request, and not everything is possible, but I do my best to arrange our Kingdom’s artists to make beautiful art for someone’s special day. Another way to help is to give a wish list to a loved one on preferences for a certain type of scroll or a particular artist should there be a scroll in your future!  There is no guarantee, but again, more information makes it easier to line up a piece of artwork that will memorialize your special day.   I will be trying to have office hours at events so that you can come see me in person if you have questions.   I’m looking forward to meeting many people in my job as the East Kingdom Tyger Clerk of the Signet.

En français
Traduction: Behi Kirsa Oyutai

Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova est la nouvelle Greffière des Sceaux du Royaume, ayant pris la position en février de cette année. Nataliia fait partie de la SCA depuis environ 1994 et réside dans la Baronnie of the Bridge. Avant de découvrir la Société, elle a étudié les arts et compétitionné à l’escrime au sein de la USFA. Son amour de l’escrime l’a amenée à une pratique d’escrime de la Baronnie Beyond the Mountain. Bien que l’escrime lui aie fournie une porte d’entrée dans la SCA, et demeure une de ses plus grandes passions, elle s’est découvert un exutoire pour ses aspirations artistiques dans la communauté des scribes. Son premier parchemin a été produit en 2001, et elle a été encouragée a continuer par Duchesse Katherine Stanhope, la Greffière des Sceaux du Royaume à ce moment. Son médium préféré est la peinture, particulièrement avec des pigments d’époque, et dans ses années formatrices, Nataliia était appréciait beaucoup les rendus au crayon et à l’encre  de représentations de manuels d’escrime d’époque. Elle trouve la l’art de la calligraphie ardu, mais elle n’est pas connue pour reculer devant un défi.

Qu’est-ce que la Greffière des Sceaux du Royaume fait ?

La Greffière des Sceaux du Royaume (connue comme Tyger Clerk ou le Signet) est à la tête du Collège des Scribes du Royaume de l’Est. La Greffière des Sceaux du Royaume:

  1. Coordonne la production des parchemins demandés par La Couronne;
  2. Promeut le développement des calligraphes et enlumineurs dans le Royaume de l’Est et certifie ces scribes afin d’accomplir les tâches de l’Office des Sceaux, et;
  3. Maintiens un registre rigoureux des assignations de parchemins.

Près de 150 à 200 parchemins sont distribués chaque six mois (par règne), approximativement 25 à 34 chaque mois. Dans mon rôle comme Greffière, je gère approximativement une centaine de scribes qui procèdent à la calligraphie et à l’illumination, des écrivains qui composent les textes, ainsi que des scribes qui font des parchemins moins conventionnels, comme en vitrail, brodé ou taillé dans la pierre, pour n’en nommer que quelques uns. Les artistes du Royaume de l’Est sont exemplaires et ont une réputation d’excellence dans tout le Monde Connu, et je suis honorée de travailler avec eux.

Comment recevoir une reconnaissance ?

Ceci est une plus longue histoire, mais la réponse courte est qu’un membre de la population recommende un individu pour une reconnaissance. Cette recommendation est envoyés à la royauté. Leurs Majestés décident alors de donner ou non la reconnaissance. Pour plusieurs reconnaissances, un parchemin est produit afin de commémorer l’occasion.

Un article de la Gazette sur le processus menant aux reconnaissances peut être consulté ici:
Comment le Processus de Reconnaissance fonctionne, par Duchesse Avelina

Comment Écrire une Recommendation pour une Reconnaissance, par Duchesse Avelina

Sur la Planification des Reconnaissances, par Duc Brennan

Survol des Reconnaissances du Royaume de l’Est, par Dame Tola Knitýr

Quelle est l’implication de la Greffière dans le processus ?

Quand la Royauté décide de d’accorder une reconnaissance, ils en avisent leur Planificateur Royal, qui garde trace de leurs reconnaissances. Le Planificateur Royal fait de son mieux afin de contacter les proches du récipiendaire afin de planifier la Reconnaissance. Une fois que la reconnaissance a été planifiée, le Planificateur Royal contacte la Greffière, moi, avec une liste des reconnaissances et les dates. J’organise alors la fabrication du parchemin en contactant un artiste qui s’occupera de créer celui-ci, et de le livrer à la Royauté avant qu’il soit remis à la cour.

Qu’est-ce qui se passe une fois que la liste des parchemins à faire est complète ?

Chaque reconnaissance avec la date, l’événement, la reconnaissance et le nom du récipiendaire, ainsi que l’information de contact de la personne ayant recommandé le récipiendaire est envoyée par courriel du Planificateur à la Greffière.

Chaque Greffier gère son office différemment, cependant, j’ajoute les tâches dans une feuille de travail qui contient tous les événements de ce règne. Le Greffier choisira ensuite un scribe d’une liste de plus d’une centaine de noms dans le Royaume de l’Est. Je prépare une feuille de travail qui sera envoyée à l’artiste, lui demandant d’accepter la tâche. Le scribe accepte le travail et commence à produire les magnifiques oeuvres d’art que vous pouvez admirer à la cour. Le scribe s’occupe d’organiser un transport pour que le parchemin parvienne à l’événement, Leurs Majestés signent le parchemin avant la cour, et ensuite présentent le parchemin au digne récipiendaire. Je travaille avec de nombreux scribes extraordinaires qui ont d’excellentes aptitudes de gestion afin d’aider à garder trace du processus de création d’un parchemin, de la demande initiale, à son arrivée dans les mains d’un récipiendaire méritant.

Comment joindre le Collège des Scribes ?

Le Collège des Scribes est toujours à la recherche de nouveaux scribes et écrivains ! Nous adorons les gens créatifs. Aucune expérience n’est nécessaire, et tous les niveaux d’habiletés artistiques sont bienvenus. Il est possible de devenir un scribe en me contactant ou Vettorio, qui est le Député des Nouveaux Scribes. Nul n’es tenu de joindre le Collège des Scribes afin d’être un scribe, et cela ne représente certainement pas la seule manière d’explorer ce type d’art.

Comment puis-je trouver d’autres scribes à qui parler ?

Il y a une variété de façons d’entrer en contact avec la communauté des Scribes. Plusieurs groupes locaux tiennent des rencontres de scribes. Contacter votre Sénéchal local est un bon point de départ. Il y a aussi des Députés Scribes Régionnaux, listés sur la page internet du Collège des Scribes du Royaume de l’Est, sous la catégorie “officiers”. La page du Collège des Scribes du Royaume de l’Est regorge d’informations autant pour les nouveaux scribes que ceux étant plus expérimentés ici.

Il existe aussi une page Facebook pour les scribes du Royaume de l’Est ici.

Ainsi qu’un groupe Google Plus pour les Scribes du Royaume de l’est ici.

Avez-vous des suggestions afin de faciliter la tâche des scribes créant des parchemins ?

Une des choses les plus aidantes que tout le monde peut faire, est de créer une page sur le wiki du Royaume de l’Est. En fait, ma page Wiki est disponible ici. Même si ce n’est rien de plus qu’une image de vos armes, c’est quelque chose de vraiment utile pour un scribe. Si vous avez déjà une page wiki, considérez la mettre à jour. Si vous savez qu’un de vos amis recevra une reconnaissance, sentez-vous libre de me contacter et je vous aiderai autant qu’il me sera possible. La communication est absolument bienvenue compte tenu que plus nous avons d’informations, meilleur est le résultat artistique final. Il ne m’est pas toujours possible d’honorer chaque demande, et certaines choses ne sont pas toujours possibles, cependant, je fais tout en mon pouvoir afin d’organiserla création de fantastiques pièces artistiques pour commémorer une journée spéciale. Une autre manière d’aider est de fournir une liste de souhaits sur les préférences de vos proches pour un certain type de parchemin ou de requérir un artiste en particulier, si un parchemin est dans votre futur ! Nous ne pouvons pas donner de garanties, mais encore une fois, le plus d’informations dont nous disposons, le plus aisé il est pour nous de produire une oeuvre qui immortalisera votre journée spéciale. J’essaierai d’avoir des heures de bureau aux événements pour que vous puissiez me rencontrer en personne si vous avez des questions. J’espère avoir la chance de rencontrer de nombreuses personnes pendant mon mandat en tant que Greffière des Sceaux du Royaume de l’Est.




Filed under: Interviews Tagged: officers, Q&A