SCA news sites

Kingdom Archery Champion’s Tournament at Agincourt

AEthelmearc Gazette - Thu, 2017-09-07 17:15

Master Jacopo at the spring Archery Champion’s shoot. Photo by Lord Mikus Magellus.

On September 23rd at the Agincourt event in the Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands, the competition to choose the Archery Champion of Their Highnesses, Gareth and Juliana, will take place.

Master Jacopo di Niccolo, the outgoing Kingdom Archery Champion, announced that the championship will be open to all with no qualifier. A single elimination tourney will be held to reduce the competitors to a final group. The targets will be changed and then the single elimination shoot will continue until only the Champion remains.

All interested archers must be signed in by noon on Saturday. The signup list will be available at the troll table. All competing archers should be at the field by 12:30 and ready to begin shooting at 1 pm.

Categories: SCA news sites

Heralds and List Runners for Crown Tournament

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-09-07 16:13

Greetings to the tourney heralds and list runners of the East and Tir Mara from Mistress Suba al-Hadid, Troubadour Herald!

Please save the date for Crown Tournament on November 4th in the Barony of Bergental (Massachusetts)! Event announcement is here:

Yours in Service to the Dream,
Jamilia al-Suba al-Hadid min Bhakail al-Sheikha al-Mu’allima (Baroness Suba al-Hadid) Troubadour

Crown Tournament of Ivan & Matilde Event Details November 4th, 2017 <a href=>Barony of Bergental</a> – Feeding Hills, MA
Filed under: Announcements

Please Donate Drinking Vessels for Newcomers

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2017-09-06 20:52

Greetings to the citizens of our Sylvan Lands!

Coronation will soon be upon us, and with it, a wonderful opportunity to support those who are new to our hobby. Our next King and Queen, Gareth and Juliana, would like to give each newcomer a drinking vessel (mug, goblet, cup, etc.) during Royal Courts as a way to welcome them to the Society. Will you help Them in this endeavor?

Donations do not need to be new but should be in good condition and serviceable as feast gear.

Please contact THLady Antoinette de Lorraine ( with any questions.

Have a donation? Feel free to bring it to an event or mail it to:

Lady McKenna Henderson, Largess Coordinator for TRH Gareth & Juliana
Andrea Peters, 14 Miller Run Road, Burton, WV 26562


THLady Antoinette de Lorraine
Ashley Green, 1111 Ave G, Danville Pa 17821

Thank you for helping us keep the dream alive one moment at a time.

Categories: SCA news sites

Unofficial Court Report from Bhakail Champions and Commons

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-09-06 16:11

At the Bhakail Champions and Commons held in The Barony of Bhakail on August 27, A.S. 52, the following pieces of business were conducted on behalf of Their Majesties Ioannes and Honig in the Court of Baron Rowen and Baroness Suba.

Egill Illugasson, called Badhands, received an Award of Arms.  (C&W: Faolan an Sccreccain, I: Lorita de Siena)

Egill Illugasson, called Badhands, was inducted into the Order of the Silver Tyger.

Reported by Baron Rowen Cloteworthy

Filed under: Court

Unofficial Court Report for River Wars

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-09-06 16:06

At River Wars in Iron Bog on September 2, A.S. 52, Heinreich Wächter called Digger, was inducted into the Order of the Silver Crescent.  (C&I: Mari Clock van Hoorne, W: Alys Mackyntoich)

Reported by Baron Rowen Cloteworthy

Filed under: Court Tagged: River War

Kingdom Youth Champions’ Tourney at Agincourt

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2017-09-06 09:39

Youth fighters, arm yourselves and prepare!

On September 23rd at the Agincourt event in the Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands, Their Highnesses Gareth and Juliana will choose Their Youth Combat Champions based on their chivalry, courtesy, and prowess.  There will be anywhere from one to three champions depending on the number of combatants in each division.

The list opens at 9:30 am for inspections and authorizations, with the tournament starting at 10 am. Youth fighters who are not yet authorized are encouraged to arrive early so they can complete their authorization bouts.

After the tournament, if time permits, there will be melees and practice with adult sparring partners.

Photo by Lady Aine ny Allane.

Youth Combat Champions receive a tabard of office which they wear for the duration of their term, then pass on to the next Youth Champions, who will be chosen in the spring. They may process into Court with the King and Queen at events but are not required to stand in Courts unless they wish to do so. The champions’ names are added to the list of Kingdom Youth Combat Champions on the Kingdom Youth Combat website.

For more information about youth combat in Æthelmearc, visit the Kingdom Youth Combat Website.

Please direct any questions to the Kingdom Youth Combat Marshal, Mistress Arianna of Wynthrope.

Fox and Katrina, the current Kingdom Youth Champions. Photos by Arianna.


Categories: SCA news sites

Help Wanted!

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2017-09-05 16:16

The Gazette is looking for a few new daily editors. Join a great team of people and help us manage the most popular media site in the Kingdom of Æthelmearc!

What are you looking for?
We are looking for people who are available 2-3 days per month (our crack scheduler, Baron Magnus, does a monthly roster for the editors, taking into consideration everyone’s availability for the month). You need to have access to the internet, be on Facebook, and have the ability to edit articles and announcements. Access to photo editing software is a plus. We use WordPress for the blog, and have a good tutorial available for new editors.

On your editing day, you go through the in-box, edit and put up any articles there, check for corporate or officer announcements, and check the drafts section to see what is in the queue.

When we started, we had editors with specific coverage areas (cooking, different regions of the Kingdom, martial arts, etc.) but that’s changed – you can solicit articles on any topic, and we all cover the general news equally. Anything contentious gets discussed on our private FB page before being posted.

Do I need to have a title or rank to be an editor?
Absolutely not.

How do I apply?
Send a letter (you can attach your SCA and mundane resumes if you’d like) to the Gazette email at Tell us about yourself and why you would like to be a Gazette editor. We’d love to hear from you!

Categories: SCA news sites

The AEthelmearc 300!!!

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-09-02 13:04

Greetings unto the Populace of AEthelmearc from Master Anias Fenne! As the memories of War begin to fade, and the weather begins to turn cooler, let us not let our learned skills fade or our fire and passion for the fight begin to cool and sputter as well. As such, I am announcing the beginning of a Kingdom wide, long, tournament series designed to test your mettle, prowess, and persistence. I introduce to you…. The AEthelmearc 300!!!

Per the rules listed below, the shortest time that this tournament series can take will be over the course of two years, with the possibility of it being longer. There will be copious prizes awarded over the course of the series, with the ultimate final prize to be more than worth the effort! So please join in and test your self against the best this kingdom has to offer.

The first leg will be held at the approaching Harvest Raid in the Shire of Heronter on Sept. 30th. The more participants we have, the better the prizes, and First prize for this leg will be a handmade steel buckler crafted by myself! So come, join us, and let us work together as a kingdom to test each other and hone our prowess!

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

The Aethelmearc 300 (AE300) is an on-going rapier tournament series to be hosted three times a year at various events through out the Kingdom of AEthelmearc. Each leg of the tournament lasts until the first person reaches fifty points or the allotted time has elapsed. All fighting will immediately cease at that time. There will be significant prizes awarded for each individual leg of the series, with the number of prizes dependant on the number of fighters.

The AEthelmearc 300 will end when one fighter emerges from the list with three hundred points. There will be prizes for the top several finishers in the overall standings, and the top prize has yet to be officially confirmed… but let me assure you, it will be a prize worth fighting for!


  1. The tournament must have a minimum of six fighters to be held.
  2. There will be one list per 8 fighters.
  3. There will be one prize awarded for each list in the leg of the tournament series.
  4. Chivalric behavior is expected at all times during the tournament. MIC has the right to remove a fighter from a leg of the tournament for infractions of the rules.
  5. A win is 1 point. No points for losing.
  6. Winner holds the list until defeated or a double kills occurs.
  7. Wounds are retained.
  8. Double kills = no points and both fighters retire from the list.
  9. All defeats will be reported to the MOL immediately before returning to the queue.
  10. Knocking down list ropes, poles, etc. more than twice is a loss.

If no fighter reaches 50 points at an event there is no winner and no prize is given. Points will still be tallied and added to any previous points earned.

Any questions or comments may be directed to the AEthelmearc 300 Coordinator: Master Anias Fenne at:

Categories: SCA news sites

Chancellor Minor Application Deadline Extended

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-09-01 18:58

Greetings to the Populace of the East Kingdom,

While I have loved serving the youth and families of the East these past four years, my time as Chancellor Minor is coming to the end, and I am still seeking a successor. The deadline for application for the position has been extended to September 15th.

What does the Chancellor Minor do, you ask? Well, according to Kingdom Law:

10. The Kingdom Chancellor Minor:
a. Assists parents of children in integrating children’s activities into local and Kingdom events. The Kingdom Chancellor Minor will not be responsible for, nor in any way encourage autocrats or the Society to provide, baby-sitting services.
b. Prepares, maintains, and disseminates such materials as further the objectives of the Office.
c. Works with the Kingdom Chatelaine in accomplishing these goals.
d. Encourages youth in the culture and customs of the Society.
e. Works with the Kingdom Youth Earl Marshal and the Kingdom Youth Rapier Marshal to coordinate youth martial activities.

In addition, with the help of a deputy, the Youth Clerk, the Chancellor Minor is responsible for making sure that all those who work with youth are properly warranted and background checked through society.

The candidate for this job should be someone who:
– Enjoys working with both children and adults
– Communicates well via email and in person
– Has basic spreadsheet and document skills
– Has or is eligible for an SCA background check
– Has approximately 2 hours per week to dedicate to reaching out to seneschals, deputies, and youth officers about activities, initiatives, and answering any questions.
– Can fulfill the duties of kingdom officers laid out in EK Law section E.

In order to apply, candidates are asked to submit a letter of intent to myself, the Prince and Princess, and the East Kingdom Seneschal. Ideally, an SCA resume and and modern resume would be included. Any questions can be directed to me at

Yours in Service,
Mistress Leonete D’Angely

Filed under: Announcements, Youth Activities

Cast Iron Chef Competition Needs Volunteers

AEthelmearc Gazette - Fri, 2017-09-01 17:04

Greetings from the Cast Iron Chef coordinators!

Every year, we rely on many hands to keep the tournament running smoothly, and this year is no different. If you are so inclined, we are looking for volunteers to assist us with the following tasks:

  • Setting up the pantry shelter, judges’ area, and wash station (preferably done Friday evening)
  • Digging the fire trench (preferably Friday evening, but Saturday morning/afternoon is fine, too)
  • Building the initial fire for cooking (Sunday morning)
  • Running fire wood when we get low (Sunday)
  • Putting pantry items out on shelves (Sunday morning)
  • Monitoring the water cooler to make sure it stays full (Sunday)

The event is scheduled for Shoot in the Wildwood, September 1 @ 5:00 pm – September 4 @ 11:00 am, in the Barony of Delftwood.

Please let me and/or Sebastian know if you think you can help us out in any way to get the tournament ready for our cooks. Thank you so much in advance!

THL Lijsbet

Categories: SCA news sites

Announcement of a new Badger Herald / Annonce d’un nouveau Héraut Badger

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-09-01 13:55

En français

Unto the Populace of the East, and specifically the Crown Principality of Tir Mara, does Malcolm Brigantia send greetings.

I want to announce a change in officers for the Crown Principality.  I have appointed to the role of Badger Herald, the Tir Mara Regional Deputy and primary point of heraldic contact for the Crown Principality, Behi Kirsa Oyutai.  We have worked together numerous times, and I know she is passionate about her work, and enthusiastic to serve.  I am looking forward to Kirsa’s new service to the Kingdom and Crown Principality.  This appointment is effective as of this missive.

I want to take a moment to thank the outgoing Badger Herald, Lord Diarmaid O Briain, for his service.

The East Kingdom College of Heralds continues to be one of the finest in the Knowne World, and I have outstanding deputies who make it so.  Thank you all for your continued hard work.

Malcolm Bowman, Brigantia Principal Herald

En français – traduit par Behi Kirsa Oyutai

À la population du Royaume de l’Est, et spécifiquement aux gens de la Principauté de Couronne de Tir Mara, moi, Malcom Brigantia, envoie mes salutations.

Je désire annoncer un changement parmi les officiers de la Principauté de Couronne. J’ai nommé au rôle de Héraut Badger, le Député Régionnal de Tir Mara et premier point de contact héraldique pour la Principauté de Couronne, Behi Kirsa Oyutai. Nous avons travaillé ensemble de nombreuses fois, et je sais qu’elle est passionnée par cette tâche et enthousiaste de servir. J’ai très hâte de constater les accomplissements de Kirsa dans son nouveau rôle au service du Royaume et de la Principauté de Couronne. Ce changement est effectif immédiatement.

Je souhaite prendre un moment afin de remercier le Héraut Badger sortant, Seigneur Diarmaid O Briain, pour son service.

Le Collège des Hérauts du Royaume de l’Est continue d’être un des plus renommé dans le Monde Connu, grâce aux excellents députés me secondant. Merci à vous tous pour votre continuel travail acharné.

En Service,
Malcom Bowman, Héraut Principal Brigantia

Filed under: Announcements, En français, Heraldry Tagged: brigantia, herald, Tir Mara

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #21: Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical “Offset” Lacing on Front-Laced Women’s Gowns in Western Europe, 1450s-1550s

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-09-01 09:42

Our twenty-first Research Paper comes to us from Lady Elena Hylton of the Barony of Carolingia. She examines over 100 paintings to explore the question of how lacing holes on women’s gowns were arranged over the course of a century – and discovers a surprising difference from the conventional wisdom!  (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical “Offset” Lacing on Front-Laced Women’s Gowns in Western Europe, 1450s-1550s

Style of Domenico Ghirlandaio. Costanza Caetani. 1480-90, London, The National Gallery.

Table of Contents

Lacing is perhaps the most common type of clothing closure seen in the later medieval/early renaissance period in Western Europe and is used frequently in modern recreations of women’s historic clothing. However, lacing holes can be spaced along a garment in two ways, symmetrical or asymmetrical (also called “offset”)

Figure 1. Two arrangements of lacing holes. Image courtesy of Lady Elena Hylton.

Spiral lacing (where a single lace is wound in a spiral through the lacing holes) is a popular method seen throughout the medieval period and later, but many people also assume that the only method to secure such lacing is by offsetting the lacing holes (asymmetrical lacing). This offset arrangement is often thought to be the only “period” option for lacing and is frequently cited in modern costuming blogs and clothing texts as the best method. The Medieval Tailor’s article “Kirtles 3 – Lacing” states that “You will notice that the holes are staggered with the exception of the first and last holes.” [1] One book claiming to describe all of Tudor women’s dresses states that “It is also worth looking at the alignment of those eyelets. They are not parallel across the opening, but staggered; they are not designed to be laced across like shoes, but in one long continuous spiral.” [2] This equivalency of spiral lacing and offset/asymmetric lacing holes is very common in popular advice, and most likely caused the belief that because spiral lacing does seem to be one of the most common forms of lacing in many periods that therefore all women’s lacing in the renaissance period should be offset. While the occasional modern text does show spiral lacing with symmetrical lacing holes (such as Thursfield’s Medieval Tailor’s Assistant) these seem to be in the minority, with the conventional advice to be that all lacing should be offset. [3]

Figure 2. Vittore Crivelli. Madonna and Child with Two Angels. 1481–82. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Looking at paintings in several periods, this popular advice did not seem to fit with what I observed as many paintings seemed to show spiral or other types of lacing (such as ladder lacing) across symmetrical holes, as in Crivelli’s Madonna and Child with Two Angels (fig. 2) (see fig. 3 for images of different types of lacing seen in paintings of the period).

Figure 3. Four types of lacing. Image courtesy of Lady Elena Hylton.

I decided to conduct an analysis of Western European paintings from the 1450s-1550s to determine the frequency of symmetrical versus asymmetrical lacing styles on women’s front-laced gowns. I selected the time period as that was where I originally noticed the disconnect between the advice and the paintings, and because it covers a wide range of styles of gowns (“Cranach” gowns, multiple Italian styles with substantial variations, Tudor, and more across all of Western Europe) which had all been grouped together under the umbrella of “medieval and renaissance” and therefore assumed to be offset. Out of a sample of 101 paintings showing such gowns, asymmetric lacing holes/rings, while often present, were substantially less common than generally assumed.

To achieve an unbiased sample set I examined the works of approximately five hundred European artists from 1450-1559 across various online catalogs and museum galleries, including the National Gallery of Art (US), the Colonna Gallery of Rome, the Victoria & Albert museum, the National Gallery (UK), LACMA, the Rijksmuseum, and others. I searched for paintings based on time period and location and then manually determined if the paintings met my criteria (listed below). To ensure unbiased results, I did not use any examples I have found outside of those I came across using this method. While this meant that I excluded many paintings I know of showing front lacing, I believed that adding individual paintings could alter the results. By limiting the paintings counted to only ones found from the full collections, I believe the results show a representative sample set of the frequency of the various lacing styles in period.

I searched collections by time period (1450-1559), by object type (painting), and location (Europe) and then went through the results and logged paintings when they met the following criteria [4]:

  1. Female subjects
  2. Lacing appeared to run at minimum from bust to waist.
  3. Lacing was visible and in the center of the front of the dress.

Out of my initial set of approximately five thousand paintings, this left me with 101 paintings across the 109 year span of time, for an average of 9.266 paintings per decade (see Appendix for full list of paintings analyzed). I then organized the paintings by decade and by lacing style. I did not sort the paintings by location as while that is an essential factor to determine if an individual gown from a specific time and place is more likely to have been symmetrically vs. asymmetrically laced, this project was looking at overall trends in popular Western European culture. [5] While I did not purposefully exclude any paintings on the grounds of them showing allegorical scenes (which often may not show fashions actually worn in period), the majority of clearly allegorical scenes showed looser, draped clothing and therefore were automatically excluded by not showing front-lacing women’s gowns. Likewise, it is true that paintings are not photographs and should not always be assumed to be exact representations of the actual clothing worn in period. However, there is clearly a large number of highly detailed paintings showing visible depictions of the lacing going through symmetrically-spaced holes seen across multiple schools and styles of art and following the trends in the changing fashions (see figs. 2, 5-9). Especially for times and places where no extant gowns exist, examining detailed paintings seems to be the best method for determining an accurate historical recreation.

Figure 5. Giorgio Schiavone. Detail of The Virgin and Child. 1456-60. London, The National Gallery.

Figure 6. Hans Memling. Triptych of Adriaan Reins (detail of central panel). 1480. Bruges, Memling Museum.

Figure 7. Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy. Detail of Virgin Surrounded by Female Saints. 1488. Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts.

Figure 8. Domenico Ghirlandaio. Portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni. 1488. Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza.

Figure 9. Style of Domenico Ghirlandaio. Costanza Caetani. 1480-90, London, The National Gallery.

Different lacing looks (the lines created by the lacing cord) can be created depending on if the lacing holes/rings are symmetrical versus asymmetrical, and depending on the method of lacing used (spiral, ladder, or other), so I analysed both the lines created by the lacing as well as the relative position of any visible lacing holes/rings on the garment (see fig. 3 above). [6]                                        

Figure 10. Percentage of Lacing Styles, 1450s-1550s. Image courtesy of Lady Elena Hylton.

Out of the 101 paintings meeting my criteria, 62 showed symmetrical lacing, 23 showed asymmetrical, and the remaining 16 were unclear. This shows a clear trend towards favoring symmetrically laced options overall, contrary to the prevailing idea that offset lacing was the preferred method throughout the entire medieval and renaissance periods. 

Individual decades varied dramatically however. Breaking down the number of paintings by  decade we see several trends emerge.                                                        

Figure 11. Frequency of lacing styles by decade. Image courtesy of Lady Elena Hylton.

Asymmetrical lacing does make up the majority of examples found in the 1450s and 60s, but from 1470 onwards the trend veers substantially towards favoring symmetrically laced gowns overall (see fig. 4 for numerical data).

Decade Symmetrical Asymmetrical Unclear Total Results 1450s 1 3 0 4 1460s 1 2 1 4 1470s 8 1 5 14 1480s 16 3 0 19 1490s 9 2 3 14 1500s 7 2 0 9 1510s 5 1 2 8 1520s 6 6 3 15 1530s 4 3 2 9 1540s 2 0 0 2 1550s 3 0 0 3

Figure 12. Frequency of Paintings Showing Front Lacing Gowns by Decade

It is interesting to note that this change occurs when the gowns go from being laced completely closed (as seen in the medieval fitted gowns up to the 1450s/60s, fig. 5) to the style where the lacing is often left open, revealing the layer below (seen mostly in the 1470s and later, fig. 6). You do see a resurgence of asymmetrical lacing in the 1520s and 1530s where it matches or comes close to the frequency of symmetrical, but it then dies out again by the 1540s.

Figure 13. Total Paintings Found Showing Visibly Front Laced Gowns. Image courtesy Lady Elena Hylton.

While the paintings are not broken down by location, these trends do tend to be somewhat consistent across both the Italian and Northern Renaissance schools, despite the differences in gown styles. For example, in the 1480s Italian fashion shows a distinct style quite different from the Northern European style regarding waist seams, waist height, and sleeve style, with the Northern European styles sharing more similarities with the 1460s and prior styles. However, both fashions do see a switch to predominantly symmetrical lacing in the 1480s as seen in the works of the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy and Hans Memling (both considered Northern European painters) as well as many paintings by Domenico Ghirlandaio, Vittore Crivelli, and Sandro Botticelli (of the Italian school) (see fig. 6).

In conclusion, while asymmetrical lacing is certainly a documentable option for many styles of gowns in the 1450s-1550s, it is by no means the only period option, nor even the most common option of lacing hole placement seen in extant paintings of the period. The overwhelming numbers, 62 examples of symmetrical to 23 examples of asymmetrical (especially considering the absence of enough extant gowns to have a similarly large sample size for study), refute the commonly held belief that “offset is best” for the entire late SCA period in Western Europe.


  1.  Cynthia Long, “Kirtles 3 – Lacing,” The Medieval Tailor, accessed January 9, 2017,
  2. Ruth Goodman, How to be a Tudor: A Dawn-to-Dusk Guide to Tudor Life (New York: Liveright, 2015), 21.
  3. Sarah Thursfield, The Medieval Tailor’s Assistant (Marlborough: Ruth Bean Publishers, 2001), 54.
  4. Not all collections allow their online catalog to be searched automatically for all of these categories. When such automatic sorting of search results was not possible I determined if the paintings met the criteria manually through a broader search of the catalog.
  5. There were several reasons for this. Not all museums detailed the location of the artist beyond “Europe” or “Northern Renaissance,” and also there is sometimes a disconnect between the painter’s native home and the location where the painting was found. As such, trying to break down the 109 paintings by location as well seemed like it would require too many personal judgements to be valid. As the popular advice is not generally limited by location, I choose not to break my results down by location either.
  6. Many of the paintings I initially examined do not show visible front lacing on women’s gowns, especially in certain periods. In several instances the vast majority of women in paintings from a decade did not have visible front lacing. This project was designed to examine the frequency of symmetrical versus asymmetrical front lacing options and did not count any gowns not showing visible front lacing.

[Back to top]


Crivelli, Vittore. Madonna and Child with Two Angels. 1481–82. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Ghirlandaio, Domenico. Portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni. 1488. Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza.

Goodman, Ruth. How to be a Tudor: A Dawn-to-Dusk Guide to Tudor Life. New York: Liveright, 2015.

Long, Cynthia. “Kirtles 3 – Lacing.” The Medieval Tailor. Accessed January 9, 2017.

Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy. Virgin Surrounded by Female Saints. 1488. Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts.

Memling, Hans. Triptych of Adriaan Reins (central panel). 1480. Bruges, Memling Mseum.

Style of Domenico Ghirlandaio. Costanza Caetani, 1480-90. London, The National Gallery.

Thursfield, Sarah. The Medieval Tailor’s Assistant. Marlborough: Ruth Bean Publishers, 2001.

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Appendix: Full List of Paintings Examined, Listed by Decade and Lacing Style


Cosmè Tura, Terpsichore, 1450s

Jean Fouquet, Melun Diptych: Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels, 1452
Cosmè Tura, A Muse, Calliope, 1455-60
Giorgio Schiavone, The Virgin and Child, 1456-60


Giovanni Bellini, Portrait of a Woman, 1450 – 1470

Cosmè Tura, Pietà, 1460
Piero della Francesca, Madonna del Parto, 1460s

Francesco Benaglio, Virgin and Child, 1465. Symmetrical, but may be hooks of some sort instead of lacing rings.


Workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio, Madonna and Child, 1470
Piero della Francesca, Madonna of Senigallia, 1474
Sandro Botticelli, Portrait of a Young Woman, 1475
Attributed to Domenico Ghirlandaio, Lucrezia Tornabuoni, 1475
Andrea del Verrocchio, Madonna and Child, 1470-1480
Master of the Prado Adoration of the Magi, The Presentation in the Temple, 1470-1480 Though challenging to see, the young, shorter girl in the back shows symmetrical lacing when viewed closely.
Master of the Legend of Saint Ursula, Legend of St Ursula, the Church and the Synagogue, 1475-82
Master of the Saint Godelieve Legend, The Life and Miracles of Saint Godelieve, 4th quarter 15th century

Domenico Ghirlandaio, Announcement of Death to St Fina, 1473-75

Master of the Life of the Virgin, Visitation, 1470. Under close inspection of a high resolution photo, the gown of the woman in red to the far right appears to be symmetrical, but the image is not clear enough to determine it with certainty.
Master of the Life of the Virgin, The Birth of Mary, 1470 Front lacing is visible but it is unclear if symmetrical or asymmetrical.
Carlo Crivelli, Altarpiece for the Cathedral at Ascoli Piceno: Madonna and Child, 1473 Closures are symmetrical, but may not be lacing.
Leonardo da Vinci, Portrait of Ginevra de’ Benci, 1474-78. This is debated if it shows symmetrical or asymmetrical due to the 3/4 profile causing the image to be seen at an angle.
Sandro Botticelli, Profile Portrait of a Young Lady (Simonetta Vespucci?), 1476. Appears to be symmetrical lacing, but could also be trim.


Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy, Legend of St Lucy, 1480
Hans Memling, Triptych of Adriaan Reins (central panel), 1480
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Portrait of a Young Woman, 1480s
Vittore Crivelli, Madonna and Child with Two Angels, 1481–82
Vittore Crivelli, Enthroned Virgin and Child, with Angels and Saints Bonaventure, John the Baptist, Louis of Toulouse, and Francis of Assisi, 1482
Sandro Botticelli, Venus and the Three Graces Presenting Gifts to a Young Woman, 1483-1486
Both the woman in green and the woman in white show straight lines of lacing across the bust.
Hans Memling, Triptych of the Family Moreel (right wing), 1484
Antoniazzo Romano, Annunciation, 1485
Style of Domenico Ghirlandaio, Costanza Caetani, 1480-90,
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Study, 1486
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Birth of Mary, 1486-90. Entered under asymmetrical as well because both styles are seen.
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Marriage of Mary, 1486-90
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Birth of St John the Baptist, 1486-90. While the front-laced gowns are all either symmetrically laced or not visible, there is a side laced gown that is offset.
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Herod’s Banquet, 1486-90
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni, 1488
Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy, Virgin Surrounded by Female Saints, 1488

Master of the Baroncelli Portraits, Baroncelli Portraits, 1480-1490
Hans Memling, Diptych with the Allegory of True Love, 1485-90
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Birth of Mary, 1486-90. Entered above as well because two women show symmetrical where one other shows asymmetrical.


Crivelli, Carlo, Madonna and Child, 1490. Difficult to see, but the lacing is clearly spiral laced through symmetrical holes upon close examination.
Davide Ghirlandaio, Portrait of Selvaggia Sassetti, 1490
Alunno Niccolo’, Our Lady of Succour, 1490
Workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio, Portrait of a Girl, 1490
Lorenzo Costa, Portrait of a Woman with a Pearl Necklace, 1490
Carlo Crivelli, Saint Catherine of Alexandria, 1491-4
Bernardino del Signoraccio, Madonna Enthroned with Saints, 1495
Sandro Botticelli, Judith with the Head of Holofernes, 1497-1500
Juan de Flandes, Portrait of Joan the Mad, 1496-1500

Agnolo di Domenico Mazziere, Portrait of a Young Woman, 1490
Master of the Virgo inter Virgines, Virgin and Child with Sts Catherine, Cecilia, Barbara, and Ursula, 1490

Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna Litta, 1490-91. This shows two sets of symmetrical lacing over the breasts, one of which is unlaced allowing Mary to nurse. An interesting concept.
Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis, Portrait of a Woman in Profile, 1495-9. While there is front lacing, it cannot be seen if it is symmetrical or asymmetrical.
Juan de Flandes, Herodias’ Revenge, 1496. This may be front laced, but it also may be trim on the center front of the bodice.


Gentile Bellini, Portrait of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus, 1500
Bernardino di Betto (Pinturicchio), No. 5: Enea Silvio Piccolomini Presents Frederick III to Eleonora of Portugal, 1502
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (Raphael), Portrait of Maddalena Doni, 1506
Andrea Solario, Salome with the Head of Saint John the Baptist, 1507-09
Girolamo di Benvenuto, Portrait of a Young Woman, 1508
Lucas van Leyden, Card Players, 1508-10
Francesco di Cristofano (Franciabigio), Head of the Madonna, 1509

Unknown artist, Profile bust of a lady facing left, 1500.
Follower of Jan Gossaert (Jean Gossart), The Magdalen, early 16th century


Master of the Holy Blood, Lucretia, 1500-1520
Anonymous, Woman with Unicorn, 1510
Vittore Carpaccio, Portrait of a Young Woman, 1510
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Portraits of Henry IV of Saxony and Catherine of Mecklenburg, 1514. Only visible under extreme magnification, but the lacing is clearly symmetrical when examined closely.
Hans Holbein the Younger, Portrait of the Artist’s Wife, 1517

Lucas Cranach the Elder, A Princess of Saxony, 1517

Lorenzo Lotto, Judith with the Head of Holofernes, 1512. Due to the position of the front lacing it cannot be determined if it is symmetrical or asymmetrical.
Hans Holbein the Elder, Portrait of a Woman, 1518-20. The front lacing could be interpreted either way due to the 3/4 profile putting everything on a slant.


Andrea Solario, Salome with the Head of Saint John the Baptist, 1520-24 (the artist had painted a similar work by the same name approximately 15 years earlier).
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Ill-Matched Couple: Young Man and Old Woman, 1520-22
Jan Mostaert, The Expulsion of Hagar, 1520-1525
Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Bocca della Verità, 1525-27
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Ill-Matched Couple: Young Widow and Old Man, 1525-30
Workshop of Master of the Magdalen Legend, The Magdalen Weeping, 1525

Lucas Cranach the Elder, Portrait of a Young Woman, 1522
Bernardino Licino, Portrait of a Woman, 1524
Attributed to Francesco Torbido, The Holy Family with Saint Catherine, 1525
Paris Bordone, The Venetian Couple in Love, 1525-30
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Ill-Matched Couple: Peasant and Prostitute, 1525-30
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther and Katharina von Bora, 1526

Lucas Cranach the Elder, Portrait of a Woman, 1525
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Portrait of a Woman, 1526
Jan Provost, The Coronation of the Virgin, 1524. This could be symmetrical lacing, but it could also be trim.


Girolamo da Santacroce, Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1530s
Ambrosius Benson, Virgin Mother, active 1520s-1540s. You can actually see the ladder lacing used here as the ladders are done on the outside.
Lorenzo Lotto, Portrait of a Lady as Lucretia, 1530-32
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Saxon Princesses Sibylla, Emilia and Sidonia, 1535. Also listed under asymmetrical as both lacing styles are seen here.

Lucas Cranach the Elder, Ill-Matched Couple: Young Girl and Old Man, 1530
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Portrait of a Young Woman, 1530
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Saxon Princesses Sibylla, Emilia and Sidonia, 1535. Also listed under symmetrical as both lacing styles are seen here.

Lucas Cranach the Elder, Portrait of Princess Maria of Saxony, 1534
Master of the Female Half-Lengths, Three Musicians, 1530. While under close observation this appears to be symmetrical (the top lacing runs parallel to the trim), the arm cutting across provides enough room for doubt that I am not counting it.


Lorenzo Lotto, Portrait of Giovanni della Volta with his Wife and Children, 1547
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Portrait of a Young Girl, 1540

Asymmetrical: None


Paris Bordone, Portrait of a Woman, 1550s
Tiziano Vecellio, Girl with a Fan, 1556
Follower of Titian, Portrait of a Woman (perhaps Pellegrina Morosini Capello), 1558-62

Asymmetrical: None

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Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

Dark Ages Skola: Classes, Adult & Youth A&S

AEthelmearc Gazette - Thu, 2017-08-31 22:26

Was your Pennsic schedule so jam-packed that you couldn’t get to as many classes as you’d have liked?

If so, set aside Saturday, September 23, and plan to attend the Dark Ages Skóla, hosted by the Dominion of Myrkfaelinn.

What have we planned thus far?

  • TWO keynote speakers:  The Anglo-Saxon Mead Hall in Political and Social Life,  by Algirdas Wolthus and Dismantling Musiaphobia: learning to approach museum collections with confidence, by Patrikia Maria Agrissa Sgourina.
  • lunch by Hrolfr á Fjárfelli and Algirdas Wolthus; we’re aiming for mostly period and definitely yummy, as always!
  • hands-on cooking classes as well as make-and-take clothing and accessories classes
  • classes geared for beginners as well as experienced artisans

Current class list is:


  • “The Anglo-Saxon Mead Hall in Political and Social Life” — by Algirdas Wolthus. Algirdas has been active in the SCA since the 1980s, resident in Myrkfaelinn for the majority of that time. Mundanely, Scott D. Stull is a Ph.D. archaeologist with a focus on medieval western Europe. He has presented on the built environment of medieval Europe at national and international conferences. He is also an experimental archaeologist, replicating medieval ceramics, food, and drink including mead.
  • “Dismantling Musiaphobia: learning to approach museum collections with confidence” — by Patrikia Maria Agrissa Sgourina. Maria, herself a life-long stitcher, is interested in embroidery styles that span the centuries, from early- to late-period. She received her Laurel in 2004 for her research, especially in Byzantine and Sassanid clothing and culture before the year 1000 CE.
  • The Anglo-Saxon Mead Hall in Political and Social Life
  • Bone Pins of the Viking Age
  • Brocaded Tablet Weaving
  • Combalot: A Brief Look at Early Period Combs
  • Dark Ages Manuscript Illuminations
  • Dark Ages Shields
  • Fiber Prep for Handspinners & Felters
  • Inshoku – Food and Food Culture of Early Japan
  • Isho – Clothing the Nobility in Early Japan
  • What the Irish Ate.
  • The Irish Bardic Tradition.
  • Irish Illumination.
  • Irish Calligraphy.
  • Medieval Dairy Products
  • Poetry from Njal’s Saga.
  • Roman Fibula make and take.
  • Dress like a Roman.
  • Spin like the Romans & their Allies
  • The Settlement of Iceland.
  • Support Spindling
  • Survey of Norse Women’s Aprons
  • Skjoldehamn Hood and Dark Ages Embroidery
  • Tarsoly – the Rus Belt Pouch
  • Thorsberg Trousers: Pants that Last!
  • Thorsberg Trousers: Make-and-Take
  • Viking Period Swords
  • Viking Quivers from Hedeby
  • Viking Treasure Necklaces and Women’s “Bling”
  • Vinegaroon – Never Dye Leather Again!

And more classes keep being added!

Several classes, including the Skjoldehamn Hood and Dark Ages Embroidery, the Thorsberg Trousers: Make-and-Take, and the Viking Treasure Necklaces and Women’s Bling are “make and take” classes;  if you want to learn to make your own creations while enjoying experienced guidance, now is your change!

To help our teachers coming from close, and afar, Myrkfaelinn will host a silent auction to split between the Dominions’ coffers and a Teacher’s Travel Fund.

The Dark Ages Skóla will be hosting an A&S Display and Youth A&S Tournament. With only three more weeks to go, it is time to shrug off that Pennsic glow and start on your next best project!

The Youth A&S Tournament will be held in the common room. Please drop off your entry and documentation in the morning for display during the day. At the end of the afternoon, before the Silent Auction, please join your entry to show & tell the judges, followed by a most anticipated pick of (donated) gift.

The Dark Age A&S Display will also be held in the common room. Please drop off and display in the morning, to pick up at closing. We would love to see your Dark Age inspired (work-in-progress) projects (half page documentation appreciated), but honestly, anything goes!

Additional information about the event can be found on the Kingdom website as well as on Facebook.

The event is at a new event site: First Presbyterian Church of Ithaca, 315 N. Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850.

 Hope to see you there! THL Elska á Fjárfelli

Categories: SCA news sites

Entering Crown Tournament?

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-08-30 11:10

Greetings unto all those intending to enter Fall Crown Tournament,

Please be aware that both the combatant and the consort must submit a letter of intent, either through the following link (preferred) or by email to TRH Prince Ivan and Princess Matilde with a copy to the Kingdom Seneschal. Joint letters are preferred if you are using the following link, or if you are using email.

The Letter of Intent must be received by Coronation, October 7, 2017.

If using email, the letters of intent must include all of the following information for both combatant and consort: Society name, legal name, address, telephone number, years of residency and be accompanied by proof of membership with membership number & expiration date that is valid at least thirty days after Crown. If both entrants are combatants, then that should be clearly indicated.

TRHs also request that combatants bring heraldic shields for the list trees.

In Service to the East, I remain

Dueña Mercedes Vera de Calafia
Seneschal, East Kingdom

Filed under: Events Tagged: Crown Tournament

From Their Highnesses Regarding Crown Tourney

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2017-08-29 09:46

Our Kingdom will soon need heirs.

As per kingdom law listed below, anyone wishing to enter Crown Tournament must submit the information requested below, 30 days prior to Crown Tournament.

Our Crown Tournament takes place on October 7, 2017. That means we must have received your letter of intent by no later than September 8, 2017. We hope to have a strong list with many strong and noble champions fighting to honor those they find inspiration in. There are no special weapon or shield requirements.

Letters of Intent can be sent by email to and, or by snail mail to:

Samuel and Debra Cale
915 Johnson Ave.
Bridgeport, WV 26330

TRH Gareth and Juliana

Article III: CROWN
Entrants in this section of Law are defined as the combatant and consort entering Crown Tournament.
All entrants in the Crown Tournament must be members of the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.
All entrants in the Crown Tournament must be 18 years of age or older as of the date of Crown Tournament.
The withdrawal of either entrant from the Crown Lists shall automatically eliminate both from that Tournament, except as provided below in paragraph III -1100. Either may withdraw at any point in the Tournament by notifying the Minister of the Lists.
In order to be eligible to fight or be fought for in Crown Tournament, a person must be a subject (as defined in Corpora) of Æthelmearc for one year immediately prior to Crown Tournament and be able to demonstrate a reasonable level of participation in Æthelmearc during that period. The Crown may waive the above requirements if the entrants are subjects of the Kingdom and able to demonstrate to the Crown’s satisfaction by their own words or by recommendation of peers of the Kingdom that they have sufficient familiarity with Kingdom Law and customs and an acceptable level of participation.
Letters of intent must be sent to the Crown.They must include the following elements for both entrants:

  • SCA names
  • Legal names
  • Addresses
  • Telephone numbers
  • E-mail addresses
  • Proofs of membership
  • Age (proof to be supplied at Crown Tournament)
  • Proof of current authorization for Combatants

To facilitate complete letters of intent, a form is available on the Kingdom website as well as from the Crown and the Seneschal on request. Prospective entrants are encouraged but not required to use this form to ensure a complete letter. Letters of Intent must be mailed, e-mailed, or hand-delivered to the Crown no later than 30 days prior to the Crown.

The Laws of the Kingdom of Æthelmearc, September 25th, 2016

The Kingdom Seneschal shall verify eligibility as defined in the Bylaws and Corpora.
No person shall enter the Crown Tournament without intending an honorable attempt to compete for the Crown.At the discretion of the Royalty whose Crown it is, the Kingdom Officers who administer Crown may step aside and have their emergency deputy administer the Tourney, so they may enter. In the event a Kingdom Officer should win Crown, the Law regarding Emergency Deputies and office succession will apply.
The entrants must be acceptable to the Crown or Their representatives.
No person fighting in or being fought for in Crown Tournament may administer the Crown Tournament.
Any two people may champion each other in the Crown Lists (hereinafter referred to as a combatant couple) so long as neither is championed by any other person.
If one member of a combatant couple is removed from the Crown Lists for marshallate infractions or any infractions of the Rules of the Lists, both members are ineligible to continue in that Crown Tournament. If one member of a combatant couple voluntarily withdraws as a combatant in the Lists, the MOL and Marshal will confer with the withdrawing member to determine if they are also withdrawing as consort or if the other member may continue in the Lists. If the participant withdraws both as fighter and consort, both shall be ineligible to continue in that Crown Tournament.
The preferred method of Crown Tournament is a double-elimination format.
The winner of the Crown Tournament and the winner’s consort become the new Heirs to the Throne of Æthelmearc. They are each entitled to the Title of Crown Prince or Crown Princess, as appropriate to the individual’s persona.
Upon ascending to the Throne, They may rightfully be acknowledged as Monarch and Consort with alternate Titles as appropriate to the dignity of the Throne.

Categories: SCA news sites

Ansteorra Begins Collecting Donations/PayPal for Victims of Hurricane Harvey

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2017-08-28 17:23

This post has been shared by request from the Ansteorra Gazette, where updates and specific requests will be posted.

Greetings from Ansteorra!

As everyone knows, The Kingdom has been visited by Hurricane Harvey.  It has ravaged our coastline and many of our Baronies and Shires in that group have taken more than 20” of rain with more on the way.  Many people have evacuated, and some are still in the process of being evacuated.  It will be some time before we know the full extent of the damage Harvey has left.

Their Majesties, their Highnesses, and their Excellencies Bonwicke, their Excellencies Elfsea, and their Excellencies Steppes, and the autocrat of Braggart’s War this weekend have been very gracious in allowing me to place a collection container at the gate table to collect gift cards and cash for the victims of this storm. Please do not bring stuff. We are not ready to accept donations other than gift cards or cash, there is nowhere to store the stuff (the rain is still falling and everyone is still evacuated).  We will do another collection for this at a later time.

At this point, we are going to limit donations to gift cards, cash, and PayPal donations. Once people have returned to their homes and begun to assess the damage, we will begin to start a list (physical and amazon wish-type) of “stuff” that needs to be replaced, but we will only do that once the rain has stopped, Harvey has left, and they have a place to put it.

The only monies in the PayPal account are relief funds. Any cash received will be added to the PayPal account for accounting/accountability purposes. It is not an SCA affiliated account, nor are the donations tax deductible. All monies need to be given by individuals to help those who want to help those affected. All donations will be used to help the affected, and any excess money (after the tornado, we split all monies equitably, and I foresee this being the same situation with no excess) will be given equally to Red Cross, Salvation Army, TX Food Bank, and the Humane Society.

We could also use gift cards to help fill immediate needs and help with clean-up. The best gift cards are Generic Visa/MC, Wal-Mart, Target, Home Depot, Lowe’s, HEB, PetCo, and other big box stores.

Donations can be sent to the PayPal address

Mail (and gift card) donations can be sent to me:

Brandy Merrell
629 Unbridled Lane

Keller, TX 76248

I will send them on to where they will be most helpful.

Anyone can feel free to contact me for more information or clarification:

In Service,

Lady Marion inghean ui Ruanadha
DRC Ansteorra

Filed under: Tidings Tagged: Ansteorra, disaster relief

Aid for Ansteorran victims of Hurricane Harvey

AEthelmearc Gazette - Mon, 2017-08-28 15:45

The Disaster Relief Coordinator for the Kingdom of Ansteorra has provided the following information regarding donations to assist victims of Hurricane Harvey.

Greetings from Ansteorra!

As everyone knows, we have been visited by Hurricane Harvey. It has ravaged our coastline and many of our Baronies and Shires in that group have taken over 20” of rain with more on the way. Many people have evacuated, and some are still in the process of being evacuated. It will be some time before we know the full extent of the damage Harvey has left.

At this point, we are going to limit donations to gift cards, cash, and PayPal donations. Once people have returned to their homes and begun to assess the damage, we will begin to start a list (physical and Amazon wish-type) of “stuff” that needs to be replaced, but we will only do that once the rain has stopped, Harvey has left, and they have a place to put it.

The only monies in the PayPal account are relief funds. Any cash received will be added to the PayPal account for accounting/accountability purposes. It is not an SCA-affiliated account, nor are the donations tax deductible. All monies need to be given by individuals to help those who want to help those affected. All donations will be used to help the affected, and any excess money (after the tornado, we split all monies equitably, and I foresee this being the same situation with no excess) will be given equally to Red Cross, Salvation Army, TX Food Bank, and the Humane Society.

We could also use gift cards to help fill immediate needs and help with clean-up. The best gift cards are Generic Visa/MC, Wal-Mart, Target, Home Depot, Lowe’s, HEB, PetCo, and other big box stores.

Donations can be sent to the PayPal address

Mail (and gift card) donations can be sent to me:
Brandy Merrell
629 Unbridled Lane
Keller, TX 76248

I will send them on to where they will be most helpful.

Anyone can feel free to contact me for more information or clarification:

In Service,
Lady Marion inghean ui Ruanadha
DRC Ansteorra

Categories: SCA news sites

A Scribal Journey to a Medieval Monastery

AEthelmearc Gazette - Fri, 2017-08-25 13:26

A Class at Pax Interruptus, by THL Mairghread Stoibheard inghean ui Choinne

A solemn large bell tolls the monks, dressed in clothing unchanged since the 11th century, in from the wheat and rye fields to the handcrafted field stone abbey church. The monastery is called the Abbey of the Genesee, home to the famous “Monk’s Bread” bakery and is located in somewhat of a time warp on a beautiful hilltop above the Genesee River a mere 14 miles from the event site for Pax Interruptus in the Barony of Thescorre.

Gemlike windows of colored glass, icons in the Russian period style, and libraries with an assortment of references on iconography, calligraphy and illumination are a few of the aspects of the monastery eagerly observed by a group of seven gentles attending Pax Interruptus on July 8, A.S. 52.

The Schedule
The schedule for the excursion led by THL Mairghread Stoibheard inghean ui Choinne included:

10: 40 am (after morning court) Depart for Abbey – meet at cook’s tent

11:00 Brother Anthony to give a short talk on the hand sign language still in use at the Abbey for communicating during the “Grand Silence” (omitted due to a later departure)

11:15  Attend Sext (optional) – this is a service where Gregorian Chant is sung by the monks in antiphonal/response mode with the congregation using a psalter that is a copy of hand calligraphed original.  The psalter is for sale at the Abbey book store. (omitted due to a later departure)

11:30 View life sized icon in reception room

11:30 Visit gift ship including the book store and calligraphy and illuminations on display and sold there (you can also purchase Monk’s Bread made at the Abbey for cost and many other baked goods made at the Abbey and products of various Trappist abbeys as well. (Credit cards and checks are accepted)

12:15 View illuminated heraldry in the narthex, review the use of the psalter, view stained glass, solid limestone altar and additional icon in the Abbey church

12:30 lunch – Eat in front of the abbey residence wing – by the pond or in the shade.

1:00 View the life size high-quality reproductions of the medieval manuscripts such as “The Crusaders’ Bible” or ”Morgan Picture Bible” or the “Maciejowski Bible” or the “Shah ‘Abbas Bible” at Bethlehem House

Many thanks to the autocrat, Lady Marguerite III de Neufchâtel, and the Cooks’ Co-ordinator, Baroness  Katja Davidova Orlova Khazarina, and her staff for preparing lunches ahead for the side trip.

The Icons and Illumination References
In the reception area, we were greeted by a stunning, larger than life icon of a saint. The abbey has several icons including one in the church near the tabernacle depicting Mary with the infant Jesus comforting her face with his hand. It is in the style of the icon shown at left named “The Comfort and Consolation of the Theotokos“  from the monastery on Mt. Athos in Greece.

During our last stop at Bethlehem Retreat House in the west library, we were able to view the book “The Treasures of the Monastery of St. Catherine’s“ that included many icons and mosaics as wells as ornate gold mitres (clerical hats) and chalices.

In addition, there were folios of several life size, very high quality reproductions from the “The Crusaders’ Bible” with faux gold gilding. This bible is also known as the ”Morgan Picture Bible” or the “Maciejowski Bible” or the “Shah ‘Abbas Bible”. Several full size folios from “The Book of Kells” were also viewed. The Kells images show how parchment was stitched onto damaged corners to repair certain pages. One of our participants, Mistress Rhiannon y Bwa, explained that these are printers’ samples.

The library includes many historical and some period and primary source references about the monastic movements of St. Bernard and associated art and practices.

The Garb or Habit
It was interesting to observe the garb or “habit” of the porter. The porter is the monk who is permitted to interact with visitors in the reception area since this is a cloistered abbey. The white wool T-Tunic and brown wool tabard with leather belt and sandals are unchanged from the 11th century as shown in this painting Life of St. Bernard of Clairvaux by Joerg Breu the Elder from 1500 C.B.E.

It is common to see the habits worn by the monks mended with darning. Belts and sandals are apt to be quite worn as the Trappists take a lifelong vow of poverty.

The Heraldry
In the narthex leading to the abbey church, the abbey heraldry hangs on the stone wall accompanied by the following description:

“The abbey is signified by the crozier [at top]. The blue and white Marian [signifying Mary] colors indicate that the abbey is dedicated to Mary as is the entire Cistercian of the Strict [or Trappist] Order.

In heraldry, a river is symbolized by a wavy silver band. Here it symbolizes the Genesee River Valley where the abbey is located. The golden wavy lines on each side express golden banks, derived from the Seneca Indian name for the Genesee River Valley.

Three Indian arrowheads on the river recall the Seneca Indians who made the Genesee River Valley their home. They call themselves Tshotinondawage, people of the mountains. The arrowhead are red to further represent  the Seneca Indians and are turned upwards in the militant position to signify defense of their homeland. Above and below is the crescent, a symbol of Our Lady [Mary].                         “

Note that heraldically, a bend from upper left to lower right symbolizes an unmarried male.

The Psalter Calligraphy
The psalter, which is for sale in the shop was copied out by hand at the Abbey. The original was done using India ink with a #2.5 or #3 pen in an unclassified hand, taking four hundred hours over a period of ten months starting in February 1974. It suggests the individual character and is appropriate to the meditative recital in Gregorian Chant of some of the 150 psalms each day in seven different short services (the Divine Office) and underlines the peace and silence the monks seek in prayer.

Meredith Parsons Lillich, Department of Fine Arts, Syracuse University, wrote ”This handsome, austere, Cistercian Psalter was written by one monk over a period of nearly a year. In that time his letter forms gradually and imperceptibly changed, by slight and unconscious refinements. A comparison of his opening pages with his final verses of Psalm 150 would lead a professional paleographer, without hesitation, to attribute the hand to two different scribes. All the rules of the paleographic analysis are broken, since even the most distinctive letters (g, a) have changed in their shapes.  The script of this Cistercian Psalter is thus, in itself, a creation which is orderly, disciplined and unified, yet intricate, complex and growing.”

Calligraphy, Illumination, Baked Goods and Other Shop Wares
Many of the gentles of Thescorre, Delftwood, and the Hael have eaten “Monk’s Bread” baked at this monastery their entire life. Originally all Mink’s Bread was produced here, but due to expansion, now only locally distributed and on-line sales are baked at the abbey bakery on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday mornings. The cost of the bread at the abbey store is reduced by almost 40 percent from grocery store prices. Other Trappist wares are offered including cookies and fruit cakes prepared at the abbey bakery. Micro greens from the cloister garden were also available the day of our visit.

In addition to the extensive book store, illuminations/icons, and calligraphed and illuminated cards and prints of icons are for sale. These artworks were created by a SUNY Geneseo alumni and artist, Minhhang K. Huynh. Minhhang was raised in Vietnam in the Buddhist tradition. She began studying tempera techniques such as fresco and wood panel and crucifix painting in Sienna, Italy in 1994.  Through her work on sacred paintings in the medieval tradition, she became a spiritual student of Rev. Father John Eudes Bamberger, who was abbot of the monastery at the time (He is now one of the handful of brothers who live in hermitages on the west side of River Rd.)

The Architechure and Site
The abbey buildings were begun in 1951 when several monks were sent from the motherhouse, Gethsemani, near Louisville, Ky. to establish the foundation on one-thousand acres of land donated to the Order. The buildings are of post and beam construction with walls of fieldstones mined from the land.

Even the stained glass windows are re-purposed glass.The main door faces east as in the tradition in Western and many Eastern monasteries.

Many of the charter members were WWII veterans who sought the solitude of a simpler lifestyle and opportunity to better the world through their works after their harrowing combat experiences. The bread made at the abbey is donated to many local charities.  Local hunters can be given permission to hunt on the land on the east side of River Rd. which includes part of the Genesee Greenway trail leading to the Genesee River.

Members of our party observed the simple wooden crosses of the cemetery and heard the peals of the great outdoor bell that tolls the times for “Office” in the cloistered enclosure as cars pulled in and out of the parking lot. Similar to the SCA, the abbey is a blend of the modern and mundane with the charm and authenticity of medieval culture carefully preserved and practiced.

This class was not able to get to the abbey in time to hear a talk on the hand sign language still in use at the abbey, or hear the Gregorian chant of a service, but there is interest from Delftwood and Thescorre in a repeat excursion. Anyone can visit the abbey between 2:00 am and 7:00 pm each day of the year.

Although our group ranged from those reared in the Catholic and various protestant and new age traditions, and agnostics, as well as those who have merely been on a personal spiritual journey, all agreed that we left more peaceful, enriched and inspired.



Categories: SCA news sites

Alum Feces–An Unusual Medieval Ingredient

AEthelmearc Gazette - Mon, 2017-08-21 23:32

By THL Elska á Fjárfelli (Susan Verberg)

In period known as alumen faecis, alom de fece, lume di fecca, and lume de fezza, alum feces is an often-mentioned medieval chemical ingredient which, surprisingly, has nothing to do with alum.

Naturally occurring winestone from white wine, untreated. All photos by THL Elska.

Alum of lees (alumen faecis) is potassium carbonate and made by burning the sediments of wine, called lees. During the fermentation of grape juice harmless crystalline deposits separate in wine as crude tartar and are deposited in wine casks. These deposits consist mostly of tartar, the potassium salt of tartaric acid,[1] with small amounts of cream of tartar and of pulp debris, dead yeast, and tannins; impurities which contaminate the potassium tartrate. Tartrates separate from new wines because they are less soluble in alcohol than in non-alcoholic grape juice. Approximately half of the tartrate soluble in grape juice is insoluble in wine, and in white wines the sediment can look alarmingly like shards of glass.[2] Crude tartar was well known during our time of study and is used as an ingredient in many books of secrets dealing with medicinal recipes, fabric cleaning, dyeing, etc.

Unfortunately, while recipes using the ingredients are plenty, instructions on acquiring and purifying chemical ingredients including tartar and its derivatives are rare, up until the late 17th to 18th century as attested by the 1842 A Dispensatory “the pure salt was first prepared during the last [18th] century, and its constitution was unknown [before].”

My impression is that the craftspeople worked things out very well by trial and error, but did not know why certain combinations worked. This could show in the inclusion of superfluous items, ingredients with no apparent use. For instance, juice of celandine has no cleaning properties as far as modern chemistry is aware.

The addition of specific combinations of ingredients (chemicals) would react with each other (chemistry) to create a new ingredient, which would significantly boost the workings of the recipe but without the craftsman knowing why it worked more effectively. For instance, the combination of alum feces (potassium carbonate) with crude tartar (dipotassium tartrate) would chemically react and precipitate cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate), a more effective stain cleaner than tartar itself. While it is not difficult to crystallize cream of tartar out of crude tartar and use as a straight ingredient, the question is: were the medieval craftsmen aware of this chemical and did they find it easier to produced it in situ, or did they use the round-about way as they did not know, aside from, this works?

From working with soap recipes, I had come across the mentions of tartar, alum feces, and alum catini multiple times, and as part of my soap research I wanted to learn how to make these from scratch. While it took me about two years to find a reference to alum feces (at a Pennsic workshop on laundry; I later tracked down the bibliography) that identified it as the burnt lees of wine, I only recently found the final piece of the puzzle.

Alum feces and alum catini are often mentioned in the same context in similar or the same recipes. I assumed them to be of a similar background and when I found that alum feces was burnt tartar I made a leap and assumed alum catini to be the ashes of burnt cream of tartar. It made sense at the time!

Unfortunately, after doing lots of digging into the chemistry of tartar and finding out that ashing tartar and cream of tartar ends up with the same chemical (but they might not have known that! my little devil went…) I finally found a reference in the wonderful book The Art of Dyeing in the History of Mankind which translates “alum catini” (and mentions quite a number of other alums which are also not, technically, alum) as soda, or soda ash. This makes perfect sense, as alum feces actually is potash…
With my background in soap making I could have anticipated this, but it never even occurred to me. What I did wonder about is why I did not find any mention to soda ash in any of my medieval soap recipes… Now, not only did I solve one small mystery of identification, I actually ended up solving a much larger one on technique.

[For more background & chemistry on Tartrates, please check my Ice Dragon documentation here.]

The word alumen faecis occurs in many books of secrets written in the 16th century on chemical technology and is described as the burnt remains of tartar, indicating potassium carbonate. An exact translation of this word would mean the dregs or refuse of alum. In the French The secrets of the master Alexis of Piemont it appears as “alum de fece”; in the English Alexis as “alumen fecis,” and, of course, in the German Alexis as “alun de feta.” Cesalpino, the well-known authority of the 16th century in his De Metallicis, Rome, 1596, says, “Alumen faecis, quae fex vini est combusta” or “Alumen faecis is the dregs of wine that is burned.” Gargiolli in L’Arte Della Seta in Florence, 1868, says of allume di feccia that “Cotesto allume non e altro che cenera cavata dale vinacce bruciate” – “This alum is nothing other that the ashes derived from burnt wine lees.”[3]

The word “tartar” comes to English via Medieval Latin from the Medieval Greek tartaron.[4] This crude form of tartar, also known as winestone, argol, and beeswing, is collected and purified to produce the white, odorless acidic powder known as cream of tartar, or potassium bitartrate. As a food additive, tartar shares the E number E336 with cream of tartar, which does not help the confusion between dipotassium tartrate (tartar) and potassium bitartrate (cream of tartar).[5] Alum feces or potassium carbonate can be made by igniting and ashing tartrates (natural winestone or commercial cream of tartar) to produce pearl ash. This salt (alkali) of tartar was deemed stronger than almost any that is obtained from other matters.[6]

Potash could also be purified by baking it in a kiln or oven until all the carbon impurities are burned off, which would also resulting in pearl ash (sometimes called fly ash, as it easily blows away). The same technique works to make alum catini by ashing calcined marine plants in a kiln … or you could buy a box of washing soda, which is also pure sodium carbonate. The production of potash and pearl ash from wood were of such importance to Britain that these commodities could not be exported by the American Colonies to ports outside of the British Realm.[7] High-quality potassium carbonate was used in glass making, soap making, fiber cleaning, and dyeing and as a medicinal ingredient. Tartrates were used in fiber cleaning & dyeing and as a medicinal ingredient.

The different chemicals made from natural winestone:

  • Winestone is crude tartar.
  • Refined crude tartar becomes tartar or argol (dipotassium tartrate).
  • Refined tartar becomes cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate).
  • Burnt tartar & cream of tartar become alum feces (potassium carbonate)

In cleaning solutions and recipes, tartrates and carbonates have specific functions:

  • Tartrates are buffering agents. Tartar (sometimes in the form of wine lees), was a common ingredient in both lye-based and non-lye-based cleaning solutions. Tartar’s acidic qualities somewhat neutralize the harshness of an alkaline solution,[8] which greatly helps protein-based fabrics like woolen cloth.
  • Tartrates are acidic, and act as sequestrants. As well as providing buffering action, the acidity of tartar and cream of tartar makes these substances useful in removing inorganic stains. They have some ability to act as sequestrants,[9] by interrupting the oxidation of metals, making it possible to dissolve and removing metal and iron oxidation. It is taken from the Latin word “sequestrare” meaning to remove from use.[10] Cream of tartar is an effective and still in use household remedy against iron stains and fruit stains on linen.
  • Carbonates are alkalis. In solution with water carbonates (CO3) react to produce hydroxides (OH); for instance potassium carbonate (K2CO3) plus water (H2O) produces potassium hydroxide (KOH), which is alkaline. Alkaline solutions are common cleaning agent of the 15th and 16th centuries. Alkalis are best at removing stains of a fatty nature and some proteins. When applied to grease and oil stains, the saponification that occurs is an additional aid to stain removal.[11] Alkaline solutions were also made from boiling potash (including hearth ashes), a common source of potassium carbonates, but depending on the quality of the source is often significantly less pure (due to incomplete burn) than burnt tartar, or alum feces.

To make Tartar

“… as well as its property of not being soluble in water without much difficulty: for a very great quantity of water is requisite to keep the crystals of tartar in solution; and it must moreover be boiling hot; otherwise as soon as it cools most of the tartar dissolved in it separates from the liquor, and falls to the bottom in the form of a white powder” From the Encyclopedia Britannica, 1771.

From the information given in the above text, among others, I choose to boil the winestone and let it cool down to re-crystallize the tartar out of the suspension.

The Process:
Rinse and dry crude tartar. My tartar came from a local wine maker (Barry Family Cellars) and comes from white wine (which is why it is uncolored). It smells weird. The crude tartar is added to water. It only dissolves during the boiling stage of water and settles back out of solution when the water cools down.

The refined tartar settles out of solution in a fine powder and as a sludge can easily be dried.
When using red wine winestone, this stage would be done multiple times while decanting the water which would contain most of the colorants and tannins.

I assumed it would crystallize to the sides, given the text by Lémery from 1686 below:
“Boil in a great deal of water what quantity of white Tartar you please, until it be all dissolved; pass the liquor hot through Hippocrates his Sleeve, into an earthen vessel, and evaporate about half of it: set the vessel in a cool place two or three days, & you’l find little Crystals on the sides, which you are to separate; evaporate again half the liquor that remains, and remit the vessel to the Cellar as before, there will shoot out new Crystals: continue doing thus, until you have gotten all your Tartar , dry the Crystals in the Sun, and keep them for use.”[12]

This did not happen. I did not filter the hot liquid but let it cool down on its own, as indicated by the more recent texts. I wonder if the little crystals indicated are cream of tartar instead of straight tartar, as cream of tartar will keep appearing at each new boil until the liquid is exhausted.

The dried sludge is broken off and powdered in a fine mortar and sieved.
The resulting white powder is tartar, or potassium tartrate.

To make Alumen faecis

The crude tartar is calcined over open fire (propane burner) in a fireproof vessel in a well-ventilated area (sunroom) into charcoal. Iron was indicated to be able to withstand the heat, but because I enjoy my cast iron I choose to use a pyroceramic corningware dish (Pyrex would shatter). Calcining creates lots of smoke while the organic contaminants and volatile gasses are burned off.

Then the black charcoaled winestone is put on an iron dish (pizza plate) into the oven and ashed using the self-cleaning cycle. This worked really well (and I was very glad I did the calcining outdoors as we do not have an outdoor vent on our oven).

The powder is then filtered and stored in a jar. As mentioned in the 1686 A course of chemistry, if these ashes are dissolved or lixiviated in water, and then evaporated, another salt will appear, which will have become hygroscopic, or draw moisture from the air: “Break the Retort which served you for distillation of Tartar, and take the black mass you find in it; Calcine it until it becomes white, then put it into a great deal of hot water, and make a Lixivium, filtrate it, and pour it into a glass, or earthen vessel, evaporate in a sand-heat all the water, and there will remain a white salt, which is called the Alkali Salt of Tartar.

If you expose for some days in a Cellar this Salt of Tartar in a wide glass vessel, it will dissolve into a liquor that is improperly called Oil of Tartar per Deliquium.”[13] What this indicates is that the ashes of tartar, or the potassium carbonate, dissolved in water reacted to form potassium hydroxide, which when evaporated will re-crystallize, but will also be hygroscopic (pull moisture from the air, as soap makers know from experience hydroxide is wont to do!).

Following are two period recipes which include tartar and alum feces. For more samples, please see my Ice Dragon documentation.

From T bouck va wonder (The Book of Wonders), anonymous, 1513: this recipe would make an all-purpose cleaning soap ball. The rock alum would act as a mild deodorant and acidic buffer, the tartar would help buffer the alkaline soap and help remove mineral stains, the egg would help disperse trapped dirt (and help with sticking the dry powders to the hard Spanish soap). I am not familiar with waterlily rhizomes in specific, but know of similar plants which are saponaria (soap plants) and would act as a wetting agent to help the soap penetrate the fabric deeper so more debris can be rinsed away.

32. To make soap, that, purifies all sorts of stains, whatever they might be.
Take rock alum, lees [tartar] one pound and make this in a powder, rhizomes of flames or waterlilies of Florence, pulverized a half pound, a fresh egg, two pounds and a half of spanish soap, stomp the previously mentioned powders with the egg and the soap, and make little balles thereof. And if you think the egg was not enough, take as many as you like, or as you think is enough, to make the previously mentioned. And if you want to take on the stain, take clean water, and soak and wash the mentioned stain of both sides of the sheet, and rub with the mentioned ball, and sheet on sheet; that done, wash the dirtiness out with fresh water, and wring the sheet to get rid of the fat, and wash the sheet again with fresh water, and it will stay clean.

From Allerley Mackel (All Kinds of Spots) by Peter Jordanim, 1532: This recipe describes not only the use of tartar in a cleaning solution, but also a method by which cream of tartar was obtained for use in cleaning. When alum feces (potash or pearlash; potassium carbonate) is combined with crude tartar (tartaric acid) in a liquid solution, cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate) is precipitated. Some precipitation occurs naturally during the winemaking process, but collecting the tartar-rich solid leftovers during winemaking and adding them to a solution of potassium hydroxide (lye, or potassium carbonate mixed with water) allows for a much greater amount of pure cream of tartar to be created. (Leed) And once again just about all available cleaning materials are then mixed together. This combinations should form a concentrated emulsion containing solvents to hold fats and waxes in solution (the campfor and oxgall), tartrates to help remove mineral stains, and absorbents to help remove embedded dirt (the alum with the dragon’s blood would form an aluminum resinate which would give some viscosity to the mix).[14]

3. Another way
Six ounces alum feces, four ounces crude tartar, two ounces alum, one half quent [1/4 scruple or a dragme] camphor, one half quent dragon’s blood, grind all together to a fine powder and mix well, then take six ounces ox gall and six “bucklin” of clear water, put all together in a kettle, let boil to remove a third of the volume, then strain through a piece of cloth. Whenever you cannot get the ox gall or the camphor the water itself is strong enough. For use take a new piece of woolen cloth, moisten it with the water, and rub the spot or stain with it. When the piece of cloth becomes dry, moisten it again with the water and rub until the spot has disappeared; thereupon take warm water and wash the place where the stain has been. But for white cloth take the same water and add some soap, distill it, and work as before.

[Winestone donated by my friend Ian Barry of Barry Family Cellars.]

For a complete bibliography, more background, more photos, and how to make cream of tarter, you can download my documentation here.





[3] Edelstein, Sidney M. (1964) The Allerley Matkel (1532) Technology and Culture, Vol. 5, No. 3 (Summer, 1964). The Johns Hopkins University Press. p.313



[6] (1771) Encyclopedia Brittanica. Vol. II. Edinburgh: Colin Macfarquhar, Society of Gentlemen in Scotland.

[7] Ellis, Marietta (2015?) Colonial Soapmaking – Its History and Techniques. Spadét.

[8] Leed, Drea (2006) “Ye Shall Have It Clean”. Medieval Clothing and Textiles, Vol 2, the Boydell Press, NY.

[9 Leed


[11] Leed

[12] Lémery, Nicolas & Harris, Walter (1686) A course of chemistry. London: R.N. for Walter Kettilby, p.433

[13] Lémery, 433

[14] Edelstein 1964


Categories: SCA news sites

Unofficial Court Report for Great Northeastern War, July 7 and 8

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2017-08-21 17:10

Master Rowen Cloteworthy submitted this unofficial Court Report on behalf of Mistress Mylisant Grey.

During the July 7 Court, The following awards were presented:

Anna Serena, Silver Wheel; C&I: Eleanor Catlyng

Kate the Wicked, Silver Wheel; C&I: Aud Leifsdottir

Kevin D’noe, Silver Wheel; C&I: Mickel von Salm

Radbod of Endewearde, Silver Wheel; C&I: Camille des Jardins

Ranka Sveinsdottir, Award of Arms; C&I: Millicent Rowan

Gabrielle de la Plume, Queen’s Order of Courtesy; Token

Richard Crowe, Vigil for Chivalry.

During the July 8 Court, the following awards were presented:

Nuala McKensie, Award of Arms; Scroll forthcoming

Aurelia Colleoni a’Buccafurno, Award of Arms; C&I: Elen Alswyth of Eriskay

Thomas de Winterwade, Silver Tyger; C&I: Lisabetta Medaglia

Gregor Von Medehem, Silver Tyger; Scroll forthcoming

Bison of Thunder, Silver Tyger; C&I: Sunniva Ormstung

Wilhelm von Hammaborg, Silver Tyger; C&I: Edward McGuyver dos Scorpos

Eirikr Oxnaháls, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Edward McGuyver dos Scorpos

Cailte Crobdurg MacScandal, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Wynefryd Bredhers, W: Nicol mac Donnchaidh

David Poirier de LeLoup, Award of Arms; C&I: þóra Eiríksdóttir

Tiberius Iulius Rufus, Tygers Combattant; C&I: Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova, W: Steffan ap Cenydd

Karl der Falchner, Award of Arms; C&I: Tactus Malus Scriptorium (V)

Christian Wolfe, Defense; C&I: Alexandre St. Pierre and Camille des Jardins

Richard Crowe, Chivalry; C&I: Katherine Stanhope

Perceval Gower, Vigil for Pelican

Stefan of Silverforge, Vigil for Laurel

Bryon de Burgh, Queen’s Thrown Weapon Champion; C&I: Emeline la chauciere

Cedric of Thanet, King’s Thrown Weapon Champion; C&I: Emeline la chauciere

Gaius Claudius Valerianus, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Adrienne d’Evreus, W: Nicol mac Donnchaidh

Aureliana Curva, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Aleksei Dmitriev

Úlfeiðr Artadóttir, Award of Arms; C&I: Embla Knútrdottir, W: Nicol mac Donnchaidh

Sorcha Dhorcha of Stonemarche, Award of Arms; C&I: Eva Woderose

Frederick Van Der Veer, Silver Brooch; C&I: Aelisif Hoarr Kona

Olalla Tristana, Silver Brooch; C&I: Elena O’Siridean, W: Marion of Ruantallan

Aesileif Hoarr Kona, Silver Brooch; C&I: Saerlaith ingen Chennetig

Edmund Beneyt, Award of Arms; C&I: Marieta Charay

Garrick Øxnhálsson, Silver Wheel; C&I: Olaf Haraldson

Asbjorn Øxnhálsson, Silver Wheel; C&I: Robert dwe Makminne

Lasair An Dunaich, Silver Wheel; I: Melina al Andalusiyya, C: Robin Dit Dessaint, W: Yehuda ben Moshe

Aloysius, Silver Wheel; C&I: Altani Khatagi

Rose Copper Steel, Queen’s Order of Courtesy; C&I: Techan MacGothraidh, W: Nicol mac Donnchaidh

Tiberius Iulius Rufus, Laurel; C&I: Conor O Ceallaigh

Brenden Crane, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Elen Alswyth of Eriskay, W: Aneleda Falconbridge

Christiana Crane, Court Barony; I: Eleanore MacCarthaigh, C: Aleksei Dimitriev

Mora Ruadh, Award of Arms; I: Camille des Jardins, C: Mikel von Salm, W: Maxton Gunn

Boden Henebry, Silver Crescent; C&I: Harold von Auerbach

Antony Martin of Sheffield, Silver Crescent; C&I: Agatha Wanderer

Fortune Sancte Keyne, Silver Crescent; C&I: Aesa feilinn Jossursdottir

Steinar Bjornsson, Award of Arms; C&I: Triona MacCasky, W: Toki Redbeard

Galen of Blackthorne, Maunche; C&I: Robin dit Dessaint, W: Anastasia Guta

Helen Attebroke, Award of Arms; C&I: Katrusha Skomorokh, W: Tristan Chanticler

Stefan of Silverforge, Laurel; C&I: Alexandre St. Pierre and Camille des Jardins

Perceval Gower, Pelican; C&I: Mergriet van Wijenhorst

Michael Acrensis, Writ for Pelican; C&I: Briana de Luna

Other Business:

  • The Ridings of Giggleswick and Ravensbridge presented the results of their largesse competition to Their Majesties.
  • Don Eldrich Gaiman presented handmade scarves for the Eastern Rapier Champions team.
  • Lord Osmond de Berwick announced the victory of the Youth Archers of the East in several categories in the Inter-Kingdom Archery Championships
  • Their Majesties honored the children of the East with toys from the royal toy chest
  • Their Majesties thanked outgoing Thrown Weapons Champions Lord Magnus the Broken and Lord Matteo Genovese for their service.
  • Their Majesties invited newcomers forward and gifted them with tokens of welcome.
  • Master Godric of Hamtun announced a new Master Bowman: John Buchnan from the Barony Beyond the Mountain
  • Don Lupold Hass and Don Eldrich Gaiman announced the Pennsic Rapier Champions
  • Master Magnus Hvalmagi, Guildmaster of the East Kingdom Brewers Guild, announced a new Craftsman Brewer: Lady Aoife Beowyn

Filed under: Announcements, Court Tagged: court report