SCA news sites

Spring Crown Finals Round 1: Sven defeated by Gareth

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-13 14:21

First round sword and shield, Sir Gareth is the victor.

Categories: SCA news sites

Spring Crown Tourney: Sir Gareth Defeats Duke Marcus

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-13 14:14

Sir Gareth Kincaid has advanced to the finals, defeating Duke Marcus.

The finals between Duke Sven and Sir Gareth will be best of three.

Categories: SCA news sites

Spring Crown Tourney: Duke Sven Defeats Sir Murdoch

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-13 14:09

Duke Sven has advanced to the finals.

Categories: SCA news sites

Spring Crown Final 4

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-13 13:59

AEthelmearc Crown Tourney finalists are, from the winners’ list:

  • Duke Sven Gunnarsson
  • Sir Gareth Kincaid

And from the losers’ list:

  • Duke Marcus Eisenwald
  • Sir Murdoch Bayne

Categories: SCA news sites

Spring Crown Tourney Round 4 Complete

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-13 13:50


Sir Murdoch defeats Sir Finn.



Sir Hauoc defeats Baroness Beatrix.



Categories: SCA news sites

Spring Crown Round 3

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-13 13:33

Round 3 is complete.

Reporting courtesy of Mistress Arianna.

Categories: SCA news sites

Spring Crown Round 2

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-13 13:10

Round 2 is now complete.

Reporting and photo courtesy of Mistress Arianna.

Categories: SCA news sites

Spring Crown Live Feed I

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-13 13:03

Courtesy of Mistress Arianna, the Gazette today brings you continual updates of Spring Crown 2017.

Follow her continual postings here today:

Their Majesties Gabrielle and Timothy

Countess Ariella and Count Byron enter Crown, each fighting for each other.

As of noon, Procession ended and challenging began.


Their Majesties inducted Arden Scot into the Gage during the procession.


All photos courtesy of Master Alaxandair O’Conchobhair

Categories: SCA news sites

Spring Crown Tourney has begun

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-13 12:58

Arianna of Wynthrope reporting from Æthelmearc Crown Tournament in Sylvan Glen.

26 combatants processed before Their Majesties as aspirants to the Sylvan Thrones. During the procession, Their Majesties paused to admit Lord Arden Scot of Clan Scot to the Order of the Gage, then the tourney began with Salvidore Moro de Medici, last in precedence, challenging Duke Sven Gunnarsson, first in precedence.

The first round has now been completed with the tourney tree showing the results below:

Categories: SCA news sites

2017 Battle of the Nations – Barcelona ~ Así es la vida

PainBank - Thu, 2017-05-11 21:51
La Monumental

As I sit here on the plane and reflect on my 6th year of campaigning in Europe at medieval tournaments, I ponder where to next and how shall I commit.  I am over traveling alone.  I have not the drive to do it myself any more.  Having someone with you to just talk with, assist you when confused on how things should work in an unknown place or even to decide on where to eat is an immeasurable bonus and happiness.  Then there is the question of what happens should you get hurt, who can assist you with the heavy stuff and getting to the airport or perhaps even home from the hospital?  These are the things to consider, which you might not even think of, until it is too late.

Trying to travel with armor sucks.  How do you pack? Where does it all go?  This makes things very difficult. What if you have a pole ax or halberd?  What is the length of the poles?  Can you buy a pole to put it on at the site?  Or do you get (my current usage) a snowboard bag and attach then axe head on site?  Then can you get it off, should you need to, for getting it home?  Is it now long enough to compete properly, 6.5 foot or 7 foot?  Of course, there is always the questions that occur from the airlines when you check it in!  What is this?  Sports equipment… then there is some waving of hands and attempts to explain it to them.  Of course, there is always questions, but usually they let you go.  I also pack in about 1/3 of my armor in the snowboard bag as well.  Of course, that is now two bags, so there is a cost to take it over, then one to bring it back.  So now you are looking at about a $200 extra cost for flying and returning. 

Then there are the emotions.  What is the greatest about fighting is also the worse.  The highs are followed by lows to the same degree.  Expectations, anticipations and preparations, which having lead one to the tournament, build you up to a climax that is an amazing experience.  This is something that is slightly different for every person and every tournament.  It is part of the sport and I am yet unsure how to suggest one cope with it.  Ride the emotional wave and enjoy life.

Then there is the fighting.  Every tournament except Battle of the Nations (BotN) seems to be pretty lax on armor and weapons requirements.  (I’m not sure about Dynamo Cup) And weapons for that matter, although they still check those out pretty well.  The actually marshaling to address safety concerns seems to be at a fairly high level all around.  There always seems to be some kind of issue that gets raised or set of issues at and I suppose there always will be until the sport matures to a professional degree.  Something like where you check in/out your arms and/or armor or some such.  But the logistics of that is pretty significant.  They were up to the old ways of running things some.  late rule changes, odd enforcements both in the list and out of the list for registration.  There are definitely some improvements to be made, but overall it is getting better a little by a little.  My #1 suggestion to improve this is for them to schedule things more sooner and to let teams supply volunteers to join in in making some of the stuff happen.

I would say one the biggest disappointment I have seen from BotN is the lake of catering to the fans or new fans of the sport.  They price the event out of the range of average folks that want to enjoy the show.  They could have probably filled 10k+ fans into the arena in Barcelona, however, by charging 30 euro per session or half day, per person, that made it 60 euros for someone to watch just one day of action.  Yup, not many families or other coming out.  What is the right price, maybe 20 euro for the day.  In Belmonte, the price being 30 euros kept the crowd pretty low, compared to the IMCF championship where the price was like 10-20 euro for the day, which had a huge crowd.  Until this sport is completely filling arenas, we should be keeping those ticket prices good for all.   

Barcelona was a wonderful city to visit, which I wish I had more time to explore.  Maybe one day I’ll return just to enjoy the city.  Walking through the gothic quarter it was easy to image what walking through Diagon Alley in Harry Potter might have felt like or perhaps walking through Waterdeep.  I’ll be back, but not sure how much I want to go to Battle of Nations again verse attending other potential tournaments, as there could be a lot of fun at smaller ones as well.  It all depends upon where my travel companions wish to go and have fun at.  Look for me in the list though as I will be there again.  I’m also leaning toward doing more singles fights too.  Hell, I’ll fight in as much as I can.

Categories: SCA news sites

Wilhelm’s Hastilude & Demo III Canceled – no rescheduled date

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-05-11 16:34

Due to a powerful nor’easter predicted for this weekend, it is with much regret that we announce the cancellation of Sir Wilhelm’s Hastilude & Demo III.

Unfortunately, there is no raindate, but we hope to have it again next year.

If you know someone who was planning to come, please pass this cancellation around. Thank you.

~ Vienna & Wilhelm, autocrats

Filed under: Announcements, Events, Local Groups Tagged: event, event announcement, event canceled, events

Peerage Committee – Call for Commentary

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-05-10 17:30

At the April meeting the Board of Directors established a committee to research the process of creating new Peerages.

The committee will review the Board’s present procedure, determine whether any changes are needed, and suggest how any future proposals, e.g. Valiance, will be accommodated.

The committee invites the membership to share their ideas and comments. Those letters can be submitted by email to

Comments are strongly encouraged and can be sent to:
SCA Inc.
Box 360789
Milpitas,  CA 95036

You may also email

This announcement is an official informational release by the Society for Creative Anachronism , Inc.  Permission is granted to reproduce this announcement in its entirety in newsletters, websites and electronic mailing lists.

Filed under: Announcements, Corporate Tagged: 5th peerage, board committees, board of directors, call for comments, fifth peerage, peerages, sca announcements, sca corporate, sca inc

King & Queen Rattan Champions Tourney Format / Format du Championnat de combat en armure du Roi et de la Reine

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-05-10 15:21

En français

On June 3rd, AS 52 the Barony of Bhakail will host the King & Queen’s Rattan Champions Tourney. The format will be as follows.

Pre-16 Round:
All combatants will be split into buckets and will fight round robin with any weapons form they choose, the top scoring combatant(s) will advance from each bucket into the Round of 16.

Round of 16:
A double elimination list will be fought with pairings based on points earned in the Pre-16 Round.

The winners list will be restricted to Great Weapons ONLY: Dane Axes, Great Swords, Dire Mauls, etc; specifically weapons between 4 ft and 6 1/2 ft wielded with 2 hands. Weapons need not be matched exactly.

Once a combatant loses a bout they may switch to any form of their choice.

Round of 4:
Once 4 combatants remain they will fight best of 3 bouts with matched forms.The combatant from the winners list starts with one win. Combatants will alternate form selection.

All Loses are forgiven and the combatants will fight best of 5 bouts with matched form. selection of forms will alternate between the combatants.

Sir Gelleys Jaffery
Kings Champion of Arms

En français
Traduction: Behi Kirsa Oyutai

Le 3 juin, AS 52 en la Baronnie de Bhakail, se tiendra le Championnat de combat en armure du Roi et de la Reine. Le format sera comme suit:

Avant les 16 finalistes: Tous les combattants seront séparés en groupes et feront un tournoi à la ronde avec leur choix d’armes. Les meilleurs combattants de chaque groupe avanceront à la prochaine étape.

Ronde des 16: Une double élimination sera tenue, avec des paires basées sur les points accumulés dans la ronde précédente.

La liste des gagnants sera restreinte aux grandes armes SEULEMENT: Hache Danoises, Épées à deux mains, Grandes Masses d’armes, etc; spécifiquement des armes entre 4 et 6 1/2 pieds, utilisées à deux mains. Les combats ne se doivent pas d’être à armes égales.

Une fois qu’un combattant présente une défaite, il peut alors choisir de se battre avec les armes de son choix.

Ronde de demi-finale: Une fois qu’il restera seulement 4 combattants, ceux-ci combattront dans un meilleur de 3 à armes égales. Le combattant provenant de la liste des gagnants commence avec une victoire.

Finale: Toutes les défaites sont pardonnées et les combattants combattront dans un meilleur de 5 à armes égales. Le choix des armes alternera entre les combattants.

Sir Gelleys Jaffery,
Champion d’Armes du Roi

Filed under: Announcements, En français Tagged: champions, heavy list, Kings and Queens Champions

Dead Men Walking

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2017-05-09 20:46

Apotropaic Burials Display

The following article Dead Men Walking – an Overview and Reconstructions of Apotropaic Burials was written by Lady Luceta di Cosimo. Her research was recently displayed at several A&S competitions including the Ice Dragon Pent and the A&S Faire.


We can say with absolute certainty that everyone who ever lived during the SCA period of study has died, and their body was buried or otherwise disposed of in some way. The way it was done reflected on their contemporaries’ attitude towards death, afterlife, religious belief or lack thereof, and now provides an interesting insight into their beliefs in general, and, in some cases, their definition of humanity.

For the most part, it was “business as usual”; the dead were accorded their rites, which varied greatly between times and places, and the living moved on. However, in a persistent minority of cases, the neat model of “dead and gone” broke down. A portion of the dead was feared as a potential threat to the living. Specifically, throughout Medieval Europe, from the fall of the Roman Empire to late Renaissance, there was a persistent belief that some dead will come back and will harm or kill their survivors. These dead were treated differently, and their burials reflect the preventive measures the living took to decrease the probability of their post-mortem return. These are known as apotropaic measures, and the dead coming back to life were referred to as the revenants. A burial which shows that these measures were employed is called an apotropaic burial.

In period, fear of the walking dead was common and persistent. The accounts of the revenants come to us preserved in legends, but they can also be found in accounts of the lives of saints, ecclesiastical writings, sagas, and chronicles. We are still fascinated with the concept of the reanimated dead, judging by popularity of the shows such as “Buffy the Vampire Slayer”, “The Walking Dead”, and numerous remakes of “Dracula.”

From watching all these movies, we are very familiar with dealing with vampires and zombies – our versions of the medieval revenants. All of us can name a few vampire slaying techniques, such as staking or decapitation. Interestingly, these have not changed all that much, and many were used to deal with period revenants. However, what was also done frequently was to employ preventive measures, designed to prevent a suspicious corpse from rising as a revenant, rather than hunting it down and destroying it later.

Apotropaic measure of decapitation. Source – “Vampire Graves in Poland Where Skeletons Were Buried with Skulls between Their Legs,” 2013 article from Daily Mail

As such, the corpses considered at risk for returning from the dead were buried differently from their normal mortal counterparts. These measures, called apotropaic measures, were thought to prevent or decrease the probability that a body would rise after death.

Who was at risk? The were four possible life outcomes: one could have lived a good life and died a good death; lived a bad life and died a bad death; lived a good life and died a bad death; or lived a bad life, and died a good death. Those living a good life and dying a good death were safe from post-mortem wanderings. Anyone else could rise after death and bother the living.

People who lived a bad life and died a bad death were the most obvious suspects. These included criminals, especially executed criminals, and a lot of burials with apotropaic measures are from early period execution cemeteries[1]. Sacrificial victims fell into the same category (and there is an overlap between criminals and sacrifices).

However, victims of accidents, epidemics, unexplained death, excommunicates, and people dying without proper last rites (people who had a good life and had a bad death) were also at risk.

People who lived non-normative lives, different in sexual orientation, religious affiliation, and such (considered to have lead bad lives, though may have died a good death), were also suspects.

Not all potential revenants were social outcasts. Sometimes respected members of the community were buried in a regular cemetery with proper respect, but still treated as a potential revenant.[2]

The apotropaic measures themselves were very similar to the techniques used to slay the revenants but were employed preventatively. Researchers seem to agree that these rites reflected the living’s attitude towards the dead and were designed to render the suspicious corpses “safe.”[3]

By making these models, I hoped to make it easier to understand variations on period funerary rites, which were employed on potential revenant corpses.

How I Did This 

I have narrowed down the apotropaic measures to the most commonly employed. I made a conscious decision to limit these to the treatment of the corpse itself and decided not to delve into magical apotropaics, such as spells, special prayers, or rituals which may have been used in conjunction with these burials. These are ephemeral, and leave no material traces. I have also stayed away from apotropaic grave goods. These were many, varied greatly through time and place, and left a material, though incomplete archeological record. If these were made from material other than metal, bone, or pottery, they have decayed. I have however included items interacting with the corpse itself, such as stakes or stones.

I researched available literature, including but not limited to, news releases, archeological surveys, books, etc., and accumulated a number of images of the apotropaic burials.

I have narrowed these to the representative burials, which demonstrate one or more apotropaic measures. In some cases, I have an incomplete record, such as only a detailed description of the burial from an article, or a partial burial picture. In these cases, I have used the evidence from similar burials to reconstruct the rest of the body.

Materials and Methods

Due to numerous ethical, legal, sanitary, and financial constraints, no period materials or methods were used in the recreation of the burials.

I have written a short summary for each type of burial, and given some theories behind the method used and period examples. I also made a display illustrating common apotropaic burial methods. I used the images of the excavated apotropaic burials I found during my research as well as period depictions of revenants and malevolent dead from period sources, mostly from various books of hours, the stories of the three living and the three dead, and dance macabre engravings.

I used Halloween skeleton garlands which I bought at RiteAid, self-drying terracotta clay I got on Amazon, aquarium pebbles, small stones from my back yard, toothpicks, and heavy duty tinfoil. I modified the skeletons according to the treatment of the corpses in the period burial, and arranged them on rolled out clay tablets, to simulate an appearance of the skeleton in situ. Then, if there were other objects, such as stakes, stones, etc., these were also placed according to the records. I let the clay dry, and then glued the skeletons and objects in place using Well-Bond glue.

Apotropaic Measures 


There is a significant overlap between apotropaic and judicial (punitive) decapitation, just as there is significant overlap between executed criminals and potential revenants. However, the ‘safe’ decapitated corpses would be buried with the head in anatomic position, while the dangerous ones would have it placed elsewhere, or buried without the head.[4]. In England, decapitations appear in the 5th and become more common in the 6th and 7th centuries.[5]

Burial with corpse decapitation

Interestingly, this mode of burial was considered not only apotropaic, but also may have been derogatory: one of the early Norwegian laws states that “ if the head is severed from the body, and the head is placed between the feet, the wergild shall be doubled.”[6]

Prone (face down) burial

Prone, or face-down burials, are not limited to execution cemeteries, but are sometimes encountered in consecrated ground. Prone burials are chronologically and geographically scattered, but, at least in England, are seen during the 6th and 7th centuries.[7]  This type of burial is found much earlier, and some burials from the Frattesina graveyards (near Verona, Italy), probably of social outcasts, date from the 12 to 10th century B.C., and are also found during the Roman Period.[8]  Prone position is also found in some of the Bog bodies from Denmark, as late as the 14th century A.D.[9] The prone position was employed to make it difficult for the spirit to return into the body. There is a 16th century account from a shepherd in Bavaria who had out of body experiences and commented it was harder to get back into his body if it was face down.[10] Additionally, the gaze of a corpse was considered dangerous causing illness, death or possession, and turning it face down, limited its effect.[11] [12] [13] The combination of prone burial and hands tied behind the back is not infrequent. The hands tied behind the back is considered a sign of death by hanging.[14] 

Leg Mutilation/Restraint

Mutilation of the legs to prevent the dead from walking appears to be widespread. The degree of damage differs. In some Frattesina 12-10th century B.C. burials in Italy[15] and Anglo-Saxon England, the legs were bent backwards and sometimes disarticulated.[16] Broken tibias are seen in the bog bodies of Denmark, which span a 2000 year period, and are found as late as the 14th century.[17] Occasionally in Anglo-Saxon England burials, legs or feet are amputated completely.[18] Alternatively, mutilation of the legs may be minimal. In Oedipus Rex, by Sophocles, written about 430 B.C., Oedipus (whose name means “swollen foot”) was left out in the wilderness to die, with feet tied together and pierced by a thorn, to prevent the exposed infant from walking back as a revenant.[19]

Burial with leg mutulation

Occasionally the legs are tied, which serves as a physical restraint designed to prevent the corpse from walking. In burials, the crossing of legs at the ankles is interpreted as previously tied extremities, as the ropes were usually made of organic material and decayed.[20]

Stoning/partial stoning

The placement of stones in graves presented a physical impediment to the dead rising. Bodies weighed down with stones, either across the chest, throat, or the entire body, or bodies in graves filled with large rocks, are found throughout Europe. [21] [22]

Burial – corpse covered with stones

Related to the stoning of the body is the custom of placing stones on roadside cairns, which often housed the bodies of the dead travellers found by the side of the road or criminals buried in liminal places. While it is still considered good luck to add a stone to the pile, in period the luck was more literal, as it was definitely lucky not be followed by a murderous revenant as one travels. Sometimes, other objects such as branches are also used but the stone mounds are better preserved.[23]  [24] The custom of placing small stones on the grave of one’s loved ones in some cultures may be a remnant of the same superstition.

Placement of rock or bricks into the mouth, on throat or the chest of the potential revenants

Placement of rocks or bricks in the mouth served a different purpose: it prevented the corpse from chewing on its shroud, itself and its neighbors, which could have caused the death of its family and friends, or caused epidemics.[25] (This belief was widespread, and is even mentioned in Malleum Maleficarum.[26]) Additionally, stuffing the mouth with rocks also prevented the spirit from returning into the body.[27]

Burial with stones placed in the mouth


Staking occurred either with metal or wooden stakes, or sharp pieces of metal. The body may be staked through limbs, or through the heart. There are regional variations, and the placement, number of stakes, and materials of the stakes vary. The places of burials also vary greatly. Some are on hard ground, and some are in bogs and rivers or in liminal places (which are discussed below). There is a very late example of a burial in 19th century Lesbos, Greece, with iron stakes through the limbs. There are well known Bulgarian 13th century burials where the bodies were staked through the heart with broken ploughshares,[28] and there are multiple examples of bodies buried within bogs, dating to the Iron Age, which were staked to the turf with wooden stakes or wickets.[29]

Staking had several functions including physically pinning the body to the ground. In watery burials, stakes prevented the body from floating up. Staking through the heart prevented the dead from rising – a folklore motif well preserved to this day. If the staking was through the legs, it served a dual function by pinning the body down and it also mutilated the legs, further preventing it from walking.

In 11th century England, staking was employed specifically as an apotropaic measure in burials of unbaptized children, and women who died in childbirth.[30] Staking also persisted very late in suicide burials. In England, it was widely practiced in period, where the suicides were also buried at cross-roads. The latest documented occurrence of the staked suicide burial at cross-roads in England occurred in 1823. This practice was outlawed by the Burial of Suicides Act later the same year.[31]

The body of the Bocksten man, murdered and staked face down in a bog in Denmark around 1360, is further evidence of this type of burial. The stakes through the side and back may have been purely functional – pinning the body down in the turf, however the stake through the heart was to prevent the man from walking, as was burying him at the “meeting point of four parishes.” [32]

Bocksten man

Burial with a sickle or a scythe fragment across its neck is found in eastern Europe.[33] It was believed the deceased would decapitate themselves when they rose out of the graves. It is possible that the widespread use of such burials contributed to the period depictions of death as a corpse with a sickle/scythe.[34]

Burial with a sickle across the throat

Liminal Burials

Liminal burials include burials in non-normative locations. Burying outside of consecrated ground,[35] outside of the local district, or far away at the borders of geographical of political entities[36] fall into this category. Liminal burial places include:bogs,[37] [38] tidal margins,[39] ditches (indicates both the borders of human lands and water/earth border),[40] rivers, [41] [42] on the borders of parishes,[43] and cross-roads.

As noted above, suicides in England were customarily buried at cross-roads, and Aelfric of Eynsham refers to the witches raising the dead at cross rods at night.[44] [45] Burial on river banks or river flood zones [46] were thought to relate rivers to borders between the realms of the dead and the living. This is a common motif in folklore of multiple cultures and can be encountered in modern mythology and different media, such as Miyazaki’s Spirited Away animated film, and Susan Cooper’s The Dark is Rising book series.

Burial “between heaven and earth” in the form of elevated burials, or exposure of executed criminals with eventual burial of the resulting skeleton[47] is another form of Liminal burial.  Other Liminal burials  include Execution cemeteries[48] which were special places for keeping the unwanted/dangerous dead. Charnel houses would be in the same category.

Note that other apotropaic measures were often used in conjunction with liminal burials. Furthermore, not all liminal burials are apotropaic in nature: intent is important! Some unusual burials are due to hasty body disposal, or accidental death, and not motivated by fear of revenants. [49]


While death, burials, and funerary culture are not commonly included in SCA activities, I believe it is important to be aware of them in period. The attitudes of the living towards the dead, and the process of demonization of corpses are fascinating, and are reflected in many aspects of then contemporary culture – in miniatures, paintings, books, frescoes, chronicles, and folklore. The status of the outsider, or other, assigned to the revenant in period, is very useful. These dead have created the negative spaces around living, which can sometimes tell us more about their society than the people themselves. Even if we are not always aware of it, we have inherited this culture, which still permeates our lives, although, thankfully, mostly as entertainment.


Barber, Paul. Vampires, Burial, and Death : Folklore and Reality.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

Barrowclough, David. “Time to Slay Vampire Burials? The Archaeological and Historical Evidence for Vampires in Europe.” Cambridge: Red Dagger Press.

Blake, Matt. “Pictured: ‘Vampire’ Graves in Poland Where Skeletons Were Buried with Skulls between Their Legs.” Daily Mail, July 15, 2013.

Caciola, Nancy. Afterlives : The Return of the Dead in the Middle Ages.  Ithaca; London: Cornell University Press, 2016.

Devlin, Zoe, and Emma-Jayne Graham. Death Embodied : Archaeological Approaches to the Treatment of the Corpse. Studies in Funerary Archaeology.  Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2015.

Farrell, Maura. “Prone, Stoned, and Losing the Head: Deviant Burials in Early Medieval Ireland in the 5th to 12th Centuries.” Trowel (2012): 56.

Glob, P. V. The Bog People; Iron Age Man Preserved.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1969.

Gregoricka, Lesley A., Tracy K. Betsinger, Amy B. Scott, and Marek Polcyn. “Apotropaic Practices and the Undead: A Biogeochemical Assessment of Deviant Burials in Post-Medieval Poland.” PLoS ONE 9, no. 11 (2014): e113564.

Griffiths, Bill. Aspects of Anglo-Saxon Magic [in Text in English, Icelandic, Latin, and Old English] Rev. ed.  Hockwold-cum-Wilton, Norfolk, England: Anglo-Saxon Books, 2003.

Institoris, Heinrich, Jakob Sprenger, and Montague Summers. Malleus Maleficarum.  New York: B. Blom, 1970.

Laskey, Mark. “Rites of Desecration: Suicide, Sacrilege and the Crossroads Burial.”

Lecouteux, Claude. The Return of the Dead: Ghosts, Ancestors, and the Transparent Veil of the Pagan Mind. 1st U.S. ed.  Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, 2009.

Reynolds, Andrew. Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Riisøy, Anne Irene. “Deviant Burials: Societal Exclusion of Dead Outlaws in Medieval Norway.” (2015).

Zelenin, D. K., Tolstoy Nikita, and E. E. Levkievskaya. Essays on Russian Mythology : People Who Met a Violent Death and Mermaids: Selected Works (Ocherki Russkoy Mifologii: Umershie Neestestvennoi Smertyu I Rusalki: Isbrannyye Trudy). Traditsionnaia Dukhovnaia Kultura Slavian Moskva: “INDRIK” 1995.


[1] Andrew Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs (Oxford; NY: Oxford University Press, 2009).

[2] Ibid.194.

[3] Ibid. 89.

[4] Ibid. 34, describing a late seventh- early eighth century Anglo Saxon burial.

[5] Ibid. 89.

[6] Anne Irene Riisøy, “Deviant Burials: Societal Exclusion of Dead Outlaws in Medieval Norway,” (2015), 69, quoting Larson, 1935, The earliest Norwegian Laws, geing the Gulathing Law and the Frostathing Law.

[7] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs, 89.

[8] Zoe Devlin and Emma-Jayne Graham, Death Embodied: Archaeological Approaches to the Treatment of the Corpse, Studies in Funerary Archaeology (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2015), 145.

[9] P. V. Glob, The Bog People; Iron Age Man Preserved (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1969), 149-151.

[10] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs, 89.

[11] Paul Barber, Vampires, Burial, and Death: Folklore and Reality (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), 49.

[12] Nancy Caciola, Afterlives: The Return of the Dead in the Middle Ages (Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press, 2016).

[13] Riisøy, “Deviant Burials: Societal Exclusion of Dead Outlaws in Medieval Norway.”

[14] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs, 163.

[15] Devlin and Graham, Death Embodied: Archaeological Approaches to the Treatment of the Corpse, 145-147.

[16] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs, 163.

[17] Glob, The Bog People; Iron Age Man Preserved.

[18] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs, 93-94.

[19] Barber, Vampires, Burial, and Death: Folklore and Reality, 61.

[20] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs, 40.

[21] Matt Blake, “Pictured: ‘Vampire’ Graves in Poland Where Skeletons Were Buried with Skulls between Their Legs,” Daily Mail, July 15, 2013.

[22] David Barrowclough, “Time to Slay Vampire Burials? The Archaeological and Historical Evidence for Vampires in Europe,” (Cambridge: Red Dagger Press).

[23] D. K. Zelenin, Tolstoy Nikita, and E. E. Levkievskaya, Essays on Russian Mythology: People Who Met a Violent Death and Mermaids: Selected Works (Ocherki Russkoy Mifologii: Umershie Neestestvennoi Smertyu I Rusalki: Isbrannyye Trudy), Traditsionnaia Dukhovnaia Kultura Slavian (Moskva: “INDRIK”, 1995), 62-65.

[24] Claude Lecouteux, The Return of the Dead: Ghosts, Ancestors, and the Transparent Veil of the Pagan Mind, 1st U.S. ed. (Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, 2009), 23.

[25] Barber, Vampires, Burial, and Death: Folklore and Reality, 47.

[26] Heinrich Institoris, Jakob Sprenger, and Montague Summers, Malleus Maleficarum (New York: B. Blom, 1970).

[27] Barber, Vampires, Burial, and Death: Folklore and Reality, 47.

[28] Barrowclough, “Time to Slay Vampire Burials? The Archaeological and Historical Evidence for Vampires in Europe.”

[29] Glob, The Bog People; Iron Age Man Preserved.

[30] Lecouteux, The Return of the Dead: Ghosts, Ancestors, and the Transparent Veil of the Pagan Mind., 38. From the Decret by Burchard of Worms, early 11th century:

If a very small child dies without baptis, they take the body into a secret place and pierce it through with a rod. They say that if they did not do this, the child would come back and could cause harm to a great many people. If a woman does not manage to give birth to her child and dies in labor, in the very grave both mother and child are pierced with a rod that nails them to the ground.

[31] Mark Laskey, “Rites of Desecration: Suicide, Sacrilege and the Crossroads Burial,”

[32] Glob, The Bog People; Iron Age Man Preserved, 149-151.

[33] Lesley A. Gregoricka et al., “Apotropaic Practices and the Undead: A Biogeochemical Assessment of Deviant Burials in Post-Medieval Poland,” PLoS ONE 9, no. 11 (2014).

[34] Barber, Vampires, Burial, and Death : Folklore and Reality, 50-51.

[35] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs, 25.

[36] Caciola, Afterlives: The Return of the Dead in the Middle Ages, 213, in Laxdaela Saga Hrapp is far away in an attempt to stop him.

[37] Ibid. 237, 12th century account of William of Malmesbury of a man weighed down in a bog to prevent wandering.

[38] Glob, The Bog People; Iron Age Man Preserved.

[39] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs.

[40] Maura Farrell, “Prone, Stoned, and Losing the Head: Deviant Burials in Early Medieval Ireland in the 5th to 12th Centuries,” Trowel (2012).

[41] Caciola, Afterlives: The Return of the Dead in the Middle Ages, 237.

[42] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs, 24. In 10th century England, witches were punished by drowning or throwing into a river, which took care both of the execution and body disposal of a potential revenant.

[43] Glob, The Bog People; Iron Age Man Preserved, 149-151.

[44] Laskey, “Rites of Desecration: Suicide, Sacrilege and the Crossroads Burial”.

[45] Bill Griffiths, Aspects of Anglo-Saxon Magic, Rev. ed. (Hockwold-cum-Wilton, Norfolk, England: Anglo-Saxon Books, 2003), 33.

[46] Farrell, “Prone, Stoned, and Losing the Head: Deviant Burials in Early Medieval Ireland in the 5th to 12th Centuries.”

[47] Devlin and Graham, Death Embodied : Archaeological Approaches to the Treatment of the Corpse, 64.

[48] Reynolds, Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs.

[49] Ibid. 38

Categories: SCA news sites

The 100 Days of A&S Challenge

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2017-05-09 07:43

By Lady Elena de la Palma

Have you seen the 100 Days Challenge making the rounds amongst the fighting community on Facebook these past few months? I saw it here and there – people posting about pell work they’d done, or days in armor. I thought in passing that it’d be nice to have something like that for A&S, but didn’t give it much more brain time than that.

Until, that is, I saw this link on Her Excellency Ekaterina Volkova’s Facebook page:

The idea is a simple one: For the next 100 days, spend 10 minutes a day pursuing your art. This can mean whatever you want it to mean. It could be actual physical work on a project, but it could just as easily be research or planning. Like it says in the link above, you’ll know it when you see it (hint: inspiration-hunting on Pinterest doesn’t count). And if you miss a day? Your day count resets to zero and you start over again.

Reading through this challenge, I suddenly realized just how much my focus on the arts had fallen to the wayside – but I also saw a way by which I could shift that focus back. I decided to start the challenge the day following last Saturday’s Æthelmearc A&S Faire and Queen’s Prize Tourney. It just seemed the thing to do: go see a bunch of art, refill my inspiration to brimming, and then get started on the challenge. Sunday, May 7, A.S. 52 was my first day, and I spent it doing some comparative research on German tailoring manuals vs. Spanish tailoring manuals from late period.

Photo by Lady Elena de la Palma.

I spent a good bit of time with that big book of German tailoring manuals, but also visited with most of the other books piled on the table.

I posted about my pursuit of the challenge on Facebook, and a number of other people have since taken it up, too. If you’d like to join in as well, please do – it’s already been fun to see the progress that people are making. The original creators suggest using the hashtag #100daysofAS – that’ll serve you well on Facebook or on Twitter.

Over time, those 10 minutes a day will start adding up. Even before the first week is out, you’ll have done an hour, and by the time the challenge is up you’ll have done more than 16 hours – 10 minutes at a time.

Categories: SCA news sites

Artisan’s Playtime at AE War Practice

AEthelmearc Gazette - Mon, 2017-05-08 21:26

Artisans’ Play Time. Photo by Cat Clark.

From Mistress Orianna, Deputy Kingdom Minister of Arts & Sciences:

Greetings all! Once again we will be having an artisan’s playtime at Æthelmearc War Practice, Saturday, May 20 in the Great Hall. This is open to any and all who wish to share their art with others — the idea is to provide an opportunity for folks to try your art and share your art with like-minded or budding artisans. Ideally, we would like a community of artisans who work in the same medium to create a collective but if you are by yourself that is fine too.  And we welcome and encourage our youth artisans to join too! As much as is possible, all playtimes must be accessible to young people.  Younger children must be accompanied by a parent or responsible adult to participate, but sharing what we do with the youth of the Kingdom is important. If you have any questions or would like to let me know you would be participating, please contact Orianna. Looking forward to a fun and learning experience!
Categories: SCA news sites

From the Kingdom Archivist

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2017-05-07 18:10

Greetings unto the Populace of the Great Kingdom of the
East. I hereby bring you news that I have assumed the
position of Kingdom Archivist. It was with slight
trepidation that I then unloaded a sizable pile of boxes
into my basement!

What is in these boxes? Documents. Many, many documents.
Documents that need to be kept for real world or Kingdom
legal reasons, mostly boring stuff, like waivers and such.
I have the daunting task ahead of me of sorting through it
all and tidying things up. I will put forth the effort to
bring it all into the 21’st century and transfer that which
is suitable to a digital format, greatly simplifying the
task of Archiving.

But I have also discovered that there are documents that
are of historical interest. Documents with pretty
illumination, calligraphy and many signatures. Of course
these will be preserved in their physical format, but I
intend to be working with the Web Ministers to bring
digital images of them to the Kingdom Website and
accessible for the enjoyment of all.

As things progress I will be bringing you updates here!

YIS, Baron Goerijs “the Unpronounceable” Goriszoon, OSC

Filed under: Announcements Tagged: announcements, archivist, east kingdom archives, east kingdom history, ek officers, missives

Crown Finalists and Semi-Finalists Tournament in photos

East Kingdom Gazette - Sun, 2017-05-07 18:01

On Saturday, many took the field for the honor of their consorts to compete in Crown Tournament in the Barony of Settmour Swamp.  After many rounds of bouts of chivalry, four combatants remained.

Sir Ivan Ivanov syn Dmitriev and Baroness Matilde de Cadenet; Sir Wilhelm von Ostenbrucke and Mistress Vienna de la Mer; Sir Culann mac Cianain and Mistress Aneleda Falconbridge; and The Honorable Lord Arne Ulriksson and Lady Anna VonBaden

Sir Ivan and Sir Wilhelm advanced to the finals.

Sir Ivan Ivanov syn Dmitriev, fighting for Baroness Matilde de Cadenet and Sir Wilhelm von Ostenbrucke, fighting for Mistress Vienna de la Mer

The finals between Sir Ivan and Sir Wilhelm were decided by a best of 5 format.  The Crown decided the order of the weapons based on the audience’s responses to the choices. With both combatants having won two rounds each, the fifth and final round was fought with swords and bucklers provided by the crown.

Mistress Vienna de la Mer and Baroness Matilde de Cadenet with Her Majesty

The final round was won by Sir Ivan.

Vivant to Their Highnesses!


Filed under: Heavy List Tagged: Crown, Crown Tournament, Crown Tourney, Ivan and Mathilde, spring crown

Scarlet Apron Cooking Contest in Two Weeks!

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sun, 2017-05-07 17:14

THL Elska, last year’s winner, with THL Lijsbet. Photo by Master Alaxandair O Conchobhair.

Cooks of Æthelmearc! The time has come to season your skillets and muscle up your mixing arms – The Scarlet Apron demands a new champion be chosen, so that it may dress a new breast this year!

Join us at noon on Saturday, May 20, 2017 at Æthelmearc War Practice, and show your mettle as an entrant in The Scarlet Apron Food & Cooking Competition. Cooks of all experience levels are welcome and encouraged to enter – whether you are new to the SCA or medieval cooking, or you are a veteran of the event kitchen, there is room at our table for you!

This year’s competition theme is “Family Meal Time,” for which entrants are encouraged (but not required) to work with someone in their family – however they choose to define it – to create a medieval version of a modern meal that frequents their dinner tables at home (i.e. lasagna, a roast with trimmings, chicken nuggets and fries, etc.).

These meals must be sourced from reliable cooking texts, which may be from anywhere and any time in SCA period. If using multiple sources from different cultures, it must be plausible that the combination of dishes being served would have been seen on the same table at the same time (for example, it is plausible that many recipes from English and French texts could have been found on the same menu, depending on what time period it was; Likewise, it is not as plausible that a recipe from ancient Rome found its way to the same table as an Elizabethan English dish, and so would be an unfavorable combination for this competition).

Entries should contain an entrée and at least two side dishes, and be accompanied by a brief documentation form for each dish (to be provided – coming soon!). Presentation counts – plan on dressing up your table and your service so it is pleasing to the eye!

Pre-registration is required to participate. There will be an announcement once the web site has been updated for this year’s competition, including a new registration form. In the meantime, start planning your entry, and send any questions to Edelvrouw Lijsbet de Keukere (Keirin Lazauskas-Ralff on Facebook Messenger, or email here).

We are so excited to see what you bring to the table this year!

Categories: SCA news sites

Atlantian and Eastern Crown Winners

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-05-06 19:01

Today the East Kingdom and Atlantia held their Crown Tournaments.

In Atlantia, congratulations to Count Amos le Pious and Countess Kára Óláfsdóttir, new Crown Prince and Princess! This will be their second reign.

In the East, congratulations to Sir Ivan Ivanov syn Dmitriev and Baroness Matilde DeCadenet, new Crown Prince and Princess of the East. This will be their first time on the thrones.


Categories: SCA news sites