SCA kingdoms and branches

Pennsic 45 War Points – Monday, August 8

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-08-04 08:52

Armored MOAB (2 points)
Winner – East

Rapier Ruins Battle (1 point)
Winner – East

Total points
East – 7
Mid – 2


Filed under: Pennsic Tagged: Pennsic, pennsic war points, War Points

Sanction Guide – Corpora Changes – Request for Comments

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2016-08-02 18:16

As Corpora is the primary guide to all SCA rules and procedures and the sanction guide is subordinate to the Seneschals Handbook in terms of precedence, a change to Corpora is being considered by the Board of Directors, i.e.  deleting references to the Sanction Guide in Corpora.  This change clearly reasserts that Corpora is the primary guide to SCA rules and procedures, reduces confusion and eliminates any appearance that Corpora is subordinate to the Sanction guide.

In order to facilitate this change, the Board is presenting a proposal to the membership for commentary for removal of the following portions of Corpora dealing with references to the Sanction Guide:

Chapter I, Section F, subsection 4

Chapter X, Section C, subsections 1(b), 2(b) and 3(b).

For ease of reference a copy of the Governing Documents (Corpora) can be found here:

http://sca.org/docs/pdf/govdocs.pdf

Commentary can be sent to comments@sca.org .  Please place the term Sanction Guide – Corpora Changes in the subject line.  The deadline for commentary is October 1, 2016.

Comments are strongly encouraged and can be sent to:
SCA Inc.
Box 360789
Milpitas,  CA 95036

You may also email comments@lists.sca.org.

This announcement is an official informational release by the Society for Creative Anachronism , Inc.  Permission is granted to reproduce this announcement in its entirety in newsletters, websites and electronic mailing lists.


Filed under: Announcements, Corporate, Official Notices

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #11: Jewish Carolingian Fighters: The Jewish Fighting Freeholders of Carolingian Southern France

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2016-08-02 10:55

Our eleventh A&S Research Paper comes to us from Lord Gideon ha-Khazar, until very recently of the Barony of Dragonship Haven and now of the Barony of the Middle Marches, and who did most of this research while he was a citizen of our fair kingdom. He examines the history of a group of people many of us know very little about – European Jewish freeholders who fought in battles alongside their non-Jewish counterparts – and provides fascinating historical support for medieval Jewish fighting personae. (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

 Jewish Carolingian Fighters: The Jewish Fighting Freeholders of Carolingian Southern France

Fighters on horseback, from the Mishnah Torah of Maimonides, MS. A77, folio 1, 16v, from the Library of The Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

“Quapropter sumus dolore tacti, usque ad mortem anxiati, cum cognovissemus per teipsum, quod plebs Judaica … infra fines at territoria Christianorum allodia haereditatum in villis et suburbanis, quasi incolae Christianorum, possideant per quaedam regum Francorum praecepta.” (Migne vol. 129 p.857 and Jaffe 288)

“Therefore we are struck with sorrow, anxious to death, since we have learned through you that the Jews … possess allodial lands within Christendom in towns and outside them, like Christians, through certain grants of the kings of the Franks” (Chazan 188)

— Pope Stephen III to the Archbishop of Narbonne and “all magnates of Septimania and Hispania”, 768 CE

In 768 Pepin, Carolingian King of the Franks, recognized Jews’ rights to own land in what is now southern France. Since the lands were held in allod (owned outright instead of feudally) and in Frankish law all allodial landholders had to fight when called, Jewish fighters took part in Carolingian wars (including Charlemagne’s Roncesvalles campaign) and helped garrison lands taken from the Muslims.

Thus SCAdians have documented historical bases for having openly Jewish fighting freeholder personae from Carolingian (8th-9th century) southern France and its Spanish March. Furthermore, the region was on Radanite Jewish trade routes extending all the way to China and Narbonne was a center for scholarship, so one could historically justify having fighter-traveler or fighter-scholar personae from those periods as well.

Contents
A Series of Alliances
Allodial Landholding in Frankish/Carolingian Law
The Bigger Picture
The Quiet Fade to Silence
Continuing the Legacy
One Last Call to Battle
Persona Opportunities
Conclusion
Appendix: Pope Stephen’s Epistle
Bibliography

A Series of Alliances

After the fall of Rome some European Jews formed a series of “troops for tolerance” alliances, fighting for non-Jewish tribes or kings who were religiously tolerant.

The first troops-for-tolerance alliance was with the Arian Christian Goths of what are now Spain, Italy, and southern France.  After Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great’s 493 pronouncement that “We can not command religion, for no man can be compelled to believe anything against his conscience” (Graetz, 30), Jewish troops helped defend the city walls of Arles during Frankish King Clovis’ 507-8 siege and of Naples when it was attacked in 537 by Byzantine and Frankish forces.  In his eyewitness account of the attack on Naples, the Byzantine historian Procopius wrote “But on the side of the circuit-wall that faces the sea, where the forces on guard were not barbarians, but Jews, the [attacking] soldiers were unable to either use the ladders or to scale the wall … [the Jews] kept fighting stubbornly, although they could see the city had already been captured, and held out beyond all expectation against the assaults of their opponents” (Procopius, Book V, paragraphs 100-101).

The kingdoms of Western Europe circa 527. Image by Undevicesimus via DeviantArt.

In 554 Ostrogoth Italy fell to the Byzantines and in 589 the Visigothic kings of Spain began passing increasingly harsh anti-Jewish decrees, but in Visigothic Septimania – the region around Narbonne in what is now southern France – the Jewish-Gothic alliance continued for over two centuries after King Theodoric’s pronouncement.  In Septimania it was the fiercely independent Visigothic nobles who ruled, not the distant and often short-reigned kings over the mountains in Spain, and the local nobles found the Jews too useful to change the arrangement.  Between the difficulty of enforcing royal decrees in Septimania and the royal dependence on Jewish troops’ helping defend the frontier (Graetz, 45) the Visigothic crown often explicitly exempted the Jews of Septimania from the harsh decrees they imposed on the Jews in Spain itself.

These decrees, such as King Egica’s 694 order that all Jewish children aged seven and older be taken from their parents and raised as Christians (Dubnov, vol. II, 526), led directly to the second troops-for-tolerance alliance: with the Muslims who in 711 CE invaded and quickly conquered Catholic Visigothic Iberia.  Many of the invading troops were Jewish refugees from Spain serving under their general Kaulan al-Yehudi (Wolkoff, 25) and Muslim commanders often used them to garrison conquered cities, freeing up their own forces for more glorious field operations.  The 17th-century Arab historian Al-Makkari specifically mentioned Cordoba, Toledo, and the citadel of Elvira as garrisoned by Jews, writing “Whenever the Moslems conquered a town, it was left in the custody of the Jews, with only a few Moslems, the rest of the army proceeding to new conquests; and where the Jews were deficient a proportionately greater body of Moslems was left in charge” (Al-Makkari, 280-282).  This alliance helped create three centuries of mostly peaceful co-existence between Muslims and Jews, the Golden Age of Jewish culture in Spain (al-Andalus).

Carolingian Frankish King Pepin thus built on a long history when he allied with the Jews of southern France, and like the other alliances his was based on a need for more troops and loyal supporters.  Although Pepin’s father Charles Martel had stopped the Muslim advance in 732, the Aquitaine and much of the southern coast were held by either Muslims or independent Christian rulers — some of whom like Maurontus, Duke of Provence, had allied with the Muslims against the Carolingians (Rogers, “Avignon, Siege Of”).  In 759 Pepin managed to take the coastal city of Narbonne, but only after a seven-year siege.  King Pepin sought to make better progress, and to do so he promised the Jews of Narbonne and the surrounding areas that he would reverse the old Merovingian Frankish dynasty’s anti-Jewish policies and grant Jews rights – including the right to own their own land — in return for Jewish support.

No text of the promise itself survives.  We do not even know for certain the year it was made.  Professor Arthur Zuckerman, in his book A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France, suggests that Muslim Narbonne had a Jewish garrison that surrendered the city to Pepin after seven years of siege in return for Pepin’s promise of Jewish rights.  The timing is right, the suggestion is consistent with both Muslim and Gothic use of Jewish troops, and Zuckerman points out that French medieval histories such as the 13th-century Karoli Magni ad Carcassonam et Narbonnam explicitly say it was the Jews who handed Narbonne to Pepin.

What we do know for certain is that in 768 CE, one year after he conquered the Aquitaine using Narbonne as a base of operations, King Pepin kept his promise – and that Pope Stephen III immediately and unsuccessfully demanded that King Pepin break it.  The Pope’s demand, which has survived, also said that the Jewish lands were allodial, a statement with significant legal implications.

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Allodial landholding in Frankish/Carolingian law

Frankish law recognized three kinds of landholding.  One was the benefice or fief, what we recognize as the standard feudal arrangement wherein the king owns all the land but “temporarily” gifts portions to vassals in return for services rendered.  The second was tributary, in which the cultivator actually didn’t own the land he worked but paid rent to the one who did.

Allodial lands, in contrast, were independently owned – in its purest theoretical form without any obligations of taxation or service to higher authority whatsoever.  Franks who had conquered what is now France and received allodial lands as a reward were free from taxes and all obligations except one: to personally bear arms and march against the enemy when summoned.  “So stringent was the law of military service, that even the holders of ecclesiastical property were originally not exempt from it” (Jervis, 130).  Non-Frankish inhabitants who held allodial lands (usually from Roman times) had the same arrangement, except that up to later Merovingian times they still had to pay the land tax (impot foncier).

Thus Carolingian allodial landholding implies military service, and indeed after the 768 decree we see Jewish fighters in Carolingian armies.  In 778 the Count of Narbonne, whose troops included Jewish allodial freeholders, joined Charlemagne in his first attack on Spain – the campaign featured in the medieval epic The Song of Roland.  Although the rearguard was defeated at Roncesvalles and as a result Charlemagne removed nine counts, the Jewish troops must have performed well because the Count of Narbonne kept his job and Charlemagne would use Narbonnaise levies again for his 802-803 campaign against Barcelona.  Then in 805 Count Burrellus of Vich (aka Vic or Ausona, 20 miles north of Barcelona) helped lead the Carolingian attack on Tortosa using the Jewish freeholding troops he’d colonized and garrisoned Vich with eight years before.  (Bachrach 1993, 15-18, and Bachrach 1977, 68-70).

The Carolingian Empire circa 814. Roncevalles is in the far southwest. Image courtesy edmaps.com

In 1245 Rabbi Meir b. Simeon would remind the French king of this military service, writing “[Charlemagne] and his successors conquered many lands all with the help of the Israelites who were with them in fidelity with person and property so that they themselves entered into the thick of battle and sacrificed their lives to rescue kings and princes who were with them” (Zuckerman, 65-66).

Both Carolingian support for Jews and senior Church opposition continued after Pepin and Charlemagne, even as the Carolingian Empire began to break up.  In 846 a Church council gave King Charles the Bald a series of proposed laws that would have taken Jewish children from their families to be raised by Christians, banned Jews from holding any governmental office or pleading their cases in Christian courts, and prevented Christians from dining with, working for, or buying from Jews.  King Charles rejected all these proposals, declaring that Jews were to be treated as any other free person (Bachrach 1977, 106-111).

The Carolingian Empire in 843, showing the lands of Charles the Bald. Image courtesy edmaps.com.

There were strong practical reasons for Charles’ decision.  A general policy of tolerance had given the Empire the support of more groups than just the Jews: in 768, the year Pepin kept his promise, he also declared a Capitulary giving all denizens of newly conquered Aquitaine the right to live by their own laws (Zuckerman, 44).  After that declaration, the Carolingians would keep their hold on the Aquitaine.  And Charlemagne’s 778 Spanish campaign was sparked by the Muslim wali of Barcelona’s offer of submission while remaining Muslim in return for protection from the Muslim Umayyad emirate ruling most of Spain.  So yes, Jews filled vital roles in the Empire from international trade to minting coins – but the freedom letting them do so came from a wider Carolingian approach to governance.

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The Bigger Picture

Carolingian policy was not unique in this regard.  Consistently, the medieval rulers who offered troops-for-tolerance deals to Jews offered improved opportunities to other religions or to lower classes as well.  When Christian Spain and Portugal needed more troops for the Reconquista and offered increased social status to Jews who fought mounted and armored for the Crown, they also offered the status of “commoner-knight” to commoners who did the same (ha-Khazar, 7-8).  In 1398 when Lithuania settled almost 400 Karaite Jewish families to reinforce its border with the Teutonic Order (Baron, 8-9), it also still kept full rights for its pagans despite having officially converted to Catholicism just twelve years before.  The Dutch who supported Jewish privateers attacking Spain (Kritzler, 73-77) had also proclaimed freedom of religion as part of their nation’s founding document – the 1579 Union of Utrecht.

This does not mean that such rulers were willing to treat all other religions or the lower classes as full equals.  Charlemagne had Jewish troops and allied with the Muslim Abbasid Caliphate against the Muslim Umayyads of Spain but still fought long, bloody wars against the pagan Saxons.  The Iberian “commoner-knights” were given social and tax benefits but still remained commoners, below the noble knights in status.  Jews and Christians in Golden Age al-Andalus reached prominent positions while keeping their own religion but were still subject to limitations as dhimmis – non-Muslims living under Muslim rule.

It does mean, however, that whether through simple human decency or calculated self-interest some medieval rulers – more than are commonly realized – offered opportunities beyond the medieval norm to religious minorities or to lower classes who could strengthen their realms in return.  The Carolingians were such rulers, the Jews of Carolingian southern France were a minority willing to provide soldiers, and thus the Jewish-Carolingian troops-for-tolerance alliance was forged.

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The Quiet Fade to Silence

As the Carolingian Empire aged and broke up, mention of military Jews in southern France simply stopped.

This is odd because no decree made allodial Jews stop serving or kept them from bearing arms.  Furthermore, while Jewish allodial lands shrank as the post-Carolingian French monarchs expanded their reach and took more and more lands for themselves or for the Church, and while the Carolingians lost Vich during the Catalan revolt of 826-828 (Lewis, 46, 93), many Jewish allods remained.  In 1173 – four centuries after Pepin’s decree – the traveler Benjamin of Tudela recorded that the Narbonne Jewish community’s head “possesses hereditaments and lands given him by the ruler of the city, of which no man can forcibly dispossess him” (Tudela, 2).  A viscountal decree confirms this still existed in 1217 (Zuckerman, 170).  Religious tolerance by medieval standards had also continued: when the Bishop of Toulouse asked in 1207 why Cathars and other non-Catholic sects were not expelled from the region, Sir Pons Adhemar of Roudeille replied “We cannot: we were brought up with them, there are many of our relatives amongst them, and we can see that their way of life is a virtuous one” (Puylaurens, 25).

The most likely explanation can be found in changes in Carolingian law.  Throughout the Carolingian period numerous laws gave allodial landholders increasing ways to exempt themselves from the “personal military service” requirement – a modern equivalent would be the way many Vietnam-era American college students from well-connected families legally avoided being sent overseas to a combat zone.  By the time of Charles the Bald, freeholders could only be mustered in case of foreign invasion (Jervis, 130).

This mattered to Jews because when the Empire ended the social environment also changed.  Allodial Jewish lands belonged to neither king nor Church, and not coincidentally the message began being spread how Jews were an “other” and thus a legitimate target.  The 11th-century epic poem The Song of Roland, for example, re-painted Charlemagne as an avenger of Muslim atrocities (even though the actual ambushers at Roncesvalles were Christian Basques, not Muslims) who forcibly mass-converted Jews in stanza 266 (something Charlemagne never did) – actions all lauded by the poem’s author.

In such an environment, taking the field meant having your back to armed people who saw you as the enemy – indeed, Crusaders often killed European Jews before going on to kill Middle Eastern Muslims.  Given a choice between “serve and probably be fragged” or “take the exemption” one can understand very quietly choosing the latter.

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Continuing the Legacy

The fighting freeholders’ descendants may have carried on their ancestors’ legacy in a small but fascinating way.

Tosafot (aka Tosafos) were legal rulings and commentaries on the Talmud dating from 12th– and early 13th-century France.  In discussing roughhouse games during celebrations, Tosafot Sukkah 45a says “From here we can learn that when the young people ride on horses to greet the groom and bride and joust [for sport] and sometimes tear each others’ clothing or damage the horse, there is no requirement to reimburse because this is the commonly accepted way to celebrate at a wedding.” (Flug, 2)

Tosafot Sukkah 45a

This does not mean French Jews commonly celebrated with fully armored full-contact jousting – that certainly would have been noticed and mentioned elsewhere.  Another “mental picture” is therefore in order.

Let’s see … medieval-type fighting for fun?  Check.  Weapons solid enough to cause occasional damage but not (usually) serious injuries?  Check.  Skill required?  Check – just ask any SCAdian equestrian if she would lend her horse to a totally unskilled partier.

Medieval Jewish SCAdians, anyone?

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One Last Call to Battle

After the Carolingian Empire fell, southern France escaped for a while the horrors of religious-based war.  During the First and Second Crusades there were massacres in Jewish communities throughout the Holy Roman Empire and Northern France but not in southern France.   How much that was due to protection by the still-pro-Jewish southern counts and whether there was any quiet deterrence by the freeholders’ descendants’ ability to defend themselves are intriguing questions worthy of further research.

However, four centuries after the Jewish freeholding fighters faded from the battlefield record, the Albigensian Crusade hit southern France.   In 1210 the Bishop of Toulouse formed a Grand White Brotherhood to raid the homes of the city’s Jews and Cathars.  William of Puylaurens, who served in the Bishop’s entourage, recorded in his Chronicle that the surrounding areas then raised a force (called the Black Brotherhood) to fight the White Brotherhood, “with standards raised and the use of armoured horses” (Puylaurens, pp. 35-37).

Puylaurens does not indicate either the presence or absence of Jews in the Black Brotherhood, though he does say that Jews fortified and defended their homes against the White Brotherhood’s attacks.  Still, one can reasonably argue that when other southern landholders armored up to protect their neighbors’ homes, at least some descendants of the Carolingian freeholding fighters may have traded their sport swords for real ones and ridden out with them.

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Persona Opportunities

As can be seen from the above, Jewish freeholding fighter personae are solidly historically supportable during Carolingian times and plausible through the early 1200s.  During these periods, one can also historically justify personae who are not just fighters but world travelers and/or scholars as well.

The Fighter-Traveler Persona: Some SCAdians want personae who visited many far-flung countries.  Fortunately, Carolingian France was on the trade routes of the Radanites, Jewish merchants whose routes extended west to Morocco and east to India and China.  Obaidallah ibn Khordadhbeh, whose 817 CE Book of Ways and Kingdoms detailed these routes, wrote “These merchants speak Arabic, Persian, Roman [i.e. Greek and Latin], the Frank, Spanish, and Slav languages … On their return from China … [some] go to the palace of the King of the Franks to place their goods” (Adler, 2-3).  Such merchants had an obvious use for fighters.

The Fighter-Scholar Persona: Charlemagne encouraged learning in his Empire, founding schools and ordering that his children be educated even though he himself never learned to write.  Narbonne benefitted from this effort – Ibn Daud’s 1161 Book of Tradition recorded that at Charlemagne’s request Caliph Harun al-Rashid had sent a noted Babylonian scholar to Narbonne, and by the 12th century Narbonne had become a major center of Jewish scholarship and science.  Thus a fighter-scholar persona – following both the Jewish tradition of learning and Charlemagne’s own lead – would have been eminently plausible.

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Conclusion

Throughout the Middle Ages a series of rulers offered Jews rights and received Jewish support in return – sometimes including military support.  In 768 CE King Pepin became one of these, granting the Jews of what is now southern France the right to own land allodially – i.e. as freeholds – in return for their being required to provide personal armed service when called.  These freeholders served in Carolingian armies, joining Charlemagne in his Spanish campaigns and helping to garrison cities against the Muslims.

Under the Carolingians trade and learning grew, giving SCAdians historical support for Jewish fighter personae who are not merely fighters but travelers or scholars as well.

As the Carolingian Empire aged and fell, records of Jewish allodial fighters simply stop – yet most Jewish freeholding continued and the fighters were not disarmed.  I am still searching for proof, but given the spread at the time of popular stories painting Jews as targets I think that the freeholders just quietly took advantage of the draft exemptions and joined many of their fellow landholders in retiring from the battlefield.

By then they had made a lasting difference.  Almost 80 years after Narbonne helped Pepin win the Aquitaine, a Carolingian king kept faith with his predecessors’ troops and quashed the Church’s attempt to take Jewish children from their parents.  Over two centuries after Pepin, First and Second Crusaders would massacre Jewish communities in northern France and Germany — but not in southern France where the allods still existed.  And four centuries after Pepin, Jews could still sport-fight for fun where their ancestors had had to fight for real.

The Jewish-Carolingian troops-for-tolerance alliance had worked.

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Appendix: The full text of Pope Stephen III’s Epistle on the Allodial Jews of Narbonne, 768 CE

Original Latin text from Jacques Paul Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus.  Series Latina.  Volume CXXIX, col. 857.  For the English I used Chazan’s translation (Chazan, 188) for all sections he translated, Zuckerman’s translation (Zuckerman, 72) for the greeting, then translated the remaining sections myself.

Original Latin English Translation Translator AD ARIBERTUM NARBONNENSEM ARCHIEPISCOPUM.

Queritur factam esse Judaeis potestatem allodia possidendi. TO ARIBERT, ARCHBISHOP OF NARBONNE

Protesting the Jews’ acquiring the power to hold allodial lands Author STEPHANUS papo ARIBERTO archiepiscopo Narbonae, et omnibus potentatibus Septimae et Hispaniae salutem. Pope Stephen To Aribert Archbishop of Narbonne, and to all magnates of Septimania and Hispania. Zuckerman Convenit nobis, qui clavem coelestis horrei vicibus apostolicis suscepimus, etiam omni pestilentiae gregis divini fidei medicinam porrigere: quod si non possumus modios tritici, at saltem cestarium [sextarium] valeamus impendere. It comes to us, we who have undertaken our turn with the apostolic key to the heavenly storehouse, also to extend the medicine to all plagues of the divine flock of the faith:  because if we are unable [to extend] pecks of wheat, at least we may be strong enough to extend at least a pint. Author Quapropter sumus dolore tacti, usque ad mortem anxiati, cum cognovissemus per teipsum, quod plebs Judaica Deo semper rebellis, et nostris derogans caeremoniis infra fines at territoria Christianorum allodia haereditatum in villis et suburbanis, quasi incolae Christianorum, possideant per quaedam regum Francorum praecepta: Therefore we are struck with sorrow, anxious to death, since we have learned through you that the Jews – ever rebellious to God and disparaging of our practices – possess allodial lands within Christendom in towns and outside them, like Christians, through certain grants of the kings of the Franks: Chazan quia ipsi inimici Domini quae … sunt, ei periculose mercati sunt: Because the enemies of the Lord themselves which… they are, they have dangerously traded: Author Et quod vineas et agros illorum Christiani homines excolant: et infra civitates et extra, masculi et feminae Christianorum cum eisdem praevaricatoribus habitantes, diu noctuque verbis blasphemiae maculantur, et cuncta obsequia quae dici aut excogitari possunt, miseri miseraeve praenotatis canibus indesinenter exhibeant: praesertim cum huiusmodi patribus Hebraeorum promissa ab electo iurislatore illorum Mose, et successore eius Iosue, his conclusa et terminata finibus, ab ipso Domino iurata et tradita istis incredulis, et patribus eorum sceleratis, pro ultione crucifixi Salvatoris merito sint ablata. Et revera praeceptor Ecclesiae gregibus orthodoxis significat inquiens: Quae societas luci et tenebris? quae conventio Christi ad Belial? aut quis consensus templo Dei cum idolis? (II Cor. VI.) Et summi consiliarius verbi admonet, dicens: Si quis dixerit ei Ave (II Ioan. XI), etc. and that these miserable men and women must exhibit continually to the aforesaid dogs every allegiance which can be formulated and devised: particularly since promises concluded and defined for the Jews’ ancestors by their chosen leader Moses and his successor Joshua and sworn to and transmitted by God Himself to these unbelievers and their wicked ancestors should properly be negated in punishment for the crucifixion of the Savior. Indeed the teacher indicates to the flocks of the orthodox Church, saying: “Can light consort with darkness?  Can Christ agree with Belial, or a believer join hands with an unbeliever?  Can there be a compact between the temple of God and the idols of the heathen?” (II Cor. 6:4-16) and the counselor of the sublime word admonishes, saying: “Anyone who gives him a greeting is an accomplice in his wicked deeds.” (II John 11), etc.  Chazan Desunt caetera. The others are failing/abandoned. Author

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Bibliography

Primary Sources (including collections of primary source documents)

Adler, Elkan Nathan (ed.).  Jewish Travelers in the Middle Ages: 19 Firsthand Accounts.  New York: Dover Publications, 1987.  Originally published in 1930.  Print.

Al-Makkari, Ahmed ibn Mohammed. The History of Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain. 1629; translated from originals in the British Library by Pascual de Gayangos, (W.H. Allen and Co., London, 1840).  Print.

ibn Daud, Abraham.  Sefer ha-Quabbalah – The Book of Tradition. 1161.   Gerson D. Cohen (trans.), The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1967.  Print.

Jaffe, Philippus (ed).  Regesta pontificum romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Vol 1.  Catholic Church.  Print and online.

Marcus, Jacob Rader.  The Jew in the Medieval World – A Source Book: 315-1791, Revised Edition.  New York: Hebrew Union College Press, 1990.  Print.

Migne, Jacques-Paul. Patrologia Latina.  Paris: Imprimerie Catholique, 1841-1855. Print and online.

Procopius of Caesaria.  History of the Wars, 550 CE.  H.B. Dewing trans., Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1914.  Print and online.

Puylaurens, William.  The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens: The Albigensian Crusade and its Aftermath.  1275.  W.A. and M.D. Sibly (Trans), The Boydell Press, Woodbridge (in Suffolk, UK), 2003.  Print.

Tudela, Benjamin of.  The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela.  1175 CE.  Marcus Nathan Adler trans. New York: Philipp Feldheim, 1907.  Print and online.

Secondary Sources

Bachrach, Bernard S.  “On the Role of the Jews in the Establishment of the Spanish March (768-814)”.  Essay XV in Armies and Politics in the Early Medieval West.  Surrey: Ashgate Variorum, 1993.  Print and Online.

Bachrach, Bernard S.  Early Medieval Jewish Policy in Western Europe.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977.  Print.

Baron, Salo Wittmayer.  A Social and Religious History of the Jews, Second Edition, Vol. XVI.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.  Print.

Chazan, Robert. Jewish Social Studies, vol. 37, no. 2.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975.  Print and online.

Dubnov, Simon.  History of the Jews from the Roman Empire to the Early Medieval Period.  4th Definitive Revised edition: Moshe Spigel (trans.), New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1968.  Print.

Flug, Joshua.  “Practical Jokes and Their Consequences”, Shabbat Table Discussions, Issue #20.  New York: Yeshiva University, 2013.  Print and Online.

Graetz, Heinrich.  History of the Jews, Volume III.  Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1891.  Print.

ha-Khazar, Gideon.  “Jewish Near-Knights, or Why Were These Knights Different From All Other Knights?”, Tournaments Illuminated #196.  Milpitas: The Society for Creative Anachronism, 2015.  Print.

Jervis, William Henry. A History of France to 1852.  London: John Murray, 1884.  Print and online.

Kritzler, Edward.  Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean.  New York: Anchor Books, 2008.  Print.

Lewis, Archibald.  The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society 718-1050.  Austin: University of Texas Press, 1965.  Print and online.

Rogers, Clifford J. (editor).   The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print and online.

Wolkoff, Lew.  The Compleat Anachronist #110: An SCA Guide to Jewish Persona.  Milpitas: The Society for Creative Anachronism, 2001.  Print.

Zuckerman, Arthur.  A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France, 768-900.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.  Print.

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Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

From the Brigantia Herald

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2016-07-31 18:35

Greetings from Ryan Brigantia, Principal Herald of the East.

Last year we announced that we would be able to accept Heraldic submissions from Tir Mara in Canadian dollars. We, at the time, were under the impression that a bank account for the Tir Mara College of Heralds would be an easy thing to have created and we could begin this process quickly.

Despite a year of trying to get this arranged, due to several complications both in the Canadian Banking system and the US and Canadian requirements for a 503(c) non-profit organization, we have been unable to open the required account. The Tir Maran regional heralds, the Kingdom, regional and Society Exchequers, and members of the Heraldic Senior Staff have poured weeks and months into this endeavor only to get stymied by the requirements of the Society and Canadian Banking system.

Unfortunately I have to suspend the Acceptance of cheques in Canadian Dollars starting now, and until further notice. Once a Tir Maran bank account is established we will revisit this endeavor. The submissions heralds of both the Kingdom and Tir Mara have worked around the problems, hand delivering checks to each other. To Mistress Alys and Baroness Jeanne, you have my continuing and eternal thanks for all the hours you have both sunk into this endeavor to try to make it work.

To the populace of Tir Mara, I can only say that we will continue to endeavor to make it as easy for you to make a heraldic submission as it is for the other three regions of the Kingdom. We will continue to work on this problem.

-Ryan Brigantia

Salutation de Ryan Brigantia, héraut principal du Royaume de l’Est.

L’an passé nous avions annoncé que nous allions accepter les soumissions héraldique des citoyens de Tir Mara en argent canadien. À ce moment nous étions sous l’impression que la création d’un compte de banque pour le Collège des Hérauts de Tir Mara allait être facile.

Après un an de travail acharné et dù à plusieurs complications avec les systèmes bancaire canadien et américain ainsi que les éléments requis pour les organismes à but non lucratif 503 (c) nous avons été dans l’incapacité d’ouvrir le compte requis. Le héraut régional, celui du Royaume, les échiquiers régional et de la SCA inc. ansi que les membre séniors du College des Hérauts ont travaillés d’arrache pied durant des semaines et des mois pour répondre au exigences des systèmes bancaires canadien ainsi que de la SCA inc., malheureusement ce fut un échec.

Malheureusement je me dois de suspendre l’acceptation de chèque en argent canadien à ce moment et ce jusqu’à avis contraire. Quand Tir Mara sera munis d’un compte de banque nous pourrons revisiter cette avenue. Les hérauts responsable des soumissions ont travaillé durant l’année en contournant le problème en délivrant les chèques en main propre. À Mistress Alys et à Baronne Jeanne, vous avez mes remerciements continue et éternel pour toute les heures que vous avez placés dans ce projet tentant de le faire fonctionner.

À la population de Tir Mara, nous continuerons de travailler pour faire que les soumissions héraldique soit le plus facile possible comme il en est pour les trois autres régions du Royaume. Nous continuons à travailler sur le problème

-Ryan Brigantia


Filed under: Announcements, En français, Heraldry Tagged: brigantia, heraldric submissions, Tir Mara

Beasts and Monsters are coming to Pennsic!

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2016-07-29 11:26

There are Medieval Heraldic Beasts at Pennsic. Don’t count on your electronics to catch them, though. Some of you may have seen earlier posts about this, and it is indeed true. Beasts and Monsters are coming to Pennsic! Actual beasts you can see and touch.

The medieval & analogue fix for avid Pokemon hunters (and those who just enjoy a good challenge) is coming to Pennsic during War Week. Pensimon Go: The Menagerie Quest will run from 9 AM Mon morning on August 8th through noon on Wed August 11th, is intended for all ages, and will have you finding public places at war you may never have visited.

Supplies are slightly limited (privately funded and free to participate), but sharing is allowed. Participants will collect sightings of magical creatures hidden in public spaces (please leave the critters where you find them). Prizes will be awarded for both over age 12 and under age 12 players. Results will be tallied and the winners announced in the Independent after the contest closes. Come by the offices of the Pennsic Independent Monday morning to pick up your very own Pensidex! Tour Pennsic’s public spaces, aided by location clues, to catch them all.

An online printable Pensidex, for those with electronic wizardry skills, will also be available soon.  This project is sponsored in part by Viceroy Gui avec Cheval.


Filed under: Announcements Tagged: Pennsic

Unofficial Court Report – Southern Region War Practice

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-07-28 11:33

At Southern Region War Camp, in the Barony of Carillion, on June 10, 2016, the following awards were given by Their Majesties, Kenric and Avelina, Reporting Herald – Master Thomas de Castellan, Treblerose.

Silver Tyger:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Vachir Arslajim                                             Elisabeth Greenleaf

Alexi Gensel                                                 C&I: Mari Clock van Hoorne, Words: Shoshana Gryffyth

Brom Der Fechten                                        Elen Alswyth of Eriskay

Alexandros von Halstern                               Wynefryde Bredhers, c: Nest verch Tangwistel

Order of the Tygers Combattant:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Rory MacClellan                                            Elizabeth eleanor Lovel, c: Alys Mackyntoich

Anton Machinevik                                         Randall Vihar Farkas & Camma an Daraich

Simon Montgomery

Order of the Pelican:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Erhart von Stutgart                                      Christiana Crane

Silver Wheel:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Lu Ann Hua                                                  Sakurai no Kesame

Dionise O’ Towie                                           Ignacia la Ciega

Arnora Ketilsdottir                                        Sarah Davies of Monmouth

Margretha La Fauvelle                                  Sorcha Dhocair inghean Uí Ruairc

Order of Chivalry:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Erich Hunderman                                         Vettorio Antonello

Silver Wheel:

Recipient                                                     Scroll

Declan Gobha                                              Aesa Lokabrenna Sturladottir

Evalina von Schaidag                                   Marieta Charay

Katherine Meade                                          Conor O Ceallaigh, c: Lada Monguligin

Sybilla of Rona                                             Aaradyn Ghyoot

Silver Brooch:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Tim the Humble                                           Magdalena Lantfarerin

Mongu Chinua

Engracia de Madrigal                                     Aziza al Shirazi

Apollo’s Arrow:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Suuder Saran                                               i:Mergriet van Wijenhorst, c:Nest verch Tangwistel

Order of the Maunche:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Vivian de Dunbar                                          Jonathan Blaecstan

Order of the Silver Crescent:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Tanczos Ilona                                               i:Ellesbeth Donofrey, c:Palotzi Marti, w: Alys Mackyntoich

Robert the Doubtful                                      i:Lillian atte Valleye, c: Kayleigh Mac Whyte

Order of the Laurel:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Naomi bat Avraham                                      Lada Monguligin

Writ for Laurel:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Brunissende Dragonette                                Alys Mackyntoich

Order of the Master of Defense:

Recipient                                                      Scroll

Orlando Sforza                                              i:Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova, i: Alys MAckyntoich


Filed under: Court, Uncategorized Tagged: court

Gotta Catch Them All – A Pennsic Challenge

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-07-28 11:19

The following is being posted on behalf of Her Grace, Mary of Northshield, formerly of the East.

Greetings unto the Known World and those going to Pennsic from Duchess Mary of Northshield!

If you were ‘going to catch them all’ at Pennsic, what would you catch?  We have the most exotic creatures all around us, we just have to look.  This year I am sponsoring a quest for young and old to ‘catch’ – SCA style.

The goal is simple – seek and find people from every stage of progression from every kingdom.  I have a form to help you keep track and if you bring that form back to the Games Tent by 8/11 you will get a prize for your efforts. Whoever caught the most/’them all’ gets a special prize.

Truly, the real prize will be the people you meet and the things you learn!

Forms can be obtained at the Games Tent, or you can print the PDF: Pennsiccatchthemall

And since we are an increasingly digital society if you feel inclined, and, it is not offensive to your ‘catch’ please post pictures with #Pennsiccatchthemall

Duchess Mary of Carrigart, Kingdom of Northshield


Filed under: Pennsic

East-Middle Bardic Showcase at Pennsic War

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-07-28 11:18
East-Middle Bardic Showcase When: 6:30-9:30 p.m., Sunday, August 7th Where: East Kingdom Royal Mistress Alys, Queen’s Bard, and Lady AEthelflied, King’s Bard, along with Mistress Zsof, King’s Bard of the Midrealm, invite one and all to attend the annual East Middle Bardic Showcase at Pennsic.  The Showcase is not a competition; it is intended as a celebration of the performing arts.  Each Kingdom that can trace its descent from the East or the Midrealm has been asked to send one experienced performer and one newer performer to present on the Kingdom’s behalf.  Performers will then have the opportunity to talk to other performing artists about their presentations.  Members of the public are also welcome and encouraged to attend.   Questions can be directed to Mistress Alys (alys.mackyntoich@gmail.com OR Shark Pit, N21) or Lady AEthelflied (Shauna’s Camp), or Mistress Zsof (Camp Spartii, N15, Brewers & By The Way) 
Filed under: Announcements, Pennsic, Tidings Tagged: Bardic, Pennsic

Unofficial Court Report: GNEW

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2016-07-26 08:43

Here follows the unofficial court report from Great Northeastern War, held in the Province of Malagentia, on July 9, 2016.  Reporting herald: Donovan Shinnock

Item Recipient Award Scribe 1 Magnus the Broken AoA   2 Matteo AoA   3 William of Wyndhaven Silver Tyger Mari Clock van Hoorne 4 Fionn Mac Con Dhuibh Silver Tyger Camille des Jardins 5 Hugh of Ruantallan Silver Tyger Harold von Auerbarch 6 Greadden Scath Cath Beirte Olthurson Silver Tyger Wulfgar Silverbraid and Treannah 7 Eoghan Bastard Mac Lachlainn OTC   8 Matthias Grunwald Chivalry (Knight) Eva Woderose 9 Abigail Crane Tyger’s Cub Rhonwen Glyn Conwy 10 Leon Cristo del Camino AoA Myrun Leifsdottir

c: Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova 11 Ragnarr Inn Grai AoA Constance de St. Denis 12 Cuan hua hOcain AoA Leonete d’Angely 13 Roslyn of Giggleswick AoA Mariette de Bretagne 14 Odam an Doire AoA Nyfain merch Cohel 15 Shadiya al-Zahra Laurel Kayleigh Mac Whyte 16 Peter of Ruantallan AoA Sorcha Dhocair inghean Ui Ruairc 17 Benjamin of Thanet House AoA Sunniva Ormstung 18 Axyl Steinhoffman AoA Eowyn Eilonwy of Alewife Brook 19 Myrun Leifsdottir AoA Aaradyn Ghyoot 20 Urraka al-Tha’labiyya AoA Svea the Short Sighted 21 Eva Sutherland AoA Aleksei Dmitriev 22 Albrecht Ostergaard AoA Aziza al Shirazi 23 Wynefryd Bredhers Silver Wheel Lisabetta Medaglia

c: Faolan an Screcain 24 Katherine Murray Silver Wheel Aesa Feilinn Jossursdottir 25 Margaret Twygge of Sky Hill Silver Brooch Isa of Ruantallan 26 Delyth ferch Aeron Silver Brooch Vettorio Antonello 27 Garth of Golden Oak Silver Brooch Eleanor Catlyng 28 Mallaidh of Huntley Silver Brooch Mergriet van Wijenhorst 29 Izzo Silver Brooch Katherine Barr 30 Sunnifa Heinreksdottir Laurel Nest verch Tangwistel 31 Sabina Luttrel Court Barony Nest verch Tangwistel 32 Seamus na Coille Aosda Maunche Agatha Wanderer

c: Nest verch Tangwistel 33 Mary Elizabeth Ryan Silver Crescent Eadaoin Chruitire 34 Isobel Mowbray Silver Crescent Fiona O’Maille o Chaun Coille

w: Guthfrith Yrlingson 35 Erik Oxnalls Silver Crescent   36 Guthfrith Yrlingson Golden Rapier Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova 37 Barbeta Kirkland Writ for Laurel Henna Sinclair 38 Agatha Wanderer Laurel Edward MacGyver dos Scorpus

 


Filed under: Court

Pennsic Scribal Gathering / Rencontre des Scribes de l’Est à Pennsic

East Kingdom Gazette - Sat, 2016-07-23 22:14

En français

The Signet’s Office will be hosting an East Kingdom Scribal Get
Together at Pennsic, in EK Royal at 2pm on Sunday, August 7. Goodies
will be served!

This is an informal gathering: a chance for the scribes to get to know
each other a bit better, to see each other’s work, and for the Office
to show its appreciation for all the amazing work of the scribes of
the East.

Please bring your portfolios! I know we’re all living in the digital
age, but if you can possibly bring something that shows your work
(even just printing out your 3 favorite pieces), that would be great.
It is always inspiring to see other scribes’ work, and get to talk to
them about it.

New scribes are also very welcome.

Please contact Mistress Eva Woderose with any questions.

En français
traduction: Behi Kirsa Oyutai

L’Office du Signet sera hôte d’une rencontre des Scribes du Royaume de l’Est à Pennsic, dans le campement Royal de l’Est le dimanche 7 août, à 2pm. De petites gâteries vous seront servies !

Ceci se veut une rencontre informelle: une chance pour les scribes d’apprendre à se connaître un peu mieux, d’apprécier le travail des autres, ainsi qu’une occasion pour l’Office de démontrer son appréciation pour le travail extraordinaire effectué par les scribes de l’Est.

Veuillez amener vos portfolios ! Je sais que nous vivons tous dans une ère digitale, mais si vous pouviez possiblement emmener quelque chose qui démontre votre travail (même peut-être seulement imprimer vos 3 pièces préférées), ce serait fortement apprécié. Il est toujours inspirant de voir le travail d’autres scribes, en plus de pouvoir en discuter avec eux.

Les nouveaux scribes sont aussi les bienvenus.

Veuillez contacter Maîtresse Eva Woderose avec vos questions:


Filed under: Announcements, En français Tagged: Pennsic, Scribal

EASTERN RESULTS FROM THE APRIL 2016 LoAR

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2016-07-22 05:58

The Society College of Heralds runs on monthly cycles and letters. Each month, the College processes name and armory submissions from all of the Kingdoms. Final decisions on submissions are made at the monthly meetings of the Pelican Queen of Arms (names) and the Wreath Queen of Arms (armory). Pelican and Wreath then write up their decisions in a Letter of Acceptances and Return (LoAR). After review and proofreading, LoARs generally are released two months after the meeting where the decisions are made.

An “acceptance” indicates that the item(s) listed are now registered with the Society. A “return” indicates that the item is returned to the submitter for additional work. Most items are registered without comments. Sometimes, the LoAR will address specific issues about the name or armory or will praise the submitter/herald on putting together a very nice historically accurate item.

The following results are from the April 2016 Wreath and Pelican meetings. These results include the last batch of submissions from Pennsic 2015, as well as the new badges and Order names for the awards created by King Brennan II and Queen Caoilfhionn II.

EAST acceptances

Alana Snowe. Reblazon of device. Gyronny sable and Or, a New World dogwood blossom and an orle azure.

Registered in October of 2014 as Gyronny sable and Or, a dogwood blossom and an orle azure, the default dogwood has been declared to be the European version.

Alexandre Saint Pierre. Device change. Quarterly vert and sable, in saltire a key Or and a key argent.

The question was raised of whether the association of the byname Saint Pierre with the crossed keys should be considered presumptuous. It is not. It should more likely be understood as a cant.

The submitter’s old device, Quarterly vert and sable, a swept-hilt rapier bendwise proper between two roses argent barbed and seeded proper, is retained as a badge.

Alexandria Guyon de Champagne. Name and device. Argent, two fish haurient embowed respectant azure, maintaining between their tails a roundel sable, between three fleurs-de-lys azure.

Submitted as Alexandrea Guyon de Champange, the name was changed in kingdom to Alexandrea Guyon de Champagne to correct the spelling of the second byname to the submitter’s preferred form. The given name Alexandrea was crossed out on the form and Alexandria typed in its place. However, the spelling of this element was not changed in the Letter of Intent.

No evidence was found to support the submitted spelling of the given name. We have changed the given name to Alexandria, which was documented in the Letter of Intent as a German given name from 1560. It is also a 16th-17th century English given name used by both men and women, found in the FamilySearch Historical Records.

This name combines a German or English given name and a French double byname. This is an acceptable lingual mix under Appendix C of SENA.

An Dubhaigeainn, Barony. Order name Order of Drakes Spur.

An Dubhaigeainn, Barony. Order name Order of Perseverance and badge. (Fieldless) A duck’s foot affronty argent.

An Dubhaigeainn, Barony. Badge for Order of Sylvanus. (Fieldless) In saltire a shepherd’s crook and a feather argent.

Antonius Blandus. Name and device. Argent, three lozenges gules and a chief triangular vert.

Arron Guyon de Champagne. Name and device. Argent, an eagle with its head facing to sinister azure sustaining an arrow fesswise sable all between three fleurs-de-lys azure.

Submitted as Arron Guyon de Champang, the second byname was spelled de Champange in the Letter of Intent. A timely correction to the Letter of Intent noted that the submitter wanted the spellingChampagne. We have made this change to register this name.

This name combines a Dutch or Flemish given name with two French bynames. This is an acceptable lingual mix under Appendix C of SENA.

Cecily of Elfhollow. Reblazon of device. Per fess azure and vert, a fess wavy Or between a portative organ and a New World dogwood blossom argent seeded vert.

Registered in April of 1989 as Per fess azure and vert, a fess wavy Or between a portative organ and a dogwood blossom argent, seeded vert, the default dogwood has been declared to be the European version.

Christiana Crane. Badge for Fulton House. (Fieldless) In pale a martlet conjoined to three annulets interlaced in fess argent.

Culen mac Cianain. Badge. Sable, a boar statant contourny and a bordure embattled argent.

Please advise the submitter to draw the embattlements deeper.

East, Kingdom of the. Order name Order of Apollos Arrow and badge. (Fieldless) On a sun argent an arrow azure.

East, Kingdom of the. Order name Order of the Silver Brooch and badge. (Fieldless) A closed brooch argent.

This badge does not conflict with the badge of Morgan Catriona Bruce, (Fieldless) An open penannular brooch bendwise argent or the badge of David MacColin, Sable, an open penannular brooch, pin to base, argent. In each case, there is a DC for fieldlessness and another DC for orientation. We decline at this time to decide whether there is a DC between the types of brooches.

Nice badge!

East, Kingdom of the. Badge for Order of the Silver Brooch. Per pale argent and azure, a closed brooch counterchanged.

Nice badge!

East, Kingdom of the. Order name Order of the Silver Tyger and badge. Azure, a tyger rampant and an orle argent.

The submitter has permission to conflict with the device of Þórý Veðardóttir: Azure, a winged ounce segreant within an orle argent.

East, Kingdom of the. Order name Order of the Silver Wheel and badge. (Fieldless) A cartwheel argent.

The submitter has permission to conflict with the badge of Serena Lascelles: (Fieldless) A Catherine’s wheel argent and the device of Raichbhe Walkman, Per bend sinister gules and purpure, a cartwheel argent.

Nice badge!

East, Kingdom of the. Acceptance of transfer of badge from Jadwiga Zajaczkowa for East Kingdom Herbalist’s Guild. (Fieldless) On a mortar and pestle Or a sage leaf bendwise sinister vert.

East Kingdom Herbalist’s Guild is a generic identifier.

Edwyn Le Clerc. Name.

Fiona MacNeill. Reblazon of device. Purpure, on a chevron between three drop-spindles Or three New World dogwood flowers gules seeded Or barbed vert.

Registered in February of 1989 as Purpure, on a chevron between three threaded drop spindles Or, three dogwood flowers gules, seeded Or, leaved vert, the default dogwood has been declared to be the European version.

Gyða Úlfsdóttir. Name.

Havre de Glace, Barony of. Heraldic title Nef Poursivant.

Submitted as Poursuivant de la Nef, the pattern of [rank] of the [charge] was not documented in the Letter of Intent or by commenters.

Juliana de Luna’s article “Heraldic Titles from the Middle Ages and Renaissance” (http://medievalscotland.org/jes/HeraldicTitles/) provides several examples of French titles named for charges, such asOliffantEspy, and Sanglier. Another source is Michael Jones, “Vers une prosopographie des hérauts bretons médiévaux : une enquête à poursuivre” [In: Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 2001;145(3):1399-1426; http://www.persee.fr/doc/crai_0065-0536_2001_num_145_3_16352%5D.

These sources rarely show how the French heralds were titled or addressed in full in the primary sources, and usually provide only the substantive elements. Some examples include Monffort le Herault,Guingamp le poursuivantDinan poursivant, and Orlyans poursuivant et herault de mons, named after places, and Espy heraud de Bretaigne and Fuzil, porsuivant d’armes de mondit seigneur, named after charges. Therefore, we have changed this title to Nef Poursivant to more closely match the attested patterns.

Hedda Bonesetter. Name.

Helen Attebroke. Name and device. Per chevron vert and argent, two pairs of barnacles and a harp counterchanged.

Jadwiga Zajaczkowa. Transfer of badge to East, Kingdom of the. (Fieldless) On a mortar and pestle Or a sage leaf bendwise sinister vert.

Juliota de Castelnau d’Arri. Name and device. Quarterly vert and ermine, on a key cross Or a cross clechy purpure.

Submitted as Juliota de Castèlnòu d’Arri, the name was changed to Juliota de Castelnau d’Arri to match the documentation that could be found.

Juliota was documented in the Letter of Intent as a possible, but less likely, diminutive form of Julia or Juliana from the Occitan region, citing an Academy of Saint Gabriel report, but no dated instances of this form were included in the documentation. Juliota is found as a Latinized form dated to 1353 in Documents inédits pour servir à l’histoire du Maine au XIVe siècle(https://books.google.com/books?id=IXhAAQAAMAAJ). It is also dated to 1318 in Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie(http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k2000762/f332.image.r=Juliota).

The submitter requested authenticity for “Southern France, 14th-15th century”. The given name was firmly dated to northern France in the 14th century. The byname was dated to the early 17th century in the Letter of Intent, citing a French book published in Geneva. As neither element was documented in an Occitan source and the byname could not be documented earlier than 1618, this name does not meet the submitter’s request for authenticity, but it is registerable.

Kathryn of Pinkie Cleugh. Name and device. Sable, a panther rampant gardant Or spotted purpure and on a chief Or a furison sable between two thistles proper.

Pinkie Cleugh is a lingua Anglica form of the site of a battle in Scotland in 1547, but both elements use 16th or 17th century Scots spellings. Pinkie and Pinky are found in The Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707 (RPS) (http://www.rps.ac.uk/mss/1641/8/455), dated to 1641, and in ‘Supplementary extracts: 1580’, in Extracts From the Records of the Burgh of Edinburgh, 1573-1589 (British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/edinburgh-burgh-records/1573-89/pp547-556), respectively. A cleugh is a glen or valley. This spelling is found as a deuterotheme (as part of the place name Bugcleugh) in RPS, dated to 1625 (http://www.rps.ac.uk/mss/A1625/10/1). The spelling cleughe appears as a deuterotheme (as part of the place name Merche Cleughe) in ‘Henry VIII: September 1545, 26-30’, in Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 20 Part 2, August-December 1545 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol20/no2/pp195-233).

Magnús Surtsson. Device. Vert, three triangles inverted conjoined two and one between three stag’s attires each in annulo and conjoined to itself Or.

Mikulaj von Meissen. Badge. (Fieldless) On a tankard argent foaming Or a mallet sable.

Miriam Giant Killer. Device. Per fess vert and argent, in pale a sun Or charged with a sword azure and a pomegranate slipped and leaved gules seeded Or.

Rennata von Landstuhl. Reblazon of device. Quarterly purpure and vert, a fret couped argent and an orle of New World dogwood blossoms argent seeded Or.

Registered in October of 2014 Quarterly purpure and vert, a fret couped argent and an orle of dogwood blossoms argent seeded Or, the default dogwood has been declared to be the European version.

Sewolt Belßner. Badge. (Fieldless) A coney sejant sable maintaining beneath its foreleg an annulet Or.

Shannon inghean Bhriain uí Dhuilleáin. Badge. Argent, an escallop azure within a chaplet of ivy vert.

Sofya Gianetta di Trieste. Name.

This name combines a Hungarian given name and an Italian given name and locative byname. This is an acceptable lingual mix under Appendix C of SENA.

Sylvana Dagfinsdottir. Reblazon of device. Vert, in bend sinister three New World dogwood blossoms argent seeded sable between two scarpes Or.

Registered in July of 1980 Vert, on a bend sinister vert fimbriated Or three dogwood blossoms proper. [Cornus florida], the default dogwood has been declared to be the European version. Additionally, an ordinary may not be of the same tincture as the field, even when fimbriated.

Syszczyna z Pieszczatki. Name and device. Per pale Or and purpure, perched atop a key fesswise counterchanged a crow sable.

Submitted as Syszczyna z Piszczatka, the name was changed in kingdom to Syszczyna z Pieszczatky to try to change the locative to the genitive form. However, no documentation was provided to show that this was a plausible genitive form in Polish.

The apparent genitive form Pieszczatki is found in Sumptibus Societatis Scientiarum Wratislaviensis, Prace Wroc{l/}awskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego (https://books.google.com/books?id=iSpDAQAAIAAJ), possibly dated to 1530. Therefore, we have changed the byname to z Pieszczatki to register this name.

Temyl von Zweibrucken. Name and device. Per pall inverted sable, Or, and vairy Or and sable, in chief a mask of comedy counterchanged.

The Letter of Intent included documentation of the form Zweibruckn in a 1635 map. In addition, Noir Licorne documented the spelling Zweibrücken during the Pelican decision meeting, dated to 1616. The latter instance is found in Erzehlung welcher gestalt nach Absterben des … Herren Ruprechts römischen Königs … (dessen) Erblandt under dero Söhn vertheilt by Jacob-Ludwig Beuther (https://books.google.com/books?id=RURRAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA17). Therefore, we are able to register this name.

Tiberius Sergius Valens. Name (see RETURNS for device).

William of Wyndhaven. Device. Vert, a bar gemel Or between an aeolus and a seahorse argent.

Ynés Balam. Name and device. Or, a panther salient contourny sable spotted argent and incensed gules, a bordure gules estoilly Or.

Both elements are found in Cozumel, Mexico, dated to 1570, making this an excellent 16th century Spanish name!

EAST returns

Gillian de Whittemere. Device change. Argent, a blackbird rising and a fox rampant contourny tenné marked argent, on a chief triangular azure a rose argent.

This device is returned administratively for using an altered form. The shape of the shield is significantly different from the shape defined on the Laurel-approved form.

On resubmission the submitter should be made aware that the fox here is not proper, as blazoned on the Letter of Intent, which would have the socks sable and only the tip of the tail argent. As depicted here, it is returnable for contrast issues.

Tiberius Sergius Valens. Device. Sable, on a flame Or a death’s head gules.

This device is returned for redraw, for violating SENA A2C2 which states “Elements must be drawn to be identifiable.” The flame here is not recognizable as such.

Additionally, it appears to be tenné rather than Or which is, by precedent, independently grounds for return.


Filed under: Announcements, Heraldry, Official Notices

Update of Preliminary Details: King’s & Queen’s Arts & Sciences Competition Format 2017

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2016-07-20 23:31

From the King’s and Queen’s Arts & Sciences Champions, Greetings- Based on questions and feedback we have made updates to the preliminary competition format details for the K&Q’s A&S competition. Updates include a draft general judging rubric, information on research paper entries, and links for documentation help. Also included are drafts of competitor and judging agreements. Please note that this is an update to the competition format only, we do not have information about the date and location of the competition.

Link to Preliminary Competition Guidelines Document

-Mistress Elysabeth Underhill (Lissa), Queen’s champion

-Master Magnus Hvalmagi, King’s Champion

If you have questions, please e-mail laralu@gmail.com


Filed under: Announcements, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences, King and Queen's Champions

New Central Region Seneschal Appointed

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2016-07-20 23:17

I am pleased to announce the new Central Region Seneschal, Baroness Medhbh inghean Ui Cheallaigh. Please welcome her to her new position.

Mercedes Vera de Calafia, EK Seneschal
Filed under: Announcements Tagged: regional seneschal

Meetings at Pennsic/Réunions à Pennsic

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2016-07-19 16:09

Photo by Lady Lavina Attewode

En français

The following message is from Anna, Princess of the East Kingdom.

Good evening everyone. Brion and I will be holding 2 meetings at Pennsic this year. On Monday the 8th of August there will be a meeting of all members of The Orders of High Merit, that do not have a peerage. On Tuesday the 9th of August we will be holding a peerage meeting for all peers of the realm. Both meetings will start at 4 PM and run for an hour. Both meetings will be held in the East Kingdom pavilion on the battlefield. Bring chairs or pull up a comfy spot on the grass. We are looking forward to seeing all of you.

En français

Le message suivant est d’Anna , la Princesse du Royaume de l’Est .

Salutations au peuple de l’Est! SAR Brion et moi tiendrons 2 réunions cette année à Pennsic. La première se tiendra le lundi 8 août pour les membres des Ordres de Haut Mérite qui n’ont pas accédé aux Ordres des Pairs. Le mardi 9 août, nous tiendrons la réunion regroupant tous les membres des Ordres des Pairs du Royaume. Ces réunions se tiendront au Pavillon du Royaume de l’Est situé sur le champ de bataille, à partir de 16 h. Apportez vos chaises ou trouvez-vous un endroit comfortable sur la pelouse. Au plaisir de tous vous y voir.

Traduction par Baron Godfroy de Falaise

Save


Filed under: Announcements Tagged: Pennsic

East Kingdom A&S Champions for Pennsic Announced / Déclaration royale des représentants du royaume de l’Est pour les Arts et Sciences au prochain Pennsic

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-07-14 17:02

En français

On behalf of Their Most Noble and Wise Majesties, Kenric and Avelina, I am pleased to announce the competitors for the A&S War Point at Pennsic.

The War Point will be on Thursday of War Week, in the Great Hall, 9-4.

All are welcome to come and view the amazing works of all of the artisans; anyone with a Silver Brooch, Maunche, or Laurel (or out-of-Kingdom equivalent) may also vote for their favorites.

Voting is from 9-3; from 3-4 the Artists will stand by their works if you have questions or praise. The point will be awarded at 4 o’clock.

The portion of the team from the East is as follows:
Mistress Lissa Underhill
Lord Ulfgeirr Ragnarson
Lady Elena Hylton
Her Highness of Acre, Lady Vivian Dunbar
Lord Stefan of Silverforge
Lady Lada Monguligin

I would bet on these artists against any in the Known Worlde, and I hope you come out and support them!

In service,

Mistress Amy Webbe
East Kingdom Minister of Arts & Sciences

En français
Traduction par Sir Pellandres, dit le frère, Tir Mara Princess’ Champion of Armoured Combat

De la part de leurs majestés nobles et sages, Kenric et Avelina, j’ai l’honneur de vous introduire ceux qui représenterons l’Est pour les points d’Arts et Sciences à Pennsic.

Cette compétition aura lieu le second jeudi de la guerre, dans la Grand Hall, et ce de 9 à 16 heure.

Tous sont bienvenues et encouragés afin de témoigner du travail de ces artistes et artisans. Quiconque est membre des ordres de la Broche d’argent (Silver Brooch), de la Manche (Maunche) ou sont du Laurier (Laurel) (Ou encore des équivalents provenant d’autres royaumes) pourront apposer leur vote pour leur favoris.

La période de vote sera ouverte de 9 à 15 heure, puis pour l’heure d’après, les artisans eux-mêmes seront présents pour des questions ou des éloges. Le point de guerre sera accordé à 16 heure.

Ceux qui composent la délégation de l’Est seront :
Maîtresse Lissa Underhill
Seigneur Ulfgeirr Ragnarson
Dame Elena Hylton
Son Altesse d’Acre, Dame Vivian Dunbar
Seigneur Stefan of Silverforge
Dame Lada Monguligin

J’oserais parier sur toutes ces personnes sans aucune hésitation devant n’importe quel autre artisan du Monde. J’espère que vous viendrai pour en faire autant!

Toujours prête à servir,

Maîtresse Amy Webbe
Ministre des arts et sciences du Royaume de ‘Est


Filed under: Arts and Sciences, En français, Pennsic Tagged: a&s, a&s champions, A&S champs, Arts and Sciences, Pennsic, Pennsic 45, pennsic champions, pennsic war, pennsic war champions

Press Coverage of GNE

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-07-14 11:07

The Portland Phoenix covered the Great Northeastern War.  The  article can be found here.


Filed under: Uncategorized

King Kenric’s Pennsic Challenge / Défi de Pennsic du Roi Kenric

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2016-07-13 18:33

En français

In an effort to encourage crossing over to different fields at the war, I would like to announce the following:

If you compete in armored combat, rapier, archery, or thrown weapons, and you compete in all war point activities which you are eligible for in at least two of these areas, I would like to recognize your efforts with a token.

(For archery and thrown weapons, that means throwing or shooting each shoot/throw as many times are you are allowed.)

If you compete in all war point activities for three of these areas, there will be a slightly different token.

If you compete in all four, well, one, you’re insane. But if you do, I’ll have to think of something because I don’t really expect it…

Kenric rex

 

En français
Traduction par Baron Godfroy de Falaise

Dans le but d’encourager la participation aux différentes activités martiales à la Grande guerre, j’annonce ce qui suit :

Si vous participez au combat en armure, à l’escrime, au tir à l’arc ou aux armes de jet, et si vous participez à toutes les activités auxquelles vous êtes éligible et qui contribuent aux points de guerre dans au moins 2 catégories, j’aimerais vous récompenser en vous donnant un gage particulier.

À titre d’exemple, pour le tir à l’arc et les armes de jet, cela implique de tirer ou de lancer aussi souvent que vous y êtes autorisé.

Si vous participez à 3 catégories, un gage un peu différent vous sera octroyé. Et si par la plus grande des chances, vous en veniez à participer à 4 activités, eh bien….vous êtes complètement fou!

Mais si vous le faites réellement, je devrai trouver quelques chose, car je ne m’attend pas à cette possibilité!

Kenric Rex


Filed under: En français, Pennsic Tagged: Kenric and Avelina, Kenric's challenge, Pennsic, Pennsic 45, pennsic war, pennsic war points, war point challenge, War Points

Call for Teachers/Presenters – Theleme at Penn

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2016-07-12 19:00

For one day, the Rare Books Library of the University of Pennsylvania will welcome the free learners of the SCA. In the same spirit as the voyages of discovery previous event please come and talk about your research, your failed attempts, your successes, and get feedback on your work and ideas for future projects.

Have questions? Want to present? E-mail Lissa.
All topics are welcome, though classes dedicated to the making of books (parchment, paper, ink, pigments, calligraphy, illumination, printing, bookbinding, etc.) are especially desired.

A list of presentations and posters currently being offered is available online at the event website.

We hope to see you there!!


Filed under: Events

Curia to be Held at Great Northeastern War

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2016-07-06 21:37

East Kingdom Curia  will be held Saturday, 9 July 2016, 8:00 a.m. at Great Northeastern War in the Province of Malagentia (Hebron ME).

Following is the agenda, prepared 5 July 2016, 6:10 p.m.

  1. Curia Opening
  2.  Old Business
  3. New Business
    1. 3.1Laws of the East Kingdom Clarification that, in cases of conflict, the SCA, Inc. Governing Documents take precedence over EK Law.
    2. 3.2Glossary Revisions to several terms to match the definitions in SCA, Inc. Governing Documents.
    3. 3.3Polling Procedures Revision to VII.C.2.f. to clarify the polling where there are more than two candidates or choices.
    4. 3.4King’s and Queen’s Equestrian Champions Tourney(s) Revision to VIII.A.8. to clarify preferred scheduling within the Summer Reign.
    5. 3.5Award of the Burdened Tyger Relocation of IX.D.3. to IX.E.2.
    6. 3.6The Company of Fellowship New section IX.E.13., an award to recognize local branches.
    7. 3.7Discussion of a possible new armigerous order to include and provide recognition for martial activities other than rattan, rapier, and target archery.
    8. 3.8Discussion of potential East Kingdom 50-Year celebratory event.
  4. Officer Reports
  5. Curia Closure

EK Law Section III.I. The Agenda for the Curia Regis 1. Any items that The Crown chooses to add to the agenda after the Curia has been called will be added to the agenda under “New Business”. 2. If a Curia notice has been sent according to East Kingdom Law, but another Curia needs to be held before the previously announced one, any items of business held over from the earliest Curia will be automatically added to the agenda of the subsequent Curia under “Old Business”.


Filed under: Announcements, Law and Policy Tagged: curia

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #10: Fibonacci – A Master By Any Name

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2016-07-03 21:10

Our tenth A&S Research Paper comes to us from Lady Rosina von Schaffhausen, of the Shire of Quintavia. She introduces us to a fascinating figure from the 13th century – the mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, known most familiarly to us as Fibonacci.  (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

Fibonacci – A Master By Any Name

The Latin phrase filius bonacci, in the first line of the Liber Abbaci manuscript (above) gave rise to Leonardo da Pisa’s modern nickname, Fibonacci. (National Library of Florence)

Imagine being an Italian merchant in the early 13th century, traveling around the Mediterranean. You visit fascinating places, eat new and unusual foods, see many exotic sights, and trade many of the goods passing through the region.

However, you have a problem. The basic addition and subtraction you need to do to keep your account books you can handle, using the tools you have available, Roman numerals and an abacus. But doing any sort of multiplication or division is difficult. And you need to multiply, or divide, or sometimes both, to do all sorts of important things. You need them to determine how much cinnamon your pepper is worth, how much of your profits each of your investors should receive, how much your cut is, to calculate currency exchange, and to determine how much interest you have earned on the loan your city forced you to give them to build their navy. The methods you know seem much more difficult to deal with than the Arab merchants’ system.

On your next stop at home, a friend is raving about the new system of Hindu reckoning in a book written by one of your compatriots, and you resolve to find a copy and learn this new system…

Contents
Leonardo’s Pisa
Leonardo’s Life
Leonardo’s Work
Teaching Europe Math
Blazing New Trails
Conclusion
Bibliography

As commerce began expanding in the Middle Ages in the Mediterranean, the Italian city-states vied for control of lucrative trade routes. Throwing off the control of the Holy Roman Empire, the northern cities began running their own governments and conducting trade. They built navies and were the first governments to go into debt to finance their expenditures, sometimes by forcing their citizens to loan them money. They established customs houses at home and in a number of ports abroad, as well as forming the first corporations. Many of the cities coined their own money, and the first banks started offering interest on deposits.

While the first universities were being founded at this time, they did not add algebra to their curricula until the middle of the 16th century [3, p. 107]. It was the needs of the merchants that drove the eventual revolution in European mathematics. The need for better and easier bookkeeping, computation, and problem-solving methods brought the Hindu-Arabic number system and Arabic algebra into use throughout Europe. Leonardo of Pisa, today known as Fibonacci, was a pivotal figure in the process of changing over from Roman numerals to the system we use today. The practical example problems he included in his best known work, Liber Abbaci, displayed the ability of the Hindu-Arabic number system and algebra to solve many of the pressing problems of the medieval merchants.

Fibonacci is best known today for his famous sequence, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, … where successive numbers are found by adding the previous two together.  However, this sequence is not original to him. Since the concept of plagiarism did not exist in the form it does today, many of Fibonacci’s example problems, including this sequence, can be found in identical or similar versions in earlier texts from the Islamic world, India, and even China. The main purpose of Fibonacci’s writing was to educate merchants and surveyors on techniques that were largely unknown or forgotten in Europe. Thus he was influential in bringing in our modern number system, more so than other scholars of his day. In addition, he wrote some impressive original mathematics, which was unheard of in Western Europe at the time. Most of all, he left legacies of education and research in mathematics that lasted long after his death. While today we remember one sequence, in the middle ages and Renaissance, many math texts acknowledged a large debt to one Leonardo of Pisa.

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Leonardo’s Pisa

Leonardo of Pisa, known today as Fibonacci, was born in Pisa around 1170. Around this time Pisa was a republic, one of many Italian city-states vying for control of trade in the Mediterranean. At sea, Pisa contended with the other maritime republics of Genoa, Amalfi, and Venice. On land, their main rivals were Florence and Lucca. Pisa is situated on the Arno River on the western coast of the Italian Peninsula, just south of the top of the “boot” of Italy. From Roman times until the 15th century, when the river silted up and Pisa lost its port, Pisa was a prime commercial center in Tuscany.

The 13th century on the Italian peninsula. Pisa is just northeast of Corsica, on the western coast of what is now Italy. (Map by srinaldipds at SlideShare.)

While other cities mostly concentrated on going east toward Constantinople and the Holy Land for their trade, at first Pisa mostly went west. The city established trading ports, conquered towns, and took over islands in places such as Corsica, Sardinia, and Carthage. During the First Crusade in 1099 Pisa was instrumental in the campaign, and used the opportunity to establish trading centers in the eastern Mediterranean. While other states did the same, using this advantage Pisa became a serious international power. For a time Pisa surpassed Venice as the foremost merchant and military ally of the Byzantine Empire.

At home, Pisa used her spoils to begin building a beautiful city center, including a cathedral and baptistery. As a very young child, Leonardo may have watched the first three floors of the famous bell tower being built and start to lean. Construction on the Leaning Tower, begun in 1173, was stopped in 1178 as the structure, built on unstable ground, began its famous tilt.  The tower stayed at that height throughout Leonardo’s lifetime, as building would not resume for nearly 100 years and took nearly 200 to complete.  In 1284, the Pisan navy was nearly completely destroyed by Genoa at the Battle Meloria, ending Pisa as a naval power. The city managed to keep up some independent trade until she came under the rule of Florence in 1406. Then the river silted up, ending Pisa’s ability to trade easily.

[Back to Top]

Leonardo’s Life

Fibonacci signs his name in Liber Abbaci as Leonardo of Pisa of the Family Bonaci, which might also be translated as Son of Bonaci. However, since his father’s name was Guglielmo, this translation is incorrect.  Some scholars think that Bonaci or Bonacio was the name of an ancestor, as a reference to a famous ancestor was a common practice in Italy at this time. The name Fibonacci was first used in the 19th century and has become the most common one used for him today. He signed Liber Quadratorum as Leonardo Pisano, or Leonardo of Pisa. However, in his later work Flos (1225) and in a legal document (1241) [3, p. 149] his name is listed as Leonardo Pisano Bigollo. Some scholars think Bigollo means traveler, good-for-nothing, or absent-minded, while others think these translations are incorrect. Considering that the legal document is honoring Leonardo, Bigollo could not possibly have been meant as an insult.

Most of what we know about Leonardo’s life comes from the introduction to his book Liber Abbaci. When Leonardo was a boy, his father Guglielmo was working in the customs house of the Pisan trading port of Bugia (now Bejaïa) on the Barbary coast of Africa, east of Algiers. Guglielmo had young Leonardo sent over to Africa, most likely just after finishing grammar school, so the boy could learn mathematics. This was a trading center in a Muslim region, so Leonardo learned as much as he could from scholars visiting from many places. Modern scholars believe he learned to read and possibly write Arabic [5, pp. xviii-xx]. He studied a variety of mathematical systems and methods, and decided that the “Indian method”, as he called it, was superior to the rest. Leonardo continued his studies on business trips around the Mediterranean, including Egypt, Syria, Greece, Sicily, and Provence. He later wrote his first book, Liber Abbaci, or Book of Calculation, in 1202 to spread this method, which is our modern number system [6, p. 15-16].

Leonardo’s first book got him noticed not just in Pisa, but also by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. At this time Pisa was nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire, but had begun governing itself even before a previous emperor permitted the city to function under its own governance. Frederick II was known as the Wonder of the World. At this time, the first universities were still very new, and many scholars worked for wealthy patrons. Frederick encouraged scholarship in his court, and even wrote a treatise himself. Leonardo was introduced to Frederick’s court likely around 1225. Some scholars in the court posed Leonardo some challenge problems, another common practice of the day, used to determine the abilities of scholars. Leonardo was able to solve the challenges posed to him, and his writing on the solutions and related mathematics encompass a large portion of his original mathematics. In the 1220s Leonardo wrote most of his other works, including those on the challenge questions. He wrote a revision of his first book Liber Abacci, dedicating it to the scholar who first wrote about him to the court, Michael Scott. In 1241, at the end of his life, Leonardo was presented with an annual stipend from the city of Pisa [3, pp. 148-149] for his contributions to the city.

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Leonardo’s Work

Leonardo wrote a number of impressive texts in the course of his career.  The first and foremost is Liber Abbaci (1202; 1228), mentioned above [6], a compilation of arithmetic and the algebra that was known in his day. Next Leonardo wrote De Practica Geometriae (1220, meaning Practical Geometry), a book on a variety of geometry problems including practical ones on land area and surveying [5]. Liber Quadratorum (1225, meaning Book of Squares), on advanced algebra and number theory, contains some impressive original mathematics [4]. These three are available in English translation. Flos (1225, meaning flower) and Epistola ad Magistrum Theodorum (date unknown, meaning letter to Master Theodore), both on indeterminate equations like those in Liber Quadratorum, have not yet been translated into English. Two of Fibonacci’s works have been lost. One is a tract on Book X of Euclid’s Elements.  The other is Libro di minor guisa (date unknown, meaning probably The Book of the Lesser Method) on commercial arithmetic.  We will go into more details later on some of these books.

Folio 124r of the Codex magliabechiano, a manuscript of Liber Abbaci preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze. The “Fibonacci Sequence” is shown in the column at the right hand side. (Image courtesy Wikimedia Commons.)

Fibonacci’s impressive texts come in two varieties.  The first are texts designed to explain mathematics to the common person, as well as to show its usefulness.  De Practica Geometrie, Liber Abbaci and Libro di minor guisa fall into this category.  Liber Abaci is an encyclopedic work which, together with Euclid’s Elements, contains most of the mathematics known in the world at that time.  The other two texts are shorter and focused more on application. The second group of texts contain Leonardo’s original mathematics. Flos, Liber Quadratorum, and Epistola ad Magistrum Theodorum contain his solutions to problems posed to him by masters in the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In addition, in these books Leonardo expanded on the challenge questions and wrote original proofs of some ancient Greek knowledge as well as general solution methods for the types of problems posed. The tract on Book X of Euclid’s Elements was likely expanded from a chapter in Liber Abbaci. Leonardo’s popular works are more extensive than other European texts at this time, and no other European mathematician between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance has a body of original research.

[Back to Top]

Teaching Europe Math

Leonardo’s longest and most influential work was Liber Abaci, first written in 1202 and revised in 1228. The revised version is the one that was recently translated to English, and Leonardo not only made corrections but added some of his original mathematics at the end. In the introduction he stated that his goal was to bring the “Hindu numerals” to the Italian people. He succeeded, at least in planting the seed, since it took was not until after the invention of the printing press for that our modern number system to fully take took hold in Europe. At this time, Leonardo was not the only European familiar with Arab mathematics. Hindu Arabic numerals were known in Europe at least as far back as the 10th century. Gerbert d’Aurilac, later Pope Sylvester II, used them as number symbols but not in calculations. In the 12th century other scholars began translating Arab works into Latin, as well as writing their own texts. However, these translations and texts were aimed at other scholars. Leonardo was the first to deliberately focus on mathematics useful for everyday purposes. Soon after Liber Abbaci appeared, other popular arithmetics did also, but few approached the sheer magnitude of Leonardo’s compilation of arithmetic, algebra, geometric proofs, some of his original research, and a wide variety of practical and impractical examples.

While the goal of Liber Abbaci is to spread the Hindu Arabic number system, the book contains a wide variety of mathematics. The first chapter explains the basics of the number system. Chapters 2-5 deal with the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division while Chapters 6 and 7 concern operations with fractions. Chapters 8-12 deal with various “word” problems, many of which would naturally arise from business situations of the time. Other problems are abstract, intended to display different solution methods of a problem or to provide further examples on a solution method. Occasionally Leonardo throws in a whimsical problem. One of these is the famous “rabbit problem” from which we get the Fibonacci Sequence. Chapter 13 is on algebra, namely on methods for solving linear equations. Chapter 14 is on extracting roots and arithmetic operations on roots. The 15th chapter deals with geometry and some applications to algebra, namely quadratic equations. The last two chapters are material from Leonardo’s work Flos added in the revision.

Folio 139v-140r of the Liber Abbaci. (Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence, Italy)

Most of the mathematics in Liber Abbaci can be solved in terms of modern mathematics with elementary school arithmetic, basic first year high school algebra, and geometry. The main exception to this is that most schools no longer teach algorithms for square root extraction, and I have never heard of any that taught cube root extraction. Most of the application problems in the book can be modeled with linear equations, which in modern terms are equations that can be manipulated into the form Ax+B=C, where x represents the unknown in the problem and A, B, and C are numbers. However, variables as we know them today, as well as almost all modern math symbols, were not used until the late 16th/early 17th centuries. Because of this Leonardo’s solution methods vary from somewhat different to quite different from modern methods. The main methods he used for these problem types are formalized guess-and-check systems called single false position and double false position. In addition, Leonardo uses what he calls “the direct method” which is basically the same as our modern algebraic manipulation, only using words instead of symbols. Most of Leonardo’s paragraphs-long solutions could be condensed to a few lines using modern symbols.

While Leonardo displays a wide range of mathematics and shows a facility for original mathematics in other works, Liber Abbaci is a summary of the existing useful arithmetic and algebra of the time. Leonardo had a wide range of sources at his fingertips that he used liberally for this book. Plagiarism was not seen in the same light as today, so many of the example problems can be found elsewhere before Liber Abbaci was written. This includes the Fibonacci sequence, which appears in several Indian texts going back to at least 200 BC. In some cases Leonardo acknowledges that he obtained problems elsewhere, but does not always mention names. One example is “A Problem on the Same Thing Proposed to Us by A Master near Constantinople” [6, p. 290]. Other problems come from a variety of texts. Books that Leonardo used included al Khwārizmī’s Algebra text (the oldest known algebra text for which the subject was named) and Euclid’s Elements.

Given the massive scope of Liber Abaci, there are a number of interesting items within its pages. First, Fibonacci used a fraction system from North Africa where he went to school that seems bizarrely complicated. That is, until one notices that it is incredibly useful for old fashioned monetary and measuring systems that do not work as well with modern decimals. For example, using this fraction system with the current U.S. system of measurement, 1 yard, 2 feet and 3 inches could be expressed as

yards. In some problems with solutions that cannot be expressed as fractions, Leonardo found approximations using this fraction notation that are very much like our modern decimals.

Second, Leonardo partially ignored the existence of negative numbers and considers equations with negative solutions to have no solutions, unless they are part of a merchant account, in which case he considered them debits in the account. He did, however, give directions on how to operate with negative numbers [6, pp. 417-419]. Leonardo never admitted the possibility of square roots of negative numbers for any reason.

Third, Liber Abbaci contributed to the financial developments in Italy in multiple ways. Leonardo used a form of present value analysis in some problems, which is the foundational concept of modern financial calculations and decisions [8]. This is the first known use of this method to compare two investments. In addition, the mathematics of minting precious metals into coins in Liber Abbaci may have contributed to the more consistent coinage available in subsequent centuries.

Fourth, Leonardo included an early version of the classic “two trains” problems that students love to hate. However, instead of having two trains leave different cities at the same time, he calculated when two ships would meet [6, p. 280]. One scholar examining a 15th century French arithmetic text claims that that text contains possibly the earliest known example of a “two trains” problem [13], but Leonardo’s is 200 years earlier.

While Liber Abbaci is an impressive book and has been admired by scholars throughout the centuries, its immense size would be overwhelming to a merchant who just wants to know what his goods are worth in the coin of the city he’s in that week. Most likely for this reason Leonardo wrote another book on the basics of our number system specifically for merchants. This is referred to elsewhere as di minor guisa (the minor work), which probably refers to the fact that the book was shorter or contained fewer topics. However, no known copies of this text survive. For a long time scholars wondered why many arithmetic textbooks in the Renaissance had an acknowledgement in them to Leonardo of Pisa, but the books were not similar to any of Leonardo’s surviving texts. Recent scholarship shows a plausible link between the missing Libro di minor guisa and the “abbacus” texts used for instruction in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries [3, Ch. 8]. Recently found manuscripts from the late 13th century and early 14th centuries have some elements in common with later arithmetic texts and some with Liber Abbaci, providing the missing link between Leonardo’s work and the tradition of mathematics instruction in later medieval and Renaissance Italy.

The third of Leonardo’s explanatory texts is De Practica Geometrie, or Practical Geometry. Practical geometry was the term used at the time for surveying or land measurement. This profession had been very important and well-regarded in Roman times. The art declined during the so called Dark Ages, but began reviving on discovery and transcription of Roman surveyors’ tracts in the ninth and tenth centuries. These works then became common through the 11th century, but were more for teaching than for practical use. In addition to the duties of the Roman surveyors, medieval surveyors also verified weights and measures. [12]

Most other practical geometries of this period contained three sections on measuring heights, areas and volumes, while Hugh of St. Victor [5, p. xxv; 9] replaced the section on volumes with measurement of the heavens. Leonardo included all four of these topics [5, p. xxv], but one seems to have been largely lost between Leonardo’s time and when the existing manuscripts were copied. [5, p. xxv] The other thing that sets Leonardo’s text apart from prior practical geometry texts is his inclusion of the theory underlying the practice. Theoretical validation of surveying procedure became a goal in later texts, sometimes displacing the practice. De Practica Geometrie was translated into Italian a couple of times in period, as well as included in various compilations with other geometry texts in Italian.

For his surveying manual, Leonardo used a wide variety of geometry texts from the ancient Greeks and the Arab world. One text he used was Euclid’s On Division of Figures, which has since been lost. However, a century ago a scholar took an outline of Euclid’s text that still remained and found that Leonardo’s use of it matched very closely. This scholar then used Leonardo’s text to fill in the missing pieces and come up with a plausible reconstruction of Euclid’s missing text [1]. The scholar who recently translated De Practica Geometrie into English opines that it is not only a useful compilation of Greek and Arabic geometry, but is a practical analog of Euclid’s Elements: a stand-alone text containing everything a surveyor would need to solve the mathematics problems inherent in their work.[Back to Top]

Blazing New Trails

In addition to being an excellent explainer of mathematics to the masses, Leonardo of Pisa was also a research mathematician. Between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance, almost all of the writings left by European mathematicians were translations of Greek and Arabic works, expository texts like Leonardo’s Liber Abbaci, or textbooks or lists of problems to use in teaching students. Leonardo, however, solved some original mathematics problems and produced new solutions to some previously solved problems. While some of these texts are on other lines of inquiry, some of these were based on the challenge problems he was given in the court of Frederick II. One of these, Liber Quadratorum, or The Book of Squares, is currently in English translation [4].

Leonardo solved two of the challenge problems and later wrote Liber Quadratorum on the solutions and related problems, but never finished or published this book. It contains 24 propositions written in a style similar to Euclid’s Elements, which Leonardo references in the text. The text focuses on whole number and fraction solutions to indeterminate equations, or Diophantine equations, which are equations with multiple variables, and thus may have multiple solutions. The Greek mathematician Diophantus was the first to study these equations. For example, one of Leonardo’s challenge problems was equivalent to finding x,y,”and” z such that x2+5=y2 and y2+5=z2. In the process of finding a solution, Leonardo stated and proved a special case of Lagrange’s identity, although scholars argue over whether his proof is original or based on Arab material. Also, Leonardo wondered what other numbers besides 5 could be used in these equations and the equations would still have solutions. He proved some interesting facts about these numbers, called congruent numbers [17], based on the Latin word that Leonardo used for them. The mathematics scholars of the Tuscan school that arose from studying Leonardo’s works were very interested in congruent numbers. Modern mathematicians have not yet determined a general rule for which numbers are congruent numbers.

Another impressive result in Liber Quadratorum is that

for any whole numbers n and m where n > m. A conclusion Leonardo reaches in the proof is that no square can be a congruent number. This result is equivalent to the fact that the area of a Pythagorean triangle, a right triangle with whole number side lengths, cannot be a square. The proof about the Pythagorean triangle was one of Fermat’s greatest achievements.

Leonardo’s other higher level works, some of which include some original work, include Flos and Epistola ad Magistrum Theodorum, and a now lost text on Book X of Euclid’s Elements. Flos was included in the revision of Liber Abbaci as the last two chapters. The first of the two chapters is also a discussion on Book X of Euclid’s elements, and is basically a discussion on how to deal with numbers that can be expressed using square roots, among other things. Unfortunately we do not know how Leonardo’s lost text would have differed from Flos. The second chapter is on solving quadratic equations, which contain a square of the variable in them. Leonardo solved these using completing the square, since methods commonly taught in high school today such as the quadratic formula were not possible without the symbols we now use. He also proved some facts about squares and includes some of his challenge problems. Leonardo wrote Epistola ad Magistrum Theodorum, or Letter to Master Theodore, to one of the scholars offering challenge problems, with more material on those challenge problems. Leonardo’s works began traditions of scholarship in algebra and in investigating congruent numbers both in Tuscany and in Germany.

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Conclusion

Leonardo of Pisa, today called Fibonacci, wrote a number of impressive texts containing the bulk of the practical mathematics known in his day, plus some original mathematics research. His goal in writing his most impressive text was to bring our modern number system to Europe. While other mathematicians were also writing and translating books about this system, the legacy of mathematics scholarship and education that sprang from Leonardo’s works testify to the influence he had in making this happen. His legacy of education continued in the arithmetic and algebra textbooks in Italy and nearby areas until the Renaissance. His legacy of scholarship continued through schools of mathematicians in his native Tuscany and in Germany. Even today mathematicians are studying questions that he pursued in his research. It is no wonder that Leonardo of Pisa is considered the greatest mathematician of the Middle Ages.

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Bibliography

1. Archibald, Raymond Clare, Euclid’s book On divisions of figures…with a restoration based on Woepcke’s text and on the Practica geometriae of Leonardo Pisano, Cambridge University Press, 1915.

2. Berlinghoff, William P. and Fernando Q. Gouvea, Math through the Ages: A Gentle History for Teachers and Others, Oxton House Publishers and the Mathematical Association of America, 2004.

3. Devlin, Keith, The Man of Numbers: Fibonacci’s Arithmetic Revolution, Walker & Company, New York, 2011.

4. Fibonacci, Leonardo, The Book of Squares / Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci; an annotated translation into modern English by L.E. Sigler, Academic Press, Boston, 1987.

5. Fibonacci, Leonardo, Fibonacci’s De Practica Geometrie, ed. and tr. by Barnabas Hughes, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, 2008.

6. Fibonacci, Leonardo, Fibonacci’s Liber abaci : a translation into modern English of Leonardo Pisano’s Book of calculation, tr. by L.E. Sigler, Springer-Verlag, New York 2002.

7. Gies, Frances and Joseph, Leonard of Pisa and the New Mathematics of the Middle Ages, Crowell, New York, 1969.

8. Goetzmann, William N., “Fibonacci and the Financial Revolution”, The Origins of Value: The Financial Innovations That Created Modern Capital Markets, Goetzmann and Rouwenhorst, eds., Oxford University Press, New York, 2005

9. Hugh of St. Victor, Practica Geometriae, tr. by Frederick A. Homann, Marquette University Press, Milwaukee, WI, 1991.

10. Menninger, Karl A., Number Words and Number Symbols, tr. by Paul Broneer, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

11. Mucillo, Maria, “Fibonacci, Leonardo”, Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, 2005.

12. Pikulska, Anna, “Agrimensores”, Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, 2005.

13. Schwartz, Randy K., “‘He Advanced Him 200 Lambs of Gold’: The Pamiers Manuscript,” Convergence (July 2012), DOI:10.4169/loci003888, http://www.maa.org/press/periodicals/convergence.

14. Suzuki, Jeff, A History of Mathematics, Prentice Hall, 2002 (ska Master William the Alchemist).

15. Swetz, Frank, Capitalism and Arithmetic, Open Court, La Salle, IL, 1987.

16. Swetz, Frank, Ed., The European Mathematical Awakening: A Journey Through the History of Mathematics from 1000 to 1800, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY, 2013.

17. The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, published electronically at https://oeis.org, 2010, Sequence A003273

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Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences, mathematics