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Challenge to the Children of the East

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2016-11-04 09:00

Greetings Children of The East Kingdom!

We, Emma Lovell and Caleb Patrasso Tigers Cubs and Pages to The Crown would like to challenge the children of the East Kingdom!

Our Queen is beautiful and she should have beautiful favors to give out to her people. We may be children but even kids can help and every person helping makes a job easier. We will be making favors for our Queen and we are asking that you, the children of the East, make favors too. Even if you just make one, that’s great! You can see what the favor should look like at this web address.

You will probably need your parents help and that’s ok. Doing stuff as a family is a lot of fun!
You can email our Mom Mistress Elizabeth Elenore Lovell and she can tell you where to send or drop off your favor when it’s done. If you don’t have email you should ask your parents. We hope you enjoy making pretty favors for our Queen!

In Service to The East,
Caleb Patrasso
Emma Lovell

Filed under: Arts and Sciences Tagged: brion and anna, favors

Message from the Royal Gifts Coordinator

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2016-11-04 07:00

To the Makers of Things in the East Kingdom:

I have recently been honored with the position of Royal Gifts Coordinator for Their Royal Majesties Brion and Anna, may they reign in health and prosperity forever.

As we are expecting many Royal visitors to the East this winter, and as Their Majesties plan to attend events outside of our kingdom, it is my honor and duty to ask those with the skills, generosity, and inclination to craft various items both beautiful and useful with which we might fill the Royal Gift Chest.

We will need both general items for the largess chests as well as items for gift exchanges with specific kingdoms’ royals at foreign wars. If you are interested in creating something personalized for the gift exchanges, please contact me directly and I will reach out to you once we know with whom we will be exchanging.

This kingdom is full of talented craftspeople. It is always with a home-team pride that our Royals give the fruits of our artists to others. Please consider making something for the Royal Gifts Chest. Their Majesties (and I) are grateful for your generosity and dedication to the East Kingdom.

In Service,
Duchess Caoilfhionn

Filed under: Arts and Sciences Tagged: brion and anna, royal gifts

Queen’s Favors Needed!

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-11-03 21:00

Unto the Creative and Talented Citizens of The Kingdom of the East do I send Greetings!

I am truly honored to take up the position of Favor Coordinator for Her Majesty Anna, whose beauty surpasses that of a thousand twinkling stars in the night sky.

Please help me provide our Queen with favors that are embroidered, beaded, painted, stamped, appliquéd or any decorative art that befits our time periods. Directions and dimensions for the favors can be found here.

Our Kingdom is vast and I will have help in this endeavor. These Ladies will be happy to answer your questions about the design, coordinate and accept delivery of favors.

For the Northern Region:
Lady Tola knitýr

For the Central Region:
Baroness Charitye Dale

For the Southern Region:
Lady Mýrún Leifsdóttir

Should you already be in possession of finished favors or a favor kit please contact myself or one of the Ladies listed above so that we may begin to assess the number of kits and favors being worked on. I look forward to seeing beautiful favors from our citizens being gifted by our Radiant Queen.

In Service to our Glorious Kingdom,

Mistress Elizabeth Elenore Lovell

Filed under: Arts and Sciences Tagged: brion and anna, favors

Unofficial Court Report – Neddingham County Faire

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2016-11-03 19:14

On the 17th day of September AS LI Their Royal Majesties Kenric and Avelina held court at the Neddingham Country Faire in the noble Barony of the Bridge.  The following business was set forth that day:

Item. Clotilde von der Insel was recognized as a Seamstress to the Crown

Item.  Lucinda de la Tambor was awarded the Silver Wheel and given a scroll by Fiona O’Maille

Item. Having held the business since Their Coronation, a scroll by Fiona O’Maille fomalized the induction of Vargus Ulfr into the Order of the Silver Wheel. T

Item.  Their majesties bestowed the Order of the Silver Wheel upon Amia Turner with a scroll made by Fiona O’Maille

As reported Kenric Rex and filed by Rowen Stuffer.

Filed under: Court Tagged: court report, Kenric and Avelina

Event Report: Agincourt

AEthelmearc Gazette - Thu, 2016-11-03 09:31

On October 29th, A. S. LI, the Barony-Marche of the Debatable Lands held its annual Agincourt event on a gloriously warm and sunny day. Mistress Arianna of Wynthrope reports on the activities held there.

Morning Court

The day began with a brief court. Queen Margerite called forth THLord Kieran MacRae, who received a Writ for the Laurel at Pennsic to present himself at Agincourt. Her Majesty asked if he was ready to sit vigil, to which he responded in the affirmative. However, Queen Margerite noted that Kieran was in fealty to another and must be free before contemplating elevation to the peerage. His Laurel, Mistress Arianna of Wynthrope, was called forward to receive back his green belt and release him from his fealty, after which the Order of the Laurel escorted THLord Kieran to his vigil.

THLord Kieran returns his apprentice belt to Mistress Arianna before going on vigil for the Laurel. Photo by Lady Àine ny Allane.

Heavy Weapons Combat

Agincourt has always featured heavy fighting, with combatants choosing to portray either the French or the English as they honor the famous battle of 1415 at which Henry V of England annihilated a much larger and better armed French force.

This year, 38 fighters took the field, including eight combat archers. The fighting began with a Warlord Tourney, from which THLord Tegrinus de Rhina and THLord Rouland of Willowbrooke emerged as the winners, becoming the captains of the French and English Sides, respectively. The French took all of the day’s victory points:  Field Battle, Woods Battle, Combat Soccer, and Hold the Barricade, and as commander of the French side, THL Tegrinus was the overall Warlord Tourney Winner for the day.

The day ended with a series of intense Tavern Brawls, in which Lord Ulrich von Baden, who had previously distinguished himself with a dive-in-and-slide goal that scored the final point for his side in Combat Soccer, was named Last Man Standing.

A Tavern Brawl. Photo by Baron Torvald Torgarson.

Videos below are by Baroness Constance Glyn Dŵr.


Don Po Silvertop receives a rose from the Queen during the QRC procession. The outgoing champion, Lord Jacob Martinson, looks on in the background. Photo by Lady Àine ny Allane.

This year Agincourt was honored to host the Queen’s Rapier Champion Tournament. It began with the traditional presentation of fencers to the Queen, each one receiving a rose from Her hand. A huge list of 53 fencers competed, with the tournament fought as round robins in four lists with the top two in each list advancing to the quarter-finals. A noble gesture was made by Lord Magnus bastiano di Vigo, who ceded his spot in the quarter-finals to Countess Ariella of Thornbury that she might have the opportunity to do more fencing and increase her enjoyment of the day. In recognition of this act of kindness, Her Majesty, Queen Margerite, named Lord Magnus her inspiration of the day and bestowed upon him a Golden Escarbuncle at the evening’s court.

The final four fencers were Lord Durante de Caravaggio, Master Clewin Kupferheleblinc, Baron Eric Grenier de Labarre, and Don Po Silvertop. The finals came down to Master Clewin vs. Lord Durante, with Lord Durante winning the coveted title of Queen’s Champion, succeeding the outgoing Champion, Lord Jacob Martinson.

There was also a Free Scholars of the AEthelmearc Rapier Academy tourney run by THLord Jorundr hinn Rotinn, and an “Out of the Box” tourney run by Lord Markus Skalpr Grimsson, in which kills could only be made by shots to the head, arms, hands, legs, and feet. Both tourneys were won by Lord Ru Cavorst.

Video below of the quarter-finals through the finals of the QRC is by Brehan Lapidario.

Youth Combat

Agincourt likewise saw the Kingdom Youth Combat Champions’ tournament. Two enthusiastic young gentles fought three rounds with each of three weapons forms. In the end, Queen Margerite could not choose between them, and so she named Timothy of Arindale the Younger her Division 2 Champion, and Karl her Division 1 Champion. After the youth tourney, several adult sparring partners came forward to cross swords with the new champions, including THLord Rouland of Willowbrooke, Master Jussie Laplein, Prince Timothy of Arindale, and Lord Robert Pour Maintenant.

Karl and Timothy in the Youth Combat Champion’s Tourney. Photo by Mistress Arianna of Wynthrope.


Archery was, of course, at the heart of the original battle of Agincourt, and it was only right that the English did prevail in the shoot run by Master Alaric MacConall, though by a margin of only 2 points. Ronan O’Conall and Duncan MacCoulagh each made 10 point shots that gave the day to the English. Lord Takamatsu Gentarou Yoshitaka also ran a shoot by the victorious English to loot French cheeses, which was won by THLord Alrekr Bergsson with Baron Tofi Kerthjalfadsson coming in second.

Thrown Weapons

The Debatable Lands Baronial Champion tournament was the highlight of thrown weapons at Agincourt. The outgoing Baronial Champion, Master Clewin Kupferhelbelinc, ran the competition, which was hard contested. In the end, Lord Sanada Masamoto Kenshin O’no Kuma proved victorious and was named Champion, with Earl Thomas Byron of Haverford as his second.

Lord Kuma is recognized as Baronial Thrown Weapons Champion with Earl Byron as his second. Photo by Lady Àine ny Allane.

Arts and Sciences

For a second year, the event included an A&S competition run by THLady Sumayya al Ghaziya. Entries ranged from scrolls and cooking to research and ceramics. The winner of the single category entry was Lord Ian Campbell of Glen Mor for his ceramic tiles, while Lady Luceta di Cosimo won the multiple entry category for items including cookies and research into medieval burial practices. Lord Ian was inducted into the Fleur d’Æthelmearc at court later that evening. A slideshow of some of the entries is shown below

Click to view slideshow. Evening Court

After a Baronial Court where the winners of each competition were announced and rewarded, and various baronial awards were bestowed, Queen Margerite held court attended by Prince Timothy and Princess Gabrielle, as well as the Crown Prince and Princess of the Middle, William and Isolde. In addition to the accolades noted above, highlights from the evening court included the induction of Lady Cionaodh Gunn into the Order of the Millrind; the elevation of THLord Kieran MacRae to the Order of the Laurel, and Writs of Summons for the Pelican to Doña Gabrielle de Winter and Baron Robert O’Connor.

Food and Entertainment

The soteltie made by Lady Zianna. Photo by Mistress Arianna.

Of course Agincourt would not be complete without food. THLady Ottilige Rappoltsweiler and Edelvrowe Lijsbet du Keukere organized a lunch buffet of chicken, blancmanger, vegetables and fruit, while Meesteress Odriana vander Brugghe and her crew provided the evening feast. Supper began with a toast to the late Lady Adriana Ramstar, after which there were readings from the Canterbury Tales. Then dish after dish arrived including various meats, pies, rice, Brussels sprouts, and a large marzipan and cake soteltie of the Shield of Chivalry made by Lady Zianna beguy urdina de Zabaleta.

The evening was capped off with a performance by the ever-bawdy commedia troupe, i Genisii, whose show included a seasonally appropriate undead Pantalone attempting to control his daughter Octavia by means both foul and humorous.

Thanks to all of the photographers listed above, as well as Lord Markus Skalpr Grimsson, Lord Takamatsu Gentarou Yoshitaka, Master Morien MacBain, Lord Sanada Masamoto Kenshin O’no Kuma  and Baroness Aemilia Soteria for providing information about various activities for this event report.

Categories: SCA news sites

Event Announcement: Spring Crown

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2016-11-02 14:43

The Shire of Sylvan Glen invites one and all to join us as we host Æthelmearc Spring Crown Tourney at the Camp Frame 4-H Camp in Hedgesville, WV (1362 Camp Frame Road, Hedgesville WV 25427) May 12 to 14, 2017. Attend and bear witness as the continuation of the Royal Line of Æthelmearc is secured!

The autocrat for the event is Dame Hrefna Ulfvarinnsdottir (Tammy Pritt), 52 Brandewine Cir., Martinsburg, WV, cell 304-886-1234 (no calls after 9 pm please), ravenstyx at yahoo dot com.

Friday evening will feature our Known World famous travelers’ repast of a light dinner and refreshments for those arriving early.

There will be an all-day sideboard provided on Saturday, which will include a breakfast bar followed by a selection of foods throughout the day prepared by Lady Arianna del Vallone. Dietary concerns should be directed to her at ariannaddv3 at gmail dot com.

On Saturday, Mistress Álfrún Ketta will be heading up the Hospitality Tent, which will feature a range of offerings for the populace including beverages (coffee, hot tea, brewed cold tea, sekanjabin, cream and sugar), fruit, nuts, and baked goods. Questions or dietary concerns can be sent to jennelfculler at yahoo dot com.

The site opens on Friday, May 12 at 5 pm and closes on Sunday, May 14 at noon, and is discretely damp. Leashed dogs are welcome, but please clean up after them. We have plenty of beds in the populace dormitory, and there is some limited room for camping. If you wish to camp, please contact the autocrat (see below) with your tent size so we can plan where to put it ahead of time. There are also many hotels and restaurants within an easy drive of the site. These lists will be posted or you can contact Dame Hrefna for a copy.

The event registration is as follows:

  • Adult Event Registration: $20
  • Adult Member Discount Event Registration: $15
  • Children 17 and under are free.

Checks should be made out to: SCA Inc. WV, Shire of Sylvan Glen.

The reservationist for the event is Lady Margarita de Siena, (Joy Woofter), Phone 304-838-3515 (no calls after 11 pm please), joy1teacher at yahoo dot com, 11 Lotus Dr., Martinsburg, WV 2540. She will also be handling day shade reservations with priority going to combatants and consorts. If you want to set up a shelter at the event, send the size of your day shade to Lady Margarita, and let her know if you are a combatant or not. Make checks payable to SCA-WV, Inc. Please include modern and Society names for every covered by your pre-registration.

There are also many hotels and restaurants within an easy drive of the site. These lists will be posted or contact Dame Hrefna for a copy.

Autocrat’s note: The shire hosted Siege of Glengary here for many years. The site has dormitory bunk bed accommodations, flush toilets, showers, a large assembly hall, and indoor fighting space if needed.

Categories: SCA news sites

From the East Kingdom Minister of Lists

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2016-11-01 16:39

Greetings to the Populace of the East Kingdom,

I will be finishing my 4th and final year as the East Kingdom Minister of Lists this February 2017. Term limits dictate that I step down at that time. This makes me so sad, as I truly love serving the martial community of the East Kingdom. To me, there is nothing more exciting than running a double elimination tournament to determine the Heirs of our Kingdom.

What the office of Minister of Lists entails:

Supporting the East Kingdom Martial Community in a kind, efficient and engaging manner.

Run the scorekeeping portion of all Crown Tournaments to determine the Heirs of the Kingdom.

Run the scorekeeping portion of all King and Queen’s Rattan and Rapier Championships.

Print and have ready all score sheets and tournament brackets for any and all tournaments.

Print and have ready all authorization forms for Heavy and Rapier disciplines.

Receive all authorization forms and transfer the information to a database accessible to the marshals monthly, if not more often.

Educate and support the MOL community and marshal community in all aspects of paperwork and tournament staffing.

Be able to work closely with the current and future Royals of the East Kingdom, the Earl Marshal’s office and the Troubadour Herald’s office.

You must be able to travel to all reaches of the kingdom, or designate a deputy to do so when needed.

A computer and email access is a necessity.

There is roughly 16-20 hours a month of behind the scenes work involved in the production of authorization cards and the fighter database. Dealing with “emergency” issues is common and being flexible is helpful.

For the Kingdom MOL to be successful, they truly need to love what they are doing. They need to be happy to be there and enjoy working with the Rattan and Rapier community. Smiles and positive attitudes are contagious and will bring you far in this office.

All Candidates for the position of East Kingdom MOL should send their resumes and letter of interest to,, and by January 3rd 2017 for consideration.

Warmest Regards
Baroness Sabina Luttrell, East Kingdom Minister of Lists


Filed under: Announcements

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #14: Making a Leather Swan Helm Crest

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2016-11-01 16:26

Our fourteenth A&S Research Paper comes to us from Lady Angela Mori of the Barony of Bhakhail, who demonstrates and explains the process of making one of the splendid helm crests so familiar from manuscript illuminations of tournaments. (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

Making a Leather Swan Helm Crest

A German heraldic crest for a tournament. Sold at auction by Pierre Bergé & Associés.

How to Model Crests or Helmets: “Whenever you have occasion to make a crest or helmet for a tourney, or for rulers who have to march in state, you must first get some white leather which is not dressed except with myrtle or ciefalonia, stretch it, and draw your crest the way you want it made. And draw two of them, and sew them together; but leave it open enough on one side so that you can put sand into it; and press it with a little stick until it is all quite full. When you have done this, put it in the sun for several days. When it is quite dry, take the sand out of it . Then take some of the regular size for gessoing, and size it two or three times. Then take some gesso grosso ground with size, and mix in some beaten tow, and get it stiff, like a batter; and put on this gesso, and rough it in, giving it any shape of man, or beast, or bird, which you may have to make, getting it as like as you can. This done, take some gesso grosso ground with size, liquid and flowing, on a brush, and you lay it three or four times over this crest with a brush. Then, when it is quite dry, scrape it and smooth it down, just as you do when you work on panel. Then, in the same way, as I showed you how to gesso with gesso sotile on panel, in that same way gesso this crest. When it is dry, scrape it and smooth it down; and then if it is necessary to make the eyes of glass, put them in with the gesso for modeling; do modeling if it is called for. Then, if it is to be gold or silver, lay some bole, just as on panel; and follow the same method in every detail, and the same for the painting, varnishing it in the usual way”

– From Chapter CLXIX, Il Libro dell’Arte (The Craftsman’s Handbook), Cennino D’Andrea Cennini


The Process
Terms and Definitions

The following text is the description of the helm crest shown above. This piece was sold for 8000€; interestingly enough this is a fraction of what it would have cost at the time of making it.

“A German heraldic crest for a tournament Great helm, Zimier, in 14th-15th century style. Formed as a Swan’s head, accurately constructed of gesso and coarse fibre, probably jute, over a hardened sculpted leather core, the base hollowed for fitting the crown of the helmet skull, with pairs of lace-holes at the sides, painted white and heightened in grey, the base and the beak with traces of gilding over a red base coat, and in “aged ” condition throughout. Height 37 centimeters; weight: 1095 grams.”

This paper describes the steps I took in making the Swan Helm Crest based on Cennini’s text and the picture of the extant helm crest described above. I wanted to do my best at recreating this swan while staying true to the original materials and techniques used during the time it was made.

Materials for crest construction. Photo by Lady Angela Mori.

The Process

“you must first get some white leather which is not dressed except with myrtle or ciefalonia,”

The white leather is what we know of today as Vegetable Tanned Leather. Myrtle was one of the plants used to make this kind of leather. So far no one has been able to translate what “ciefalonia” is, though I’m sure it is a plant similar to myrtle. Vegetable tanned leather can be used in a process called Cuir Bouilli. This is a process in which the leather is wet with water (the water may or may not be hot), and then it is molded into a shape of sorts and then dried (sometimes with heat). It will keep its new shape quite well once dried.

“stretch it, and draw your crest the way you want it made. And draw two of them, and sew them together”

I would like to take a moment and state that in Cennini’s writings, he takes little time to really explain how to copy a shape and make it so that it will fit on a helm. Taking two pieces of material to get the shape down doesn’t work unless your piece is essentially very simple. And he does not include that the bottom really should have a shape sewn in that is similar to the shape of the helm. After making 3 helm crests I can most definitely say that a pattern would have been more complex than what he states above.

A line drawing of the design. Photo by Lady Angela Mori.

I made a line drawing of the original crest. I then went and cut this shape out of 2oz vegetable tanned leather. After looking at the shape I chose to modify the neck some because I was concerned that the curve I made would be too extreme and force the head to touch the chest. So I cut out some extra shapes and added them to the neck to prevent this. In hindsight I should have made a pattern first out of fabric or felt sheet to get the proper shape.

I then went ahead and used linen thread that I had spun and plied to sew the swan pieces together. I used a whip stitch to hold them together. I did this because it will have some give when shaping the leather with the wet sand. Leather stretches a good bit and would shift. A straight running stitch will not have as much give, preventing the leather from taking the shape that you are trying to give it.

“but leave it open enough on one side so that you can put sand into it; and press it with a little stick until it is all quite full. When you have done this, put it in the sun for several days. When it is quite dry, take the sand out of it.”

I wet the leather swan and packed sand into it, and let it sit in the sun. When it was dry I then removed the sand at the base of the swan.

The swan form filled with sand. Photo by Lady Angela Mori.

“Then take some of the regular size for gessoing, and size it two or three times.”

I used rabbit hide glue for the sizing. To work with it, you must first soak the dried glue in water; I would say around 2 ½ parts water to the glue granules. Once the glue has softened, it must be carefully heated to liquify the glue. If it is heated to too high a temperature, it will break down and not hold together as a glue. I put hot water in a bowl and then placed another bowl containing some of the gelatin (glue) in the larger bowl. This will indirectly heat the glue to the right temperature and keep it liquid while you work. When the heat is removed the glue starts to turn back to a solid gelatin.

Left: rabbit hide glue after soaking. Right: rabbit hide glue being heated. Photo by Lady Angela Mori.

I applied the glue to all the pieces. This not only helps the gesso stick to the leather later on, but also helps in hardening the leather as well. The leather absorbs the glue into its fibers which helps give it strength not just on the surface, but on the inside structure as well. One must be careful when applying the glue to make sure that you only work on either the flesh or the grain side of the leather at a time —if the leather is soaked through all the way it will lose the shape that you just made and you will have to re-shape your pieces. I find that coating the grain side first works better because it absorbs less of the glue, but will give a good base structure for when the other side has glue applied to it. Make sure to let the first side completely dry before moving on to the next.

The crest completely covered in glue. Photo by Lady Angela Mori.

“Then take some gesso grosso ground with size, and mix in some beaten tow, and get it stiff, like a batter; and put on this gesso, and rough it in, giving it any shape of man, or beast, or bird, which you may have to make, getting it as like as you can. This done, take some gesso grosso ground with size, liquid and flowing, on a brush, and you lay it three or four times over this crest with a brush. Then, when it is quite dry, scrape it and smooth it down, just as you do when you work on panel.”

The next step was to make the gesso grosso with size and add beaten tow.

Review note – Prior to making this helm I had made another one using a premixed “Italian Gesso” from Natural Pigments. This pre-mixed gesso consisted of calcium sulfate dihydrate and dry rabbit hide glue. When reading the directions on mixing the gesso grosso ground with size I thought this was the equivalent. When making it I had noted that it was a bit undesirable due to the inconsistency of the ratio of glue to calcium and this made it hard to get the right amount of water in the mixture without it being too soggy or too dry. I had made the decision that I would later on mix them differently. I chose to prepare the glue to its liquid state before adding the calcium.

To make the gesso mixture I heated up some of the rabbit hide glue as done before when sizing the leather. I then added calcium sulfate dihydrate and mixed it in, using my fingers to try and break down any lumps of the Calcium. I kept adding the Calcium until the consistency was like a thick cake batter. I then slowly added tow into the mixture making sure it was thoroughly coated with the liquid gesso. Once the mixture started to become a lumpy but still gooey mixture I started applying it to the leather. Sometimes I used my hands and sometimes I used a brush to apply it. The cooler it became the more thick and less flowing it would become. If I needed the mixture to be flowing I just put the bowl back into the hot water bath to warm up the glue. After it dried I then scraped the high points down some with a knife.

Left: crest after gessoing. Right: closeup of gessoed surface. Photos by Angela Mori.

Review note – At this point I had gone only by the comments made by D. Thompson jr. in his translation of ‘Il Libro del Arté’. I recently read an article “Questions about Medieval Gesso Grounds” by Beate Federspiel, where the author had gone through and done further research to show that “examination of grounds in Italian paintings by the Laboratoire de Recherches des Musees de France elaborates on the double structure of the Italian gesso grounds. This double structure was also shown in the examinations by the National Gallery’s laboratories in London.” (Federspiel, 62.) Which means that they did a chemical analysis, finding that the base layers of paintings that also had gesso grosso as the base layers consisted of calcium sulfate anihydrate mixture with calcium sulfate dihydrate. In layman’s terms, the plaster of Paris used was actually made of calcium sulfate anihydrate (which absorbs water less than the modern day plaster of Paris, calcium sulfate hemihydrate) and some dihydrate as well. The author stated that perhaps the full chemical change did not happen because the only water to be absorbed was through the gelatin of the animal hide glue. I have done testing and found that the water content in the glue had no effect on the chemical reaction of the calcium sulfate anihydrate when mixed with it. If anything it acted very much like that of adding the calcium sulfate dihydrate to the warmed glue that I had done with my work previously. I took some of the gelatin and ground it down with the calcium sulfate hemihydrate and then heated it. It reacted the same way with no heat (I have found to be indicative of water absorption and chemical reaction for plaster of Paris) like that of the dihydrate. So I must conclude that the reason for using this as a base layer must be to help in the prevention of moisture damage to the piece being made. Further testing will help me in analyzing the reason for this procedure and choice done by the artists of the Middle Ages.

“Then, in the same way, as I showed you how to gesso with gesso sotile on panel, in that same way gesso this crest. When it is dry, scrape it and smooth it down; and then if it is necessary to make the eyes of glass, put them in with the gesso for modeling; do modeling if it is called for.”

I then made a mixture of the glue and the calcium sulfate dihydrate but this time taking care to sift out any small hard pieces from the powder before adding it to the glue. I kept adding it until it became like a runny pancake batter. Then I applied it to the crest with a brush letting it pool in the recessed areas left by the first layers of gesso. When it was dry I scraped and sanded down the high points again and reapplied another coat until most of the shallows were filled. I also went ahead and added lids to the eyes. I also gessoed in a tongue that I had previously cut and gessoed. I used the gesso as a glue to set into the inside of the mouth. After everything dried I then went back over everything with my knife to scrape down any rough surfaces. I then went over the surface with a damp cloth to smooth out the gesso and take off any dust and shavings that may have been left on the surface.

Left: crest being scraped with a knife. Right: a closeup of the scraped surface. Photos by Lady Angela Mori.

“Then, if it is to be gold or silver, lay some bole, just as on panel; and follow the same method in every detail, and the same for the painting, varnishing it in the usual way”

I also went ahead and burnished down the beak, eyes and base. The beak and scalloped base were gilded on the extant swan so I went ahead to prepare the surfaces on mine for the bole.

Applying bole to the beak. Photo by Lady Angela Mori.

I took some dried bole and ground it down and added a little water to make it into a smooth paste. I then took some glair and mixed it with the bole. I painted on numerous layers of the bole, waiting for it to dry between coats. I burnished the bole to make sure the surface as smooth.

Bole on the beak after burnishing. Photo by Lady Angela Mori.

I took some glair and honey and mixed it with water to make a fixative for the gold leaf. I brushed it on where I wanted the gold leaf to be applied, only going along in small areas. Each time I would apply a piece of gold leaf to the prepared area. When this dried sufficiently, I then went ahead and burnished it. I ran out of gold leaf while working on the beak. When I got more I went over the beak again with the size and the new leaf, because it was a different in color. When it was sufficiently dry I went ahead and burnished the gold.

Painting the swan crest. Photo by Lady Angela Mori.

I worked on the base area of the crest with imitation gold leaf using the same technique as for the real gold leaf. I plan on redoing the base in real gold later on because I am not happy with the results and it strays somewhat from what I have been trying to achieve, which is a crest made as close to original medieval techniques and materials as I can achieve. With that said, I will also state that gold was a very expensive metal and there are many writings that discuss ways to make metals that are not gold, have the look of gold. So to use a imitation gold leaf is not really straying from recipes and techniques used during the Middle Ages.

The finished crest atop the helm! Photo by Lady Angela Mori.

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Terms and Definitions

Animal Hide Glue – a size (primer) and hardening agent as well as a binder for gesso. It is made by soaking small pieces of rawhide in water and then boiling it for a long time to break down the collagen. When it is finished it is dried and crushed in to a granular form. Later it is used by taking some of the dried glue and soaking it in water. When it has absorbed the water it is then heated indirectly with a double boiler until it liquifies. At this point is it ready to be used as is or as a base for mixing other materials into it.

Bole – a fine red clay, commonly termed “Armenian bole” during the middle ages because of its origin, used as an underlay for water gilding because of its “waxy” character allowing the artist to burnish it to a smooth finish which is what was wanted for the surfaces that were to be gilded.

Cuir Bouilli – the shaping and moulding of Vegetable tanned leather. Vegetable tanned leather is leather that has been tanned with tannins used from plants. Some main plants used are Oak Gall, Myrtle and even black tea leaves. These tannins give the leather a property where the leather can be wetted and then molded into a shape and then dried with or without the aid of heat. When the leather is dry it will retain its new shape.

Flax– A plant that is harvested and used to make thread, which is woven into cloth.


  • Calcium sulfate hemihydrate, Gypsum (also known as plaster of Paris). Made by heating calcium sulfate at 128 deg celsius allowing most of the water content to evaporate.
  • Calcium sulfate anihydrate – similar to plaster of Paris, but absorbs water less readily. It is made when calcium sulfate is heated in a kiln between 163 deg. celsius and 300 deg. celsius it becomes calcium sulfate anihydrate.
  • Calcium sulfate dihydrate – made from Gypsum. If the plaster of Paris is slaked, soaked for a long time in water, instead of air drying it becomes calcium sulfate dihydrate.

Gesso grosso – calcium sulfate anihydrate (see above)

Gesso soltile – calcium sulfate dihydrate (see above)

Glair – a sizing made from egg white.

Linen – the thread and cloth made from Flax. Linen thread was used to stitch the leather together to make the helm crest.

Tow – the left over scraggly shorter bits of material that is removed from the Flax before it is spun into Linen. Tow was added to the base layer gesso to help give it strength and give it bulk.

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Cennino D’ Andrea Cennini. The Craftsman’s Handbook: The Italian “Il Libro dell’ Arte.” Thompson, Daniel V., trans. New York: Dover Publications 1960, c1954.

Federspiel, Beate. “Questions about Medieval Gesso Grounds.” In Historical Painting Techniques, Materials, and Studio Practice: Preprints of a Symposium, University of Leiden, the Netherlands, 26–29 June 1995, edited by Arie Wallert, Erma Hermens, and Marja Peek, 58-64. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 1995.

Waterer, J.W. Leather and the Warrior. Northampton, England: The Museum of Leathercraft, 1981.

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Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

Announcement From Laurel: Job Opening – Wreath Sovereign of Arms

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2016-10-31 18:18

The following is an official announcement sent out by the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.

The Wreath Sovereign of Arms is an educational deputy of the Laurel Principal Sovereign of Arms, responsible for the consideration of and decisions concerning armory submitted for registration by the College of Arms.

Wreath is an unpaid position, currently requiring approximately 20 hours a week. Some knowledge of period heraldry is useful; knowledge of SCA heraldry is essential. The position requires considerable tact and patience, research and reasoning ability, a clear understanding of the Standards for Evaluation of Names and Armory and past Laurel rulings, the ability to write clearly and succinctly, the ability to work within tight deadlines and coordinate closely with Pelican, Laurel and other staff to produce a Laurel Letter of Acceptance and Return monthly, computer literacy and word processing skills, reliable e-mail and telephone access, and time and ability to travel. Given the current structure of the office, a high-speed internet connection is required.

Resumés must be sent electronically to Laurel at Resumés must be received by Saturday, December 31, 2016, with an expected start date of February 2017, to be determined with the Laurel staff.

Filed under: Announcements, Official Notices

Artwork and Ordering Deadline for East Kingdom Calendars or Note Cards

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2016-10-31 07:40

Aquarius by Mistress Kayleigh Mac Whyte

Aries by His Excellency Master Ursion de Gui

The deadline for ordering East Kingdom calendars or note cards is November 6, one week away.  We’ve posted the final scans of all the artwork so you can see the unusual and beautiful contributions of the scribes of the East to the project.  Orders will ship at the end of November, so they will be available for holiday gift giving.  You can order yours at the project’s website.

If you would like to dedicate a month to someone who inspires you or send a message to the kingdom, a few months still need sponsors.  A sponsors’  message is printed on their month’s page, and they receive a complimentary calendar and set of note cards.  For more information, contact Baroness Lucie Lovegood.

Cancer by Lady Christiane Crane

This is the third year for the project.  Sales help pay for the royalty’s travel and the cost of hosting visiting royalty from other kingdoms.  Due to the success of the project in prior years, this year’s proceeds with be split between both the seated royalty and their heirs.

Capricorn by Lady Lisabetta Medaglia (illumination) and Duchess Thyra Eiriksdotter (calligraphy)

More information about the project and the artists can be found at the website –

Gemini by Boyar Aleksei Dmitriev

Leo by Mistress Elizabeth Elenore Lovell (illumination) and Mistress Eva Woodrose (calligraphy)

Pisces by Mistress Eloise of Coulter

Sagittarius by THL Katrusha Skomorokha

Scorpio by Master Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova

Taurus by Lord Vettorio Antonello

Virgo by Mistress Rhonwen glyn Conwy

Filed under: Arts and Sciences

Backyard Dyeing Fun!

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2016-10-29 22:33

By Elska á Fjárfella (Susan Verberg).

Left to right: undyed, goldenrod, nettle, onion, onion (longer), iron – all unmordanted wool.

Having laid my hands on half a dozen skeins of plain white wool yarn, and having the resources of a homestead, I decided to combine the two under the guidance of my friend Angelika and try my hand at all-natural plant dyeing.

But where to start? And what to buy?

Isn’t dyeing quite an intricate and expensive challenge better left to the experienced and initiated?

In part that is true; it is quite handy learning to dye from someone who has done it before.

But it does not have to be difficult or expensive at all (it can be as intricate only as you decide to make it). If you’re looking for a specific shade and want to be able to duplicate, my way is not the way for you. But if you’re happy to get color — and even happier if it is mostly the color you intended — you can get a surprising amount of dyeing fun out of an ordinary backyard.

We both prefer natural fibers so we used a selection of linen, cotton, and wool fabrics and fibers. I quickly learned that plant-based fibers and animal-based fibers do not take color the same way. Plant-based fibers are made from cellulose, which is fairly resistant to taking dye. Animal fibers are made from protein and are relatively easy to dye. Both need a little help to create a good connection between fibers and dye; this process is called “mordanting.”

From looking over Angelika’s shoulders and listening to her explanations the past few years (she loves dyeing with natural materials), I picked up that some dyes need mordanting, some fibers need it, too, but not always or in the same amounts… but why? As it turns out, most fibers and dyes are not all that compatible because there isn’t a lot for the dye to adhere to. So to give the dye a place to stick, something is added that bridges or sticks both to the fabric and to the dye.

In the case of cellulose fibers, a tannin mordant is needed, followed by a metal mordant; in the case of protein fibers, a metal mordant is enough. It is possible to dye wool without mordants but the result won’t be as vibrant; onion and tea are high in tannin and will dye, but mordanting influences the intensity of color. Black walnut is a bit of an odd one since it does not need mordanting because it is high in natural mordants; however, the chemical structure of the pigment allows it to directly adhere to the protein fiber!

Processing sumac leaves to make a tannin mordant.

Two good sources for tannin mordants are sumac and rhubarb leaves. Since rhubarb is easily available in spring and sumac easy to find in summer and fall, these two make a good three-season source of natural tannin mordant. With both sumac and rhubarb the leaves are used, not the wood; for each pound of dry yarn use four pounds of greens.

  • Put leaves in a big pot, cover with water, bring to a boil, and boil for an hour.
  • After an hour remove the greens, add the cellulose yarn and let sit for another hour, or two.

Another source for tannins would be black tea, but as that is highly concentrated it would also act as a dye and darken the yarn significantly. Sumac does too, but not as significant and therefore does not interfere with the dyeing process as much, making it a better tannin mordant for brighter colors (and it’s free).

A good metal mordant is alum, or aluminum sulfate, which is fairly inexpensive and sold over the internet at stores specializing in dyes. Use 10% for wool or up to 20% for fine yarn like silk, cotton, or linen, of the dry weight of the yarn.

  • Add enough water to submerge the yarn, bring to a boil, turn off, add the damp yarn and let steep for an hour, or so.
  • Do not boil fibers, especially wool roving and tips, as the roiling bubble action of boiling can naturally felt it!

Mordanting the fibers in sumac ‘tea’ overnight

Mordant the evening before and let the yarn sit in the mordant overnight; that way, the yarn is cooled down enough it can easily be squeezed or wrung dry for the next step, the dye bath. Keep in mind that each mordant results in slightly different color dyes, so choose accordingly. For instance, chromium really brightens colors (but is poisonous), alum gives clear colors, tin brightens colors and can also be used as an afterbath (adding it to the dye late to darken), copper gives the best greens and iron darkens, and is often used as an afterbath. Both copper and iron can be made at home: copper can be added by dyeing in a copper pot, and an iron solution can easily be made by adding vinegar to iron scraps (like nails and pieces of cheap fencing) in a glass jar… but be careful not to screw down the lid as the exothermic reaction might respond unexpectantly!

Harvesting stinging nettles is quite a prickly business!

Using plant materials it is not all that difficult to dye yellows; pale yellow, lime yellow, greenish yellow, brownish yellow – most plants give some sort of yellow dye. Like ragweed dyes a greenish yellow, birch & poplar dyes yellow, any of the rosacea leaves dye yellow, peach & apple leaves dye yellow and bindweed dyes a light green yellow. It’s the other colors that are harder to find:

  • Onion skins can dye a bright orange.
  • Reportedly,bindweed roots dye a slight pink, as do rhubarb roots (but I’m not digging up my patch!).
  • Willow leaves and bark dye a cinnamon brown, black walnut a deep brown at first draw and a cinnamon brown at the second.
  • We also tried some odd ones like daffodil heads (yellow) and tageta flowers (also yellow) and honestly, if there is any indication of dye (it stains your fingers while weeding) get a bunch, boil it down, and see what happens!

Harvesting goldenrod flowers to make a bright yellow dye.

Except for a few dyestuffs, like goldenrod, most dye baths benefit from prolonged exposure. A good rule of thumb is to make your bath in the afternoon, add the yarn, put the colander with greens on top of it (keeps the yarn submerged and keeps steeping more dye) and let it sit overnight. You’ll benefit from the cooler evening temperatures to cool down your kitchen again and as an added bonus the yarn is nicely cooled down by the next day to easily be rinsed in cold water without starting a felting reaction. Let it dry, or set, completely – out of the sun – before washing with soap.

Goldenrod dye with unmordanted wool yarn (top left) and alum mordanted wool (top right).

In the case of goldenrod, the flowers give the bright yellow color and are a potent dye. The longer it sits, though, the deeper the color gets and at some point the green stems and small leaves, which dye brown, will add, making it even darker. So for a bright yellow 15 minutes tends to be the optimum time. Similar with onion peels; sitting overnight can darken the orange towards brown. Black walnut is also a powerful dye and needs no mordanting at all for wool fibers, making it a good beginner’s dye. It also has antifungal properties and was used for wool underclothing throughout history to help prevent skin conditions!

Onion skin dye with alum mordanted wool fiber and unmordanted wool yarn.

For my first project we used well known dye plants like black walnut leaves, goldenrod flowers, stinging nettle and onion peels. We could have weighed the greens, but as our limitation was space in the pots, not the amount of greens, we picked as much as we could fit into each stockpot. As I could fit three stockpots on my stovetop we made three dye baths at the same time, in a similar fashion as the mordant solution: cover the greens with water, bring to a boil and boil for an hour, or so. Remove the greens, turn off the heat, add the yarn – and see the color change…

We dyed plant fibers and protein fibers and got wildly different results – both between the two types of fibers and from what we expected and what actually happened. Unless every variable, including temperature, pH & weights, are carefully controlled, natural dyeing is quite the spontaneous undertaking! For instance; a linen dress I was hoping to dye a deep brown with black walnut turned into a beautiful yellow copper instead – linen really does not take dye very well. A cotton dress I was hoping to dye yellow with logwood turned blue instead! The wool was mordanted in an acidic environment (an alkaline can damage wool fibers) but not rinsed really well, acidifying the dye to a pretty yellow brown. But when we made a new batch and added the cotton dress it was naturally alkaline and dyed a deep blue!

We sure saw chemistry in action: what a difference the nature of fibers makes, how some dyes react to changes in the pH but others not at all, the color difference a bit of metal mordant makes, how some strike enthusiastically quick but others need soaking overnight… to get a taste of all the intricate variables possible while still being such a surprisingly easy and rather satisfying project… I totally see how natural dyeing quickly can become quite the passion!

See Elska’s blog here for the rest of her dyeing adventures. 

Categories: SCA news sites


East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2016-10-28 11:00

The Society College of Heralds runs on monthly cycles and letters. Each month, the College processes name and armory submissions from all of the Kingdoms. Final decisions on submissions are made at the monthly meetings of the Pelican Queen of Arms (names) and the Wreath Queen of Arms (armory). Pelican and Wreath then write up their decisions in a Letter of Acceptances and Return (LoAR). After review and proofreading, LoARs generally are released two months after the meeting where the decisions are made.

An “acceptance” indicates that the item(s) listed are now registered with the Society. A “return” indicates that the item is returned to the submitter for additional work. Most items are registered without comments. Sometimes, the LoAR will address specific issues about the name or armory or will praise the submitter/herald on putting together a very nice historically accurate item.

The following results are from the August 2016 Wreath and Pelican meetings.

EAST acceptances

Akiyama Kintsune. Name.

The question was raised whether the use of the element Kin- in the given name is presumptuous. This element has the meaning of “public official/officer/noble/duke” in classical Chinese (see Solveig Throndardottir’s Name Construction in Medieval Japan, revised edition, p. 192). As part of an attested given name, the use of an element that may indicate rank is not an unmistakable claim of rank. Therefore, the use of this element is not presumptuous, as it is clear it is not a form of address.

The submitter requested authenticity for a Japanese name. This name is not authentic because Akiyama is most likely a buke (military class) surname. Buke names follow the pattern of a family name/surname followed by a yobina (general use name) and a nanori (official/formal given name). This name only contains a surname and a nanori.

Bardolph Karlson. Name.

The submitter originally requested authenticity for a 12th century Anglo-Saxon name, but withdrew this request. The submitter may wish to know that this name is authentic for early 17th century England.

Bess Brechin. Name and device. Gules, on a saltire argent between four maple leaves Or five gouttes palewise gules.

Nice 16th century Scottish name!

Cristina Volpina. Badge. Gules, on a bezant a sun-cross gules.

Commenters wondered whether this design was too close to the X-Men logo. It is not. The rotation clears the potential presumption by changing the orientation.

It also does not presume upon the important non-SCA arms of the Arch-Steward of the Holy Roman Empire: Gules, an orb Or. There is a DC for the addition of a tertiary charge group and, by precedent, there is at least a DC between an orb and a roundel [Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, A-Caid, May 2010 LoAR].

Dietrich of Timis. Device. Sable, a tower conjoined to park pales extending to sinister and on a chief argent an eagle vert.

Dragonship Haven, Barony of. Guild name Worshipful Company of Artificers of Dragonship Haven.

Submitted as Worshipful Company of Artificers, precedent implies that [designator] of Artificers is too generic to be registered:

[registering Company of Artificers of Marinus] Submitted as Company of Artificers, we have with the consent of the submissions herald, added the phrase “of Marinus” to make it less generic. [Marinus, Barony of, September 1996, p. 3]

The December 2002 Cover Letter states that the addition of a branch name does not make such a non-personal name less generic:

A submission this month raised the issue of generic identifiers again. Given the confusion that exists regarding what is and is not a generic identifier, as well as how generic identifiers are used, we are providing a clarification of this issue.

Generic identifiers are descriptions that may be associated with registered items (mainly badges) to identify the use of that item. Unlike registered names (award names, order names, guild names, household names, et cetera), generic identifiers are not registered as an independent item and are not protected from conflict. This does not mean that the group may not use this identifier, but simply that we will not limit the usage of that identifier to a single group.

Names that fall into the generic identifier category are names that would reasonably be used by more than one branch for common functions of the branch. All kingdoms can have a university. All baronies can have a baronial guard. All groups can have an equestrian guild.

Adding the name of the branch to the description does not affect generic identifiers (because branch identifiers are transparent for conflict). As an example, Outlands Equestrian Guild falls into the generic category because the only thing that would differentiate it from Equestrian Guild of Calontir are the branch identifiers Outlands and of Calontir.

However, later precedent shows that Worshipful Company of X is not generic when a branch name is included:

Submitted as a badge for The Most Worshipful Company of Æthelmearc Cooks and Bakers, as that name is neither registered nor a generic identifier we are unable to make this association. Recent precedent states:

Which gets us to the main question — is Worshipful Company of X, where X is a generic descriptive element a generic identifier? The January 1993 coverletter [sic] had this to say on the subject “A better term might be “job-description”: a simple declaration of the intended use of the badge…So long as the badge is associated with a purely functional name, it’s [the name] neither checked for conflict during submission or protected from conflict afterwards.” The addition of the adjective Worshipful lifts this out of the realm of purely functional, even through the adjective is part of the designator and not part of the descriptive element. [Lochac, Kingdom of, A-Lochac, 08/2004]

[Æthelmearc, Kingdom of, October 2006, A-Æthelmearc]

Therefore, we uphold the precedents that Worshipful Company of X is not generic as long as a branch name is also included and have added of Dragonship Haven in order to register this guild name. This ruling does not mean that generic identifiers in general can be made registerable in this manner.

Fearghus mac Cailín. Device. Per fess sable and argent, a sun Or and a wolfhound courant sable and in chief two mullets of seven points argent.

Fearghus mac Griogair. Device. Argent, a squirrel’s head cabossed sable jessant-de-lys vert.

The use of jessant-de-lys with anything other than a lion’s or leopard’s head is a step from period practice.

Halldís Úlfsdóttir. Name.

Submitted as Halldís Úlfsdottir, the accent in the given name was inadvertently dropped by kingdom: Halldis Úlfsdottir. We have restored the given name to the submitted form. In addition, we have modified the byname in order to use accents consistently throughout the name: Úlfsdóttir.

Hrafn Isauga. Name.

Submitted as Hrafn Is-augu, the constructed byname Is-augu was intended to mean “ice-eyes”. In commentary, ffride wlffsdotter found examples such as hrakauga (“crack-eye”), járnauga (“iron-eye”), and krókauga “hook-eye” in Tilnavne i den islandske oldlitteratur by Finnur Jónsson ( and in Lind Personbinamn. However, all of these examples use the singular form “eye”. Therefore, we have changed the byname to the singular form Isauga (“ice-eye”) to register this name.

Kellenin de Lanwinnauch. Name change from Rys Waytheman.

Nice Welsh name for around 1200!

The submitter’s previous name, Rys Waytheman, is retained as an alternate name.

Morwenna O Hurlihie. Name and device. Vert, in fess three drop spindles argent.

Morwenna is an English saint’s name.

Regnulf of Crakehale. Name and device. Vert, a corncrake and on a chief embattled Or three acorns vert.

This is the defining instance of the corncrake in Society armory. This bird is described in “De Arte Venandi Cum Avibus of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen” and the spelling “Corne Crake” dated to 1455 in the OED.

For purpose of conflict checking, the bird is considered poultry-shaped.

Settmour Swamp, Barony of. Order name Company of Mud.

This order name follows the pattern of naming an order after a founder. In this case, Mud is a late period English surname used as a given name.

Settmour Swamp, Barony of. Order name Order of the Copper Tower.

The pattern Order of the [Metal] Tower is grandfathered to the submitter.

Syele von Heidelberg. Badge. (Fieldless) On a garb Or a scythe vert.

Þorsteinn Hroðbjartsson. Device. Per pale azure and argent, a fox rampant contourny and a seal haurient embowed counterchanged, on a chief Or five hop cones inverted vert.

Vivien de Valois. Device. Argent, a lion passant double queued and in base two crescents gules, a bordure sable.

Yamada Kiku. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for a Japanese name, but with no specific time period.

The given name Kiku was popular in the Muromachi period (1333-1573). However, Keystone noted in commentary that it is very unusual for a monothematic feminine given name like Kiku to be used without a prefix or suffix. In this case, Kiku is attested during the Muromachi period (1333-1573). At that time, according to Solveig Throndardottir’s Name Construction in Medieval Japan (NCMJ, revised edition), “the o- prefix to women’s names became universal for the buke class. Further, their names were frequently followed by the common name of a father, a husband, or another male relative.” Therefore, the given name plus the honorific would be O-kiku, with or without the male relative’s common name.

In addition, Keystone considered the surname Yamada to be unlikely, as it is a kuge (imperial court nobility) name. NCMJ states that women retained their uji (clan names) throughout life and these ujiwere combined with their personal names by the Kamakura period.

Therefore, this name is not authentic, but it is registerable.

Filed under: Announcements, Heraldry, Official Notices

Farewell Missive from Brigantia Herald

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2016-10-28 10:29

One last time the people will hear from me.
I will stand for the last time as Brigantia at BBM/Bergental Yule. At that time Master Malcolm Bowman will be invested as the 18th Brigantia Principal Herald of the Kingdom of the East. I wish him as interesting of a term as the four years in which I have served.

The job of Brigantia is one where you cannot talk less, but it is one for which I can’t imagine to have smiled more. And it isn’t one which is done alone. There are armies of people who have worked with me, supported me, and gotten the work done. I cannot possibly thank you all as I would need a special edition of the Pikestaff just to thank everyone individually.

That being said I have to give special thanks to Treannah and Alys for being my Right Hand Ladies for the first three years and to Malcolm for being my Right Hand Man this past year. Knowing I had you all to fall back on gave me confidence that I would be able to handle the challenges of this office. You helped me rise up to the occasion of my station.

I must give special thanks to Yehuda for first revolutionizing the Heraldic Education Office and then taking up the mantle of Submission Herald. Neither of those positions are easy and you have handled both with aplomb and skill. Your education videos are viewed as THE definitive primer for SCA heraldry across the known world. The results of your work continually blow us all away.

In the last four years of my administration every single facet of the award structures of the East has been revolutionized. From the renaming of several awards in order to register them with the SCA College of arms in my first and second years, through the elevation of the Orders of High Merit and establishment of the AoA Orders, every award has changed. I could not have handled these changes without Her Majesty Anna and Master Rowen as my Precedence Clerks. Thank you both for your friendship, patience, support, and non-stop work. I could not have done this job without you both.

Thanks too to everyone in the Submissions Herald’s department. Every month the East submits and processes more names and armory than any other Kingdom and the entire department, from consultations all the way through Notifications, makes it look easy. Nobody can know just how much work you put in unless they’re in the room where it happens but it is all appreciated.

To the Regional Heralds and Local Heralds, your reports are due December 1st… I’m not going to remind you again about these. Seriously, thank you all for your support on every level.

Thanks must go to Alys, Treannah, Rowen, Malcolm, Ernst and Maria, and Donovan. Thank you all for leading your reigns’ courts and freeing me to handle the non-court workload without driving myself crazy. If I had to handle every court over the last 4 years, on top of what seems like Non Stop writing I would have burnt out long, long ago.

To Edward and Thyra for selecting me for this job: Thank you for giving me the opportunity to serve this Kingdom as Brigantia. I hope I have lived up to your confidence. To Gregor and Kiena, Kenric and Avelina, Brennan and Caoilfhionn, Omega and Etheldreda, and Brion and Anna, thank you for allowing me to be on your Heraldic Staffs and putting up with my stubbornness and, sometimes hair brained, initiatives. It’s always been nice to have you all on my side.

As I say goodbye I look forward to moments alone in the shade, at home in this Kingdom we have made. And as I cannot say this any better than by paraphrasing the original source:

Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error. I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. I shall also carry with me the hope that my Kingdom will view them with indulgence; and that after four years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion. – G. Washington (Oh COME ON, like you didn’t notice all the Hamilton References in this letter. It’s a good line though, right?)

In all seriousness, these last four years have opened my eyes to the Society as a whole and have deepened my love and pride in my kingdom and its inhabitants. The East leads the Known World for a reason. That reason is its people. It is a humbling experience to have been responsible for a Kingdom’s ceremony and legacy. It has been a privilege being its ambassador to the Known World. I will carry the pride in this Kingdom for the rest of my days. Thank you all.

To the East and the Society I remain their obedient servant,
Master Ryan Mac Whyte,
17th Brigantia Emeritus of the Kingdom of the East

Filed under: Official Notices, Tidings

Last Scribal Tour Workshop Is November 12

AEthelmearc Gazette - Fri, 2016-10-28 08:06

Zero to Hero!

The final Scribal Tour workshop (Italian White Vine) will be held at Æcademy in Nithgaard on November 12, 2016.

Master Creador will provide a lecture on the evolution and “rules” of Italian White Vine, next up – gilding a capital with Mistress Antoinette, painting with the soon-to-be Master Kieran, and our very own Master Kameshima will provide the calligraphy instruction – four solid hours of scribes doing what they do best, creating art!

Attendees are expected to attend all four parts, and sorry, but no auditors can be accepted.

Participants must register with Antoinette via the before November 8, 2016. No registrations on the day of Æcademy will be accepted. Our instructors need to know precisely how many attendees to expect.

Fee is $10.00 for materials, everyone will leave with a finished piece that day.

All attendees will be entered in the raffle of a $100.00 gift card to Paper and Ink. Each time a scribe participates in a 2016 Scribal Tour Workshop, they are entered or re-entered in the grand drawing December 1, 2016.

Questions? Email me at



Categories: SCA news sites

Happy Tidings: Welcome Æthelmearc’s Newest Subject!

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2016-10-26 19:37

We are very happy to announce the birth of Viktoria Lola, born 10/24/2016, to Lady Maggie Rue and Lord Methius Weasel. The family is doing well. Welcome to Æthelmearc, Viktoria, and congratulations to the happy family!


Categories: SCA news sites

Æthelmearc Crown in Sugarpaste

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2016-10-26 11:15

By Sir Ian Kennoven.

Photo by Rose Ashbaugh

For the Coronation dinner of Marcus III and Margerite of Æthelmearc, held at Harvest Raid in the Shire of Heronter on September 24, I created an edible crown. There are several crown styles available to the monarchs of Æthelmearc, but the Byzantine style looked to be the simplest to reproduce, so that is where I started.  My intent is to do the others at some future date… 

Master Janos (majordomo for the reign) provided me a with few pictures of the crown in his care.

I then made a cardstock mock-up and shaping form.

Next, I mixed up a batch of sugarpaste:

  • 1/2 tsp. gum tragacanth
  • 1 tsp. lemon juice
  • 2 tsp. orange blossom water
  • 1 Tb.  egg white
  • 12 to 16 oz. sugar, ground fine

Wet the gum with the lemon juice then add the orange blossom water and egg white.

Rest for several minutes and slowly incorporate the sugar until the desired consistency is reached.

The paste was rolled out and with the mock-up used as a template, the front piece was cut out. I worked the piece flat (smoothed the center areas and textured the borders), but when it was lifted to place onto the form the surface crinkled and much of the detail was lost. The form was too flimsy to work on, so if I make this crown again, I will create a more rigid form to work upon. The sugar was cured for a day in the dehydrator before being removed from the form. The sides were then cut. They slid off the form through the night, but luckily broke along the lines delineating the individual plaques. I now had an eight-piece sculpture instead of four.

They were placed back on the form and cured for another day before being removed so that the back piece could be manufactured.

A template was made and the escarbuncles were quickly cut out of sugarpaste using an X-Acto knife.

Once all the pieces had cured for a few days it was time to gold & silver leaf them. Each section was painted with egg white and allowed to dry. Twenty-four sheets of edible gold leaf and six sheets of edible silver leaf later, they were shiny.

I made a very quick plaster mold from wax cabochons. They shifted on me while pouring the plaster, but enough were workable to make the carnelians. After melting out the wax and allowing the form to cool, it was soaked overnight in water.  I dissolved 1 cup of granular sugar in 1/2 cup of water, tossed in a small red beet from the garden and a tablespoonful of red sandalwood powder. (Editor’s note: red sandalwood, or sanders, is edible, while brown sandalwood used for incense is inedible.) This was brought to around 200 degrees Fahrenheit then the solids were strained out. The syrup was quickly placed back on the heat,  brought to 300 F,  removed from the heat and the bottom of the pan was placed briefly in cool water. The mold was patted dry and a spoon was used to drip syrup into the mold. As they cooled the carnelians were popped out and more were cast.

Once cooled the sugar carnelians were glued in place with a thinned-out version of the sugarpaste.

This was allowed to rest for a day, then the whole was assembled using the same sugar glue. The crown was placed in the dehydrator overnight.

The seams were then covered in gold leaf and the crown was returned to the dehydrator for another night.

Sir Ian presents the sugarpaste crown. Photo by Karen Mensch DeMichiei

Their Majesties Margerite and Marcus. Photo by Phil Martino

I presented the subtlety to Their Majesties about halfway through the feast.  By the end of the meal, Her Majesty had broken the crown into pieces and distributed them to be eaten by the populace.

Reprinted from Sir Ian’s blog. All photos courtesy of Sir Ian, except where noted.

Categories: SCA news sites

St. Eligius A&S Event: Details and New Challenges

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2016-10-26 09:59

Submitted by R.Wurm, Barony of Dragonship Haven

Greetings Everyone

St. Eligius is right around the corner and Dragonship Haven is so excited! Queen Anna is honoring us with Her Presence, plus we have some new challenges and special competitions.

New this year are the Baron Adhemar Challenges: Misadventures and Collaboration. Sound intriguing? Go to the Baronial Website or our East Kingdom event listing to find out more and for all other competition information.

Other specialized contests include; Master Alexander the Younger’s Challenge, SCA Kluge, Medieval Moment and Artisan’s Progress, and we will have our Populace and Baron & Baroness’s Choice awards, as always.

St. Eligius is designed to have something for everyone; great food, great prizes, great company and great fun! We pride ourselves on our unique and diverse judging formats and our friendly and supportive atmosphere where all entrants, displayers, and onlookers will feel comfortable, encouraged, and go home feeling enthused and delighted!  Also, St Eligius is a good place to hone and get feedback on your entry for the upcoming King and Queen’s Arts and Sciences Competition.

Don’t feel like entering a competition? Please bring the project that you have been working on, finished or not. We want to see it and have plenty of tables for display only.

We are pleased to announce that there will be fencing, lots of it, with at least 2 tourneys. Since fencing is an art, we can’t leave it out of our A&S day.  Lord Christoffel will be running “The Art of Fence Challenge”; pick your favorite period fencing master and fence in that style.  More on this can be found on our event announcement.

We have space for any Guilds or groups that would like to meet. Please contact the stewards to reserve some space.

Please plan on joining us on November 12th for a day *well spent*. We look forward to seeing you and spending some quality time together!

Thank you in advance.
Hope to see you there!
R. Wurm

Filed under: Announcements, Events, Local Groups

Unofficial Court Report for King’s & Queen’s Rapier Champions

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2016-10-26 08:57

Their Royal Majesties, Brion III and Anna III, ventured forth to Their Barony of Iron Bog on the 22nd of October, Anno Societatis fifty-one, there to watch the competition to determine the new King’s and Queen’s Rapier Champions.

After spending the day watching over 90 combatants compete for the honour of serving as Champion, Their Majesties opened Their Court. His Majesty invited before him the retiring King’s Rapier Champion, Master Donovan Shinnock, thanked him for a well-run tourney, and said that he would be sad to see him go. His Majesty took back the regalia of the office and Master Donovan stepped down.

His Majesty then called for Don Lupold Hass and asked if he would stand as King’s Rapier Champion. Don Lupold accepted and was fitted with the regalia of the office and presented a scroll naming him Champion, penned by Mistress Heather Rose de Gordoun. Don Lupold then took his place in Their Majesties’ Court.

Her Majesty asked for the attendance of the retiring Queen’s Rapier Champion, Don Llewellyn Walsh. She said that he had served with distinction and would always be a champion. Then she took from him the regalia of the office and Don Llewellyn stepped down.

Queen Anna then asked that Don Lottieri Malocchio come forward, which he did to much applause. Her Majesty stated that she’d be honoured to have him as Her Champion because “OMG, what fun!” Don Malocchio was given the regalia of the Queen’s Rapier Champion and given a scroll commemorating this, made by Mistress Heather Rose de Gordoun.

The Ladies of the Rose were called forward. As is their tradition, they offered tokens to individuals who stood out to them. Duchess Etheldreda Ivelchyld offered her token to Lady Genevra d’Angouleme and Lady Pixie of Iron Bog. Countess Marguerite ingen Lachlainn gave her token to Don Melchior Kriebel. Duchess Avelina Keyes presented her token to Master Connor Levingstoune from Atlantia. And Duchess Caoilfhionn inghean Fhaolain’s token went to Lord Xavier the Sinister.

Queen Anna asked for Don Thomas of Effingham, who carried the Cloak of Perseverance for the last year. She accepted it from him, then called for Don Mark le Gabler and presented the Cloak to him, asking him to bear for the next year.

Their Majesties then called for Lord Eldrich Gaiman. They spoke of his swift reactions on the fencing list and his depth of knowledge of his opponents, and had Their herald read a scroll naming him a member of the Order of the Golden Rapier and Granting him Arms. The scroll was made by Mistress Heather Rose de Gordoun.

King Brion and Queen Anna then asked that the children of the East attend them. As has been Their habit for this reign, they offered the children toys, but first required that they learn something of the Society. Master Donovan Shinnock was called forward to explain the art of defense and distribute the largess.

Next, those new to the Society were called before the thrones. Their Majesties offered tokens that the newcomers might remember their first days among us.

The event steward, Lady Aibhilin inghean ui Phaidin, was summoned and thanked, along with the Barony of Iron Bog, for the wonderful event they had put together for Their Majesties.

Friar Jacob the Wanderer was called forward and Their Majesties spoke of his storytelling skills and his “Children’s Bedtime Story Hour” at Pennsic. For his skill in the performing arts, Friar Jacob was made a Companion of the Order of the Troubadours and given a small cup by the Crown, the regalia of the Order.

Captain Berrick Grayveson was called next to attend the Crown. Their Majesties spoke of his time serving as a rapier marshal and twice as Rapier Champion of the Barony of Bhakail, and his teaching of silk banner making, and made Berrick a Companion of the Order of the Silver Wheel. A scroll commemorating this was penned by Mistress Heather Rose de Gordoun.

Lord Connor MacSeamus O’Neal was summoned before the thrones. Their Majesties spoke of his artistry, his metalwork, and his skill making guards for rapier blades, and felt that these talents should be rewarded. They named him a Companion of the Order of the Maunche. A scroll will be forthcoming.

Their Majesties summoned Lord Ian Douglas. They spoke of his many years as a rapier combatant and marshal and his participation in the cut-and-thrust community, and felt this deserved recognition. They named him a member of the Order of the Silver Rapier and presented him a scroll with illumination by Lady Triona MacCaskey, calligraphy by Master Jonathan Blaecstan, and words by Mistress Dorigen of the Grey Gate.

Next, the Crown called for Lord Morwil MacShane. They recalled his time as Ladies’ Rapier Champion for Bhakail, his service as a rapier marshal, and his place as a alternate on the Pennsic Champions team, and felt all these things deserving. They named Lord Morwill a member of the Order of the Silver Rapier and gifted him a scroll saying such, created by Mistress Heather Rose de Gordoun.

Finally, King Brion and Queen Anna summoned Their Order of Defense. Their Majesties found when that Order gathered, however, that it was incomplete. Queen Anna turned to Her Rapier Champion, Don Lottieri Malocchio and though her herald delivered to him a Writ, to be answered at a later date, that he might respond to Their Majesties’ Summons whether he would take his place as a member of that Order. The words were written by Lady Liadan inghean Chineada.

Their Majesties then thanked all involved with putting on the event, and all attending the event and, there being no further business, processed from the hall.

These are the events of the day as I recall them. My thanks to all the retainers, guards, heralds, Champions, event staff, and attendees who made the day as joyful as it was.

Pray know I remain,
For Crown and College,

Master Rowen Cloteworthy

Filed under: Court

Sheep & Wool Festival Through the Eyes of A First Timer

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2016-10-25 14:51

By Lady Pertolongan Kucingyn.

Welcome to the Festival! All photos by Pertolongan Kucingyn.

I am new to the fiber arts, having just learned how to knit recently.  My teacher, Mistress Irene von Schmetterling, had the wonderful idea of going to this amazing event, the New York Sheep and Wool Family Festival, on the weekend of October 15, in Rhinebeck, NY.  I had no idea what to expect but was game for a weekend away from our home, the Barony Marche of the Debatable Lands.

We arrived a half an hour early for the festival, yet there were already at least a hundred people waiting to get in.  Many sported their recent creations and were quick to ogle each other’s work.  The atmosphere was open, friendly, and very welcoming.  

After walking through the first building of vendors I knew this was no ordinary event.  My biggest first impression was of the breadth of color on display!  There was wool in every form, and the dyed fiber contained every imaginable color you could wish for.  One of the vendors specialized in using all-natural dyes and labeled her fiber with the plant used to dye it.  The fiber came in every texture from the rougher wool to the silkiest Cria wool that was impossible not to pet.

Needle felted Triceratops.

There was every tool imaginable for working wool.  If you went there with nothing you could be fully kitted out to work raw wool into a fine garment… if you were wealthy enough to buy everything!  The tools ranged from functional and sturdy to exquisitely beautiful.  There were drop spindles I would have been delighted to use as a decoration in my house for the beautiful designs inlayed in the tops.  Spinning wheels galore were available in every shape and size.  Beautifully wrought looms from portable designs to big floor looms were available.  Perhaps the most clever thing on sale was the 3D-printed Turkish-style drop spindle with a lifetime guarantee.  If a part ever breaks, all you need to do is send the broken piece in and the company sends you a replacement!

 For those people interested in where the wool comes from you could spend time in the animal barns.  Throughout the day, there were demonstrations on shearing and educational talks about the different types of animals and their husbandry.  There were many breeds of sheep on display showing all the different colors and coats to choose from.  The llamas looked on placidly as you stopped to admire them. (My favorite was a white llama with the brown spots all over.)  There were alpaca and goats on display, too.  Some of the goats were quite interested in the people and things around them.  A vendor had to rescue her camp chair from the questing teeth of one goat!  The angora rabbits on display hardly looked real with their long, flowing locks.  I know some of the rabbits were available for purchase and I had to restrain myself from being tempted by a new cuddly companion.

There was no fear of going hungry at this event – it was loaded with food vendors!  There were stands of typical fair food: fried dough, French fries, burgers, and kettle corn.  But there were also vendors that sold lamb dishes.  We stopped at a food truck selling Moroccan lamb stew with a spiced chickpea side dish.  The lamb in the stew was cooked to perfection and delightfully spiced. 

There was a building devoted to food and wine.  Many small New York wineries from all over the state were there offering tastings of their wines.  You could buy frozen lamb cuts that were sent home in an insulated bag.  Specialty cheese vendors were very busy and had long lines of people waiting to get a taste.  You could get homemade pickles and specialty chocolates.  A maple sugar vendor was even selling maple sugar cotton candy.  I bought a peck of my favorite type of apple from the one fresh fruit vendor there. 

There were plenty of finished items for sale too.  I came home with a beautiful alpaca sweater and a wool jacket.  There were socks, hats, mittens, gloves, and scarves to purchase too.  The needle-felted crafts ranged from adorable to incredible.  One booth had the entire cast of characters from the Hobbit including a four-foot-long needle-felted Smaug that must have taken months to create.  My favorite needle-felted item was a picture of a cheetah face.  It was so incredibly detailed that I thought it was a painting until I was up close!  I can’t believe that could be done in needle felting!  We found some lovely soaps and lotions containing lanolin that will be much appreciated in the winter months to come. 

On Sunday, there was a “Fleece to Shawl” contest of several teams of three spinners and one weaver.  There was a team of East Kingdom gentles (in garb) feverishly working away on a beautiful blue and white piece.  The contest required competing teams make a shawl step by step: starting with washed fleece, through hand carding, to spinning, to weaving, and finally to finishing ends.  We stopped to cheer them on.  I keep checking the website for the results of the competition but it hasn’t been posted yet.

Overall, I was delightfully surprised at all there was to do and see at the festival.  We were there all day on Saturday and for a couple of hours on Sunday, and yet we still didn’t see and do everything there was to do.  Anyone who is involved in the fiber arts should definitely try to attend this event.  You won’t be sorry you went!

(Editor’s Note: The Festival’s Facebook page can be found under “New York State Sheep and Wool Festival.”)

Categories: SCA news sites

In Memorium: Mistress Elsa de Lyon

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2016-10-25 14:44

Mistress Elsa de Lyon passed from this world on October 20, 2016, leaving behind two sons and their families, her mother and the remainder of her family – both chosen and blood relatives – and many, many friends.

Elsa began her journey in the SCA in 1991, in the Shire of Montevale. Her wish to spread her creative talents and help others made her a community leader in her Shire as a Minister of Arts and Science from 2001 to 2004, with a small break from officer work for a few years to again step up and become Seneschal for the Shire of Montevale for five years (2009-2014). Recently, she had become A&S Minister again, because she wanted to continue to serve her local group, and enjoyed this role.

Although she would also serve as a head cook at a few events in the western portion of the Southern Region over the years, many remember her best as a scribe in the East Kingdom College of Scribes. While she physically could not travel the Kingdom, her work would travel to the far corners of the Kingdom and across Kingdom borders to inspire others over these many years.

Elsa was a regular teacher at Pennsic, whether taking groups out for a weed walk, teaching basic calligraphy courses at the Aethelmearc Scribal Track and also helping with setup and breakdown at scribal gatherings at Pennsic. At home, she was a gentle lady, always willing to help others develop their artistic skills in informal one-on-one lessons, at demos, and in occasional local A&S workshops. Her skill was noticed by the Society Chronicler in A.S. 36 and she was nominated for a William Blackfox award for her work on the December 2001 cover of the Montevale Knightly Knews.

Iris by Mistress Elsa

After being recognized with an Award of Arms, a Maunche, the Queen’s Honor of Distinction (Jana IV), and the Order of the Silver Crescent, Elsa was issued a Writ of Summons by Their Graces Brennan and Caoilfhionn in May of 2014, commanding her to appear in court at Southern Region War Camp to consider her elevation to the Order of the Laurel. On June 28, AS 49 (2014), Elsa was released as an apprentice by Mistress Kay Leigh Mac Whyte, and her elevation was witnessed by all present including her household Clan Black Dragons, her son Ryan, and scribes from the Mac Whyte House.. Speakers for her elevation included Master Denys the Decadent of Aethelmearc, Sir Wulfbrand, Duchess Roxane, Mistress Farasha, and Elsa’s first Laurel, Mistress Brighid the Limner, whom had previously retired from the SCA and returned for this special occasion.

In recent years, Elsa made a point of traveling to Pennsic each year to see friends from afar, and could always be found working on something creative that would cause joy to both herself and others.

Mistress Kay Leigh Mac Whyte shares the following memories of her student and friend:

“I had met Elsa at one of the first Known World Scribal Gatherings at Pennsic (about 16 years ago), held in Midrealm Royal camp at the time. I was in my first year as a scribe in service to the East Kingdom College of Scribes, maybe in my 3rd year in the SCA as a whole, and I recall being overjoyed to bump into someone from “back home”, despite the physical distance between us. We remained in touch through the mailing list for scribes and via email for many years after, and into the years when social media became available. In 2012 while I served as Tyger Clerk of the Signet, I was able to see her work a bit more often, and marveled again at her talent. Although she had the strong support of her local community, and although I viewed her as more of an equal if not my better in many ways, we spoke privately and we had agreed that an advocate for her behind the scenes was needed, and entered into a student-peer relationship, which became an apprenticeship at Pennsic the following year. We would continue to stay in touch, becoming closer within the last five years, albeit perhaps not as close as her SCA household and mundane family.

Detail from a Queen’s Cypher scroll

Our last meeting was at Pennsic 45, at which Elsa and I would meet every day, making the most of the time we had together since we rarely had opportunity during the rest of the year to travel to see each other; her schedule was just as busy as mine, but I would always hear of the success of her prize-winning daffodil bulbs (goodness, she could tell you a million different things about daffodils and other members of the Amaryllidaceae family) as a master gardener and competitor in local gardening shows, or occasions where she had time to teach others at demos or events. We also shared our concerns over the welfare of and recognition of gentles in the southwestern borders of the East Kingdom, and she took to heart her duties as a new peer in looking after others in her community, encouraging them to grow further in the SCA. When we parted ways at the close of this past Pennsic, we probably took several attempts at saying goodbye, knowing it would be a while before we would see each other again.

We made the most of the time we had, and the East was blessed to have this gentle woman among us, with a smile, laughter and gentle demeanor that influenced others across Kingdom borders. She was the kind of person I wanted to be when I grew up, long before I was a peer, and I and others have been honored to have known her simply as a friend, grateful for having her in our lives, and her example to live by.”

A memorial service for friends will be held at Gensel Funeral Home at 333 Falling Spring Road, Chambersburg, PA 17201 on Saturday, October 29 2016. Please note that her family has requested that friends of Elsa wishing to attend please arrive at 1:00pm, one hour prior to the family service at 2pm.

A GoFundMe page (originally set up for her medical expenses for recovery) has since been left up online to cover funeral costs as well.  A memorial page has been set up by her family.

Filed under: Tidings Tagged: in memoriam