SCA news sites

Experimental Rapier Deputy Sought

East Kingdom Gazette - 2 hours 49 min ago

Unto the Kingdom of the East do I, Master Frasier MacLeod, Kingdom Rapier Marshal, send warmest greetings,

I am writing to you today to put out a call for my Experimental Deputy position.  Before I go any further, I would like to take this opportunity to thank Master Alesone Grey for her tireless work in that position up to this point.  This positions’ duties include coordinating with my office any experimental programs and proposals my office receives, reporting progress on a quarterly basis to my office, and assisting those running experimental programs with any questions or concerns they may have and relaying those inquiries to me.

If you are interested in applying for this office, please send your SCA resume and qualifications to my office at: kmof@eastkingdom.org

I remain, in Service,

Master Frasier MacLeod, KRM, East


Filed under: Rapier

On Target: Dumpster Diving

AEthelmearc Gazette - 6 hours 2 min ago

This month’s installment of On Target: the art of dumpster diving, or one man’s trash is a marshal’s treasure.

Here are some of the things I’ve dug out of the trash over the years.

First, a styrofoam block.  Cover it with some clear tape so that it doesn’t send pieces all over the range when it gets hit. Put a piece of cardboard in front of it, lined off to look like a brick wall, and you can put things on it to shoot.

Next, I found this mutant alien lizard at a game. It had a futuristic blaster in its hand, but I covered that with a round piece of cardboard (out of the trash) to look like a shield, and now I have a troll from Lord of the Rings.

Last, I found this beat up target of a deer. Taping it together made the perfect stencil, which I used to make the beautiful target you see at right.

Anybody can buy something at the store, but doing it yourself is so much more fun and rewarding. The smiles you see on the range will bring you plenty of satisfaction.

This month’s safety tip: if you are reaching into a trashcan, remember that you are trespassing, so be sure to ask the store manager first. The person may even assist you. Also, there could be nails, rusty cans, or broken glass, so be careful.

I hope you all had a happy New Year, and I look forward to seeing you when the weather changes.

‘Til next time.

THLord Deryk Archer


Categories: SCA news sites

College of Three Ravens: Lunch Menu, Feast Recipes

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2017-01-18 23:33
College of Three Ravens is much earlier than normal this year. Although the Thescorre schola event has been in mid-February for three decades, it will be on January 28 this year, which is in little over a week!

The lunch menu is:

beef stew
vegan soup
sliced ham
cheeses
breads (gluten-free choice) 
four different types of fresh Amish butter (cinnamon, herb, honey and plain) 
veggies
fruit and some kind of sweet (cookie or cake)

The evening’s dinner menu is: First Course Fresh apple cider or apple juice (plus pitchers of water) Homemade bread with plain butter Salad of mixed greens & herbs with dried figs, olives, oranges, & toasted almonds, served with olive oil/balsamic vinaigrette Marinated carrots Lamb meatballs Cinnamon honey mustard Walnut herb pesto Second Course Chicken pie (a crustless pie will be available for GF gentles on request) Broccoli with cheese sauce Ginger sweet potato apple casserole Third Course Roasted beef with au jus (courtesy of Baron Eric Grenier de Labarre) Yorkshire-style pudding (plain buttered rice available for gluten intolerant gentles on request) Favas with marjoram Minty peas Fourth Course Shortbread Almond macaroons Candied cherries Hot chocolate with whipped cream For questions about the lunch, please contact Lady Marguerite De Neufchasteau. For questions about the feast, please contact Baroness Katja. The feast recipes are available here. The event announcement, current class schedule, and information for sending in reservations is on the Thescorre website here.
Categories: SCA news sites

Happenings at Heronter Twelfth Night

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sun, 2017-01-15 19:02

by Duchess Dorinda Courtenay,
Gazette-Reporter-At-Large
Photos by Lady Ginevra Isabetta Del Dolce

What a great day for the arts in Heronter!

We had an A&S competition, with 7 entries.

Lady Cassandra entered two hand stitched pouches, one with an escarbuncle. It was an amazing use of the leather she had, with some creative solutions to the natural flaws of the material.

Master Antonio de Luna entered wire weaving with gems inside – beautiful!

Hearth Basket. by Charles Cowan. This entry was honored with appreciation from the Crown! Beautiful display!

Debby Schmoker Cowan entered the most brilliant purple hand dyed wool I have ever seen! Lord Uriel Isaacovich performed two period magic tricks for the judges and the Queen – I think there is a trick to your work, friend!

Charles Cowan entered a basket that caught the eye of everyone, but as the Crown comes first, King Marcus and Queen Margerite named it their choice.

Lady Ginevra Isabetta Del Dolce brought several illuminated pieces. She took the extra time to put them on easels and include the exemplar from which she was working, and was recognized with “best display”.

Lastly, Broddr Reffson entered a knife and scabbard – hand made and with decorative details appropriate to the early period. He was named winner of the contest. I loved the variety and the skill shown by all of these entries! Thank you to Duchess Siobhan for helping me judge and to TRM’s for taking the time to view the work.

In addition, THL Eleanore Godwin ran a scribal table, and Mistress Lydia Allen spent hours talking with newcomer Naomi Baldwin about the fiber arts. Viscountess Eira of Attemark  provided a hand made string of Viking beads that was a hot commodity in the silent auction. (What is the Swedish phrase for “bidding war?”) People wore their best garb.

We also cannot end without talking about the gorgeous hall! THL Lodthinn Vikarsson not only did his stellar job of decorating, he added some touches from the various Tudor videos people were studying to prep for the event. (What was the giant ring of greens called?) It was a stunning atmosphere for us to ring in the new year together.

Thank you all for making it a great day!

 


Categories: SCA news sites

Duke Matthew Blackleaf Receives Pelican Writ

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sat, 2017-01-14 21:07

photo by Duchess Siobhán

We would like to announce that today at our Shire of Heronter 12th night we gave Duke Matthew Blackleaf a writ to the Order of the Pelican. Time and date of elevation to be determined.

Marcus & Margerite

(Writ Tankard scroll by Liadain ní Dheirdre Chaomhánaigh)


Categories: SCA news sites

Preview the New Kingdom Website! Your Input is Welcome!

AEthelmearc Gazette - Fri, 2017-01-13 20:50

Unto the Populace of Æthelmearc does the Kingdom Webminister, Lady Amalie Reinhardt, send warm greetings!

The new website build is ready for public preview to receive any needed corrections and constructive feedback. Our new site has a mobile version, if you wish to look at it on a tablet or cell phone.

Some other items of note on our new site:
– The display of Google Maps for events has been fixed.
– There will be a new method for submitting information for Kingdom Calendar items and there is an actual calendar to display the events.
– We have all our files (policies, paper-based forms, and the like) hosted on a file server.
– All our forms are hosted on (and linked to) the new form server.

Please note some upcoming projects on the Website and from the Webminister Office:
– A new Æthelmearc Kingdom map
– Adding more photos of Kingdom Officers
– The Kingdom webserver switch

The dev site can be found here.
Please do *NOT* bookmark this site, as it will be switched to our standard Æthelmearc web address in the future.

All corrections and updates are respectfully requested to be submitted on the Website Correction Form found here.  A link to this form can also be found at the bottom of the announcements on the right side of the front page.

All questions should be directed to me at the ae.webminister@aethelmearc.org email address.

Thank you all very much for your continued support of the Webminister’s Office!

In service,
Lady Amalie
AE Webminister


Categories: SCA news sites

Announcement from the Chancellor of the Exchequer

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-01-13 14:58

From the Chancellor of the Exchequer:

The term of office for the East Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer will expire in June 2017. Applications are now being accepted for this office. The initial term for this office is two years. There is the option to request an additional two terms at one year each. Please note that I am NOT going to be requesting the last additional term.  Having served 3 years in this office, I now need to place my attention elsewhere.

Applicant letters of intent, resumes and questions are to be sent to these three addresses/offices.

Kingdom Exchequer

Kingdom Seneschal

Their Majesties

The duties and requirements of the office include:
• Managing SCA assets.
• Maintain current membership in the SCA for the duration of the time in
office.
• Serve as a member on financial councils.
• Is responsible directly to the Crown, but also reports to the Society
Exchequer.
• Will disburse funds in accordance with East Kingdom and Society
Financial Policies.
• Safeguards and maintains records of the monies of the Kingdom and
supervises the finances of the Kingdom.
• Receives monies allocated by East Kingdom Law or donated.
• Disburses the monies of the Kingdom in accordance with East Kingdom
Law.
• Makes a report of the Kingdom finances on a quarterly basis to The
Crown and Kingdom Seneschal.
• Supervises the Lesser Office of Kingdom Archivist.
• Supervises the Lesser Office of Kingdom Chamberlain.
• Supervises the Lesser Office of Kingdom Pennsic Steward.
• Is responsible for maintaining the financial records of the kingdom,
supervising the finances of the kingdom, and assembling financial
reports and submitting them to the Society Chancellor of the Exchequer
in a timely fashion.

Additional descriptions, expectations and or detailed requirements of
this office can be found in CORPORA & SCA governing documents, Society Financial Policy, EK-LAW and East Kingdom Financial Policy.

In service,

Maestra Ignacia la Ciega, East Kingdom Chancellor of the Exchequer


Filed under: Announcements Tagged: Exchequer, kingdom officers

Leurs Altesses souhaitent recevoir des recommandations pour les ordres votants.

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-01-11 19:22

Salutations à la population de l’Est !

Nous espérons que cette nouvelle année vous trouve en santé et comble vos espérances!

La date limite pour soumettre une recommandation pour le premier scrutin d’un de nos ordres votants sera le 20 janvier 2017. Veuillez envoyer vos recommandations par le site www.eastkingdom.org.

Nous attendons d’avoir de vos nouvelles.

Avec émotion et grand enthousiasme pour le futur,
Princesse Honing et Prince Ioannes

Traduction par: Behi Kirsa Oyutai


Filed under: Announcements, En français, Official Notices

Pin Down the Dead! Or, how to protect against zombies and the evil eye…

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2017-01-11 18:37

By Elska á Fjárfella of the Dominion of Myrkfaelinn, 2016

As part of my Viking persona the need for some sort of magical amulet devolved into another research project. I had heard about thunderstones, and straightforward that I am, assumed those would have been made out of fulgurites, which form of melted sand from lightning striking the beach. But just to be on the safe side I looked into these fascinating talismans and found that throughout history many, many objects had been perceived as thunderstones. For a very long time thunderstones were believed to be the physical remains of thunderbolts or lightning strikes endowed with the power to avert evil or bad luck, and to protect the house, property and family against lightning and by association, storms and fire. In the words of 17th century Adrianus Tollius “Thunderstones are generated in the sky by a fulgureous exhalation (whatever that may look like) conglobed in a cloud by a circumfixed humour, and baked hard, as it were, by intense heat”…

As much as that almost seems plausible, what did they expect those exhalations to look like? Most thunderstones seem to fall into one of three categories: they look like weapons (the sky gods used lightning as a weapon, like Thor’s hammer Mjöllnir), they are associated with thunderstorms (for instance resemble hail) or have lightning like properties (spark fire). Preferably they are found in conjunction with lightning storms and lightning strikes: objects that were not there before the storm but were there after – washed out of the ground by heavy rains but attributed to having fallen out of the sky; like stone objects with a peculiar shape, with holes in them or sharp ends, polished, chipped (proof they fell from the sky), perfectly round, smooth, with a projectile shape, like pointed, arrow like etc…

Thunderstone amulets could be categorized in three classes: the minerals, the fossils and the ceraunia. Examples of minerals would be those unusually shaped stones; fire sparking stones like flint, iron pyrite and bog iron; fulgurites (found by digging out the lightning strike site, looking for the magical core) and meteorites, especially those with remaglypts which do kinda look like fingerprints of the gods! Only a couple types of fossils are considered thunderstones: sharks teeth and Belemnites (squid) resemble weapons, and Echinoids are rather round with a, to us, familiar five pointed pattern. But the most interesting are the ceraunia. These stone age tools were crafted by early man, but as this knowledge had been forgotten, the sometimes abundantly found stone weapons became part of thunderstone myths instead!

 

In archaeology, thunderstones are most often found in grave finds and in house foundations. This is interpreted as a wish to protect the dead and help them into the afterlife, and to protect the house and family from lightning strikes and fire. As thunderstones were seen as the manifestation of lightning strike cores, and throughout history the myth (hope) of “lightning/disaster never strikes twice” prevailed (even today, as shown by the Norse disaster protection rune on our modern day ambulances), having a thunderstone in your house or on your person would, therefore, exempt you from being hit.

The connection between thunderstones and burial could come from their connection to faeries. The Fae were thought to be the inhabitants of a mystical, enchanted world, with plenty of honey and wine, feasts, playing and drinking, and where you’d never grow old (sound familiar?). The Celts believed that this Otherworld could be accessed from the real world through Neolithic and bronze age barrows – which would have stone tools – and thought that Otherworld was the land of the dead. Placing echinoids (called faerie loaves) or stone tools in burial sites would help guide the spirits of the dead on their journey into Otherworld, or the afterlife.

In Norse mythology Thor’s hammer Mjöllnir was thought to have the power to call up the dead to renewed life and placing the sign of Mjöllnir, either as a fossil echinoid or a stone axe, in burials can therefore be seen as an act of symbolizing rebirth after death. Thunderstones were believed to fall from the sky during thunderstorms; missiles hurled by Thor to keep the wandering trolls under control. If a thunderstone struck a troll careless enough to be out in a thunderstorm, instant death followed. If it were not for Thor’s missiles, the Norse believed, the trolls would have spread across the earth like a plague! Thor’s hammer Mjöllnir also represents the lightning as when thrown it magically returns to Thor’s hand, just as natural lightning is seen to strike the earth (leader) and then fly black to the skies (return stroke).

There is also a connection between thunderstones and the use of iron. Revered for its transformative qualities by way of smelting and smithing, the transformation of iron into a new state could be regarded as a parallel for the path of the body and soul through burial rituals and might seem as a good catalyst to assist the dead to do the same, similar to the believe of stone tools and echinoids. According to Norse belief, placing objects of iron in and around the grave site is a most reliable way of ensuring the dead stayed bound to their proper place (the Norse draugr are zombies, apparently risen from the grave due to lack of iron, or thunderstones!). Iron is also used to wire wrap thunderstones to wear as amulets as iron would trap the magic and keep the thunderstone ‘loaded’. Popular myth also mentions faeries can be deterred/trapped or hurt/killed with pure iron, which concurs with thunderstone myths.

Apparently thunderstones were seen as pretty darn useful: tools & echinoids would be included in graves to protect souls, guide travel into the afterlife and keep evil spirits away. They would be placed inside walls, under the floor or the threshold or kept under eaves or staircases of buildings to protect the owner and his house from being struck by lightning, fire and storms, and would be worn to avoid dying at sea, losing in battles, and to guarantee good sleep at night.

Echinoids placed on shelves in the pantry would keep the milk fresh and cause plenty of cream, and were hung around the necks of cattle. They guaranteed good breeding luck and good hunting & fishing luck. And thunderstone echinoids made the beer ferment.

Who finds a thunderstone should not give it away, otherwise he loses his luck. In Norse mythology they were thought to keep trolls and witches (or general evil) away, and bring good luck. They were also thought to protect the unchristened child against being “changed”. And thunderstones were considered to be good protection against elfish malice, the evil eye and especially, the Devil.

Thunderstone echinoids were even assimilated into Christian culture as a protection sign against evil. In some parts of England, openings like doors and windows on the north side of a church, which in medieval and earlier times was known as the Devil’s side of the church, would be rimmed with echinoids (called shepherd’s crowns), all with the five pointed side visible. Echinoids naturally display a five pointed star, the forbearer of the pentagram, which became symbolic of the power of good over evil!

To keep up with demand, objects that looked like magical items became regarded as similar, and were believed to take on the same magic, which is called the Theory of Similars (or Sympathetic Magic). This explains the prevalence of manmade Thor’s hammer amulets in later period, from very crude (as part of iron amulet rings which were believed to keep the spirits of the dead confined to the grave) to elaborate jewelry pieces, all used as protection amulets and talismans. And how the five pointed star of the echinoid likely evolved into the powerful symbol the pentagram, which took with it several of the thunderstones protections, including safeguarding brewing (Scandinavian), protection against witches & general evil and especially protection against the Devil.

Interestingly, the word “urchin” for modern sea urchins likely came by way of thunderstones: fossil echinoids, often called fairy loaves, were associated with the Fae, and another word for these creatures was “urchin”. And ironically, it took until contact with Native American Indians in the 16th CE, who at that time still used stone tool technology, for the European scientific community to realize ceraunia were actually stone tools made by an earlier kind of people!

Over time, the powerful thunderstones devolved into no more than talismans, or lucky stones. But remember, next time you find a stone with a hole in, and you just have to put it in your pocket – you’re just following in your ancestors footsteps and there is nothing superstitious about that! Or is there…

The inspiration amulet, my amulet and part of my Thunderstone Amulet display at the Yule Peace Tournament this December. In the foreground is a striker (to demonstrate how well flint sparks fire) and a piece of naturally found flint from England (shaped like a tube as the flint formed in a prehistoric animal seafloor tunnel). Thank you, Angelika for loaning the striker and the replica stone tools, Edward Harbinger for the real stone arrow point and Artemius of Delftwood for the belemnite. The rest of the collection comes from my personal stash collected during years of wandering all over the place picking up whatever looked unusual!

Bibliography

McGinnis M., Meghan P. Ring Out Your Dead. Stockholm: Stockholms Universitet, 2016

http://www.archaeology.su.se/polopoly_fs/1.288568.1467018819!/menu/standard/file/Mattsson_McGinnis_Meghan_Paalz-Ring_Out_Your_Dead.pdf Fig a & b are attributed to this text.

Johanson, Kristiina. The Changing Meaning of ‘Thunderbolts’.

https://www.folklore.ee/folklore/vol42/johanson.pdf

McNamara, Kenneth J. Shepherds’ crowns, fairy loaves and thunderstones: the mythology of fossil echinoids in England. Myth and Geology. London: Geological Society, 2007. Fig 4 & 8 are attributed to this text.

http://sp.lyellcollection.org/content/273/1/279.refs?cited-by=yes&legid=specpubgsl;273/1/279

Report of the U.S National Museum, Part I. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899.

Ravilious, K. “Thor’s Hammer” Found in Viking Graves. National Geographic News, 2010.

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/08/100810-thor-thors-hammer-viking-graves-thunderstones-science/

Seigfried, Karl E. H. The Norse Mythology Blog. 2010

http://www.norsemyth.org/2010/04/mighty-thor-part-one.html

Dian-stanes and “Thunderstones”. Orkneyjar, the heritage of the Orkney Islands.

http://www.orkneyjar.com/tradition/dian.htm

Sibley, Jane The Divine Thunderbolt  USA: XLibris, 2009

Extant piece found at http://www.geolsba.dk/echinoids/dan/Galerites-vikingesmykke.html


Categories: SCA news sites

New Kingdom Officers Announced

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2017-01-10 20:29

Good evening Æthelmearc!

We are pleased to announce the several new officer positions and change overs.

We would thank Duchess Tessa the Huntress for her work as Our Earl Marshal and welcome Master Will Parris as our new Earl Marshal. Duchess Tessa has agreed to continue to bring her depth of knowledge to the newly created position of Pennsic Marshal. Duke Maynard von dem Steine has accepted the newly created position as Rattan Marshal. We expect many good things from this.

We would thank Master Master Benedict Fergus Atte Mede for his work as Kingdom Rapier Marshal and welcome Don Diego Munoz to that position. The position of Kingdom Rapier Marshal was well vied for and a very tough decision for us. We would thank all of the candidates who applied and know that you will continue to support fencing as you have done so in the past.

We would thank Master Augusto Giuseppe da San Donato for his work as Our Kingdom Thrown Weapons Marshal and welcome Master Antonio de Luna to that stead.

Mistress Arianna of Wynthrope has agreed to continue as our Youth Combat Marshal.

We thank Master Fridrikr Tomasson Baroness Orianna Fridrikskona for their willingness to continue as Ministers  of Arts & Sciences and Mistress Alicia Langland as Chancellor of the Æcademy.

We thank Chatelaine Baroness Desiderata Drake for her service as Our Kingdom Chatelaine (especially her work at Pennsic with Newcomers Point) and welcome THLady Rois O`Faye (called Rosheen) to this position.

As always We thank you for your continued service to Æthelmearc. Without your good works to keep Our kingdom running smoothly We would not be able to do our part. We realize this and appreciate you.

Marcus & Margerite
Sylvan Crown of Æthelmearc


Categories: SCA news sites

Out-of-Kingdom Retaining Needed

AEthelmearc Gazette - Mon, 2017-01-09 18:39

Dearest Æthelmearc, your Queen is traveling to other Kingdoms and needs your assistance!

Her Majesty will be traveling to Market Day at Birka in the East Kingdom the weekend of January 27 to 29.. She will need retainers for the day and especially during Court. (Birka Court is historically very long, usually 2 to 3 hours. There’s lots of schtick, though, so it’s fun.)

In March, Her Majesty will travel to the Southern Kingdom of Gleann Abhann to participate in Gulf Wars. Again, she will need retainers for the duration of her stay and during Court.

For both events, if you are attending and can retain at any time, please contact me via Facebook Messenger (Sue Klinger O’Donovan) or email (sodtigger AT gmail DOT com) and include the following details:

  • Your SCA Name
  • Your Legal Name
  • The event you’re volunteering for
  • The dates and times you’re available
  • The best way to reach you ahead of the events
  • The best way to reach you during the events

Unfortunately, I will not be able to attend either event due to mundane considerations, but there will be a head retainer available for both events.

In service, Baroness Rowena Moore


Categories: SCA news sites

“A fresh laid egge”

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sun, 2017-01-08 09:30

The Egg Float Test explained, for period Soapmakers, Cooks, and Brewers.

By Unnr in elska á Fjárfella (Susan Verberg, 2017).

Of the Dominion of Myrkfaelinn in the Kingdom of Aethelmearc.

Sometime in the middle of the 16th century someone figured out that a fresh laid chicken egg has a similar density as certain strengths of solutions. The egg will float instead of sink as it would in plain water, indicating a specific strength or density. First mentioned in soap making manuals to check the strength of lye (1558), it quickly surfaced both in cooking recipes to check the strength of brine (1597), a solution of salt & water, and brewing recipes to check the strength of must (1594), a solution of fruit or honey sugars & water.

Initially the only available references for the egg test in brewing were from the copious but out of period 1669 cookbook The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digby Knight Opened. Even though this manuscript came from Digby’s lifelong collection of recipes and was posthumously published several years after his death so could be seen as probably period, his recipes are much more contemporary to 17th century recipes than to what is found before. For instance, many recipes mentioned in Digby use ingredients and techniques not yet found, or commonly used, in our period of study. The addition of citrus, like lemons, and the use of raisins, which is common in Digby, is not found in any of the pre 1600 recipes. And the technique of aging in the bottle, often for a sparkling beverage, is something that does not match with the medieval method of serving mead young or aging in wooden casks and barrels either. But even though the recipes themselves may not be period, they do tend to include more information on the actual process and can serve as a good almost period explanation on previously unexplained techniques.

It was not until I delved deeper into period mead making that I came across four late 16th century brewing recipes mentioning the egg float test, and was finally able to firmly place this technique within our time of study for all three crafts: soap making, cooking and brewing. This article explores the underlying process and easy application of this intriguing trick of science!

But doesn’t a floating egg mean the egg is spoiled? It depends. The floating egg technique works by way of the internal design of an egg, which includes an air sack at the rounded end of the egg for the bird embryo to breath. A fresh egg has a relatively small air sack but as the egg shell is slightly porous over time the size of the air sack increases as the contents of the egg slowly evaporate and dry out. As an old egg will have a large air sack, when put into water it will bob up and float. This test is still used in our modern times to test to see if an egg is fit to eat before cracking it and not be surprised with a sulfur bomb!

Because the size of the air sack changes over time, interfering with the results of our density test, it is very important to use a fresh egg which has not yet had time to evaporate. It is also important to check the supposedly fresh egg as eggs sold in the supermarket are not always as fresh as you might assume (check the sell by dates or even better, get a local backyard egg). To do this, before every density test calibrate your egg in plain water to make sure it sinks flat to the bottom, with both butt and tip level. Use a wide mouth glass jar and tongs to place the egg on the bottom as it can sink so fast it cracks in bigger jars.

The density or specific gravity of water is 1. When minerals like salts or sugars are dissolved into water the extra particles change the density of the solution by making it more crowded, or dense. A fresh egg has a density between 1.03-1.1 g/ml which means it would be borne, or float, by a solution of a density matching or exceeding 1.03-1.1 g/ml. A saturated salt solution, or brine, has a density of about 1.2 g/ml, a wood ash lye solution for laundry soap a density of about 1.11 g/ml and a brewing solution would be between 1.06-1.1 g/ml – all fairly close together and why using the egg test works, in some way or another, for all three.

In modern brewing a hydrometer is used to take a starting (before fermentation) and finishing (after fermentation) gravity reading. Determining the difference of sugars between start and end makes it possible to calculate the percentage of alcohol produced by the yeast from that difference (what is gone has been consumed by the yeast and thus converted into alcohol). As medieval brewers were not aware of the micro-biology involved in brewing and artificially stopping the yeast for a specific alcohol content was not understood (how they wished to know what caused the summer ‘boiling’ and consequent explosions of wine!), all the brewer needed to know was if there was the right amount of sugar for proper fermentation.

Most recipes ask for so many pounds of honey to so much water, why should you go through the trouble of checking the density to make must? For two reasons, the first being that not all honey is created equal. A thick syrupy honey created in a dry year will have more sugar per liquid volume than a thin, runny honey. Both will make mead, but if you measured a thin honey to make sweet mead you might be unpleasantly surprised at the dry white wine-like mead you ended up with… Secondly, in period all honey would have been used for brewing, not just the easy to extract. The centrifuge type honey extruder is a modern convenience and allows for high yield with minimal processing. In period honey would be extracted by hand, first by breaking up the combs to leak out as much as they could, and then by washing the broken up combs in warm water to dissolve the remaining and any crystallized honey. This honey/water mixture would be of unknown strength and would have to be checked before brewing, as not enough fermentable sugars could result in an easily spoiled brew and too much sugar can inhibit yeast growth, stalling fermentation and giving competitors a change. I don’t doubt master brewers of the time could eyeball or taste and have a perfect brew each time, but for the less initiated household brewer (and modern re-enactor) it is nice to be able to check with a visual aide, as the Digby recipe Mr. Pierce’s Excellent White Metheglin confirms:

 “When it is blood-warm, put the honey to it, about one part, to four of water; but because this doth not determine the proportions exactly (for some honey will make it stronger then other) you must do that by bearing up an Egge.”

Would any kind of fresh egg work? Not until the Digby recipe Mr. Corsellises Antwerp Meath did a recipe specify that the egg should be a hen’s egg “as above, an Hens Egge may swim with the point upwards”. Even so, with differences in breed, health, age and diet the egg size & shape can differ as well. For the best results, Digby’s Mr. Pierce’s recipe advises to test several eggs and pick out the most average one, both in freshness and shape.

… and put a good number, (ten or twelve) New-laid-eggs into it, and as round ones as may be; For long ones will deceive you in the swiming; and stale ones, being lighter then new, will emerge out of the Liquor, the breadth of a sixpence, when new ones will not a groats-breadth. Therefore you take many, that you make a medium of their several emergings; unless you be certain, that they which you use, are immediately then laid and very round.

But what does “beare an egge” mean? How does that look like? It depends on the density you’re looking for and the solution you are playing with. For instance, in soap making two densities are used; a strong one to make laundry soap and a weaker one to make body soap. While in the laundry soap recipe the egg is floating horizontally at the surface (with about the size of a quarter above the surface), as the The seconde part of the Secretes of Master Alexis of Piemont of 1560 puts “the Egge into it, and whiles the egge remaineth aboue”; the body soap recipe for shampoo uses “stronge lye that will beare an egge swimminge betwene two waters”, or, the egg is suspended in the middle.

Soapmaking lye looks like:  laundry strength lye, and  shampoo strength lye.

Laundry strength lye

Shampoo strength lye

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This shampoo recipe is the earliest sample I’ve found of the egg float density test and is part of the 1558 manuscript The secretes of the reuerende Maister Alexis of Piemount Containyng excellent remedies against diuers disease by Girolamo Ruscelli.

A very exquisite soap, made of diverse things.

Take aluminis catini (burnt cream of tartar), quicklime one part, strong lye that will suspend and egg in the middle, three pottels, a pot of common oil; mix all well together, put into it the white of an egg well beaten (dispersant), and a dishful of wheat flour (thickener), and an ounce of roman vitriol (cupric sulfate), or red lead (lead oxide pigment) well beaten into powder, an mix continuously for the space of three hours, then let it rest, by the space of a day, and it will be right and perfect. Finally, take it out, and cut it in pieces: afterwards set it to dry two days, in the wind, but not in the sun. Always use this soap, when you want to wash your hair, for it is very wholesome, and makes fair hair.” (Translated by Susan Verberg)

As the density of a saturated salt solution is fairly strong, the egg in a salt solution would also float horizontally at the surface, similar to laundry soap strength lye. The recipe in the 1597 cookbook The second part of the good hus-wiues iewell by Thomas Dawson uses this technique to make sure the brine is saturated and is the earliest mention I’ve found of the egg float test in a cookbook. Apparently, it is also used for numerous pickling recipes of the new world colonies but I have not found any period mentions of that as of yet.
To keepe lard in season.

Cut your lard in faire peeces, and salt it well with white salte, euery péece with your hand, and lay it in a close vessel then take faire running water, and much white salt in it, to make it brine, the~ boile it vntill it beare an Egge, then put it into your Lard and keepe it close.

Like with soap, brewing with different sugar strengths makes for different types of brews. The stronger the mead the longer it can keep, as Digby’s To Make Metheglin advises: “If you would have it to drink within two or three months, let it be no stronger then to bear an Egg to the top of the water. If you would have it keep six months, or longer, before you drink it, let it bear up the Egg the breadth of two pence above the water. This is the surer way to proportion your honey then by measure.” Medieval meads are usually fermented using ale yeast, which generally dies off once the alcohol level reaches about 10%. As an alcohol level of about 10-12% will kill off most contaminants responsible for spoiling meads and fruit wines, a higher starting sugar level resulting in a higher alcohol percentage would therefore allow the mead to keep longer. Unlike the soap & brine recipes, the brewing egg does not float horizontal but vertical, as Digby’s Mr. Corsellises Antwerp Meath mentions “so strong that an Egge may swim in it with the end upwards”, indicating an intermediate strength between suspended and floating.

Both the soap making recipes and the brine recipes indicate to boil first, then measure – the brewing recipes are not so certain and often recommend to test the strength before boiling, as Digby’s To Make Metheglin shows: “And the time of the tryal of the strength is, when you incorporate the honey and water together, before the boiling of it.” apparently not realizing boiling evaporates water thereby changing the density. The recipes can also not quite make up their mind if the must should be cold, blood warm or boiling, which could indicate they did not understand how temperature affects specific gravity either, as shown in the 1597 Dutch beekeeping manual “Van de Byen” by Theodorus Clutius; “and let it cook / until an Egg can float in the liquid / then set it off the fire”, which could also resulted in a nicely boiled egg if the egg is not removed… As medieval recipes over many disciplines have a tendency to be brief to the point of missing pertinent information, it is entirely possible the period brewer knew to remove the egg and cool down the must, but did not bother to note that down. The 1616 Danish cookbook Koge Bog advises to “put an egg or two into this lukewarm brew so that there is a part of egg as big as a 2 shilling over the water then it is sweet and fat enough” which probably is the most accurate measurement.

Bees coming out of a hive to drive off an intruder.

Following are two 16th century recipes which specifically mention using the egg float test:

Jewell House of Art and Nature by Hugh Platt, 1594.

76 A receipt for the making of an artificiall Malmesey.

Take four gallons of conduit water, into the which put one gallon of good English honie, stirre the honie well till it be dissolved in the water, set this water in a copper pan upon a gentle fire, & as there ariseth any skumme take it off with a goose wing or a Skimmer, and when it hath simpered about an hour, then put in a new laid egge into the water, which will sinke presentlie, then continue your first fire without any great encrease, and also your skimming so long as any skim doth arise, and when this egge beginneth to floate aloft and sinketh no more, then put in another new laide egge, which wil sinke likewise, & when that second egge doth also swim aloft with the fyrst egge, let the water continue on the fyre a Paternoster while, then take it off, and beeing colde, put the same into some roundelet, fylling the roundelet brimful. And in the middest of this roudelet hand a bagge, wherein first put some reasonable weight or peize, and to everie eight gallons of liquor two nutmegges groselie beaten, twentie Cloves, a rase or two of Ginger, and a sticke of Cynamon of a fynger length. Set your roundelet in the sunne, in some hot Leades or other place, where the sunne shineth continuallie for three whole monethes, covering the bung-hole from the raine, and now and then fylling it uppe with more of the same composition as it wasteth. This I learned of an English traveyler, who advised me to make the same alwaies about the middest of Maie, that it might have 3. hot moneths togither to work it to his ful perfection. […]

Van de Byen” (Of the Bees) by Theodorus Clutius, 1597

To make mead.

One shall take the rest that stayed in the basket / from the dripping of the raw honey or zeem / and wash it with hot water / so that all the sweetness goes into the water / until you have a tub full or two / or as much as you want:  Then put this liquid in the kettle / and let it cook / until an Egg can float in the liquid / then set it off the fire / and pour it into the barrels and let it cool / add some yeast of beer / and set it to rise and work / and althus filling the barrel / so the filthiness may overflow / and when it does not bubble or work / so shall one close up the barrel / and let it rest. This is the way to make mead / some put in a piece of tied cloth some cinnamon / ginger / nutmeg / cloves and similar spices / to give the mead a good taste and scent. (Translated by Susan Verberg)

Between the end of the 16th century and the publishing of Digby’s cookbook a number of mead recipes are found to use a similar egg float technique as described in Digby, but with old-fashioned ingredients and techniques. This is an interesting time of transition, as by the 16th century not only could the average person read, due to cheaper & more extensive trade unusual ingredients like spices, sugar, citrus, chemicals & pigments became available to the common man. It was a time of great exploration, both of the sea and in the mind, not in the least helped by the success of the numerous Books of Secrets, each claiming to expose trade secrets never seen before, which greatly helped to spread knowledge before only accessible to the educated elite. This period of transition shows in the difference between Digby’s work and our time of interest, both in ingredients used and in their often elaborate and detailed explanations.

Numerous recipes in Digby mention the use of coins, like the groat & two pence (most with an average diameter of about 20mm) as a size measurement of the bit of shell sticking above the water surface. This type of measurement seems to become fairly universal in later times as observed in many of the Digby recipes and later in the US Colonial soap making lye measurements which often also specify an area the size of a coin, in this case a quarter. Even though coins are mentioned in the barely out of period 1604 Complete Receipt Books of Ladie Elynor Fettiplaceso strong of honie that it will cover an egg to the breadth of two pence”, and the 1609 The Feminine Monarchiemake it to bear an egge the breath of a groat”, the period recipes do not specify how the egg should float, only that is should.

So after all this, where do you start? With a fresh egg no more than two days old, of the roundest kind, weighing less than or about 2 ounces. Making a brine solution is easiest: add enough salt until it stops dissolving, which means a saturated solution is reached, place the egg, and slowly add water until it floats just as the recipe likes it. To test lye for soap making the egg would be used after the heated evaporated lye is cooled down, which allows for contaminant minerals to settle out of solution and thus not interfere with the remaining solution’s density (for more information on leaching lye and making soft soap see the Bibliography). For brewing, make your honey must first, heat and evaporate as needed, let cool down to blood temperature, and add an egg. If the egg sinks the must is too weak, if it floats close to tipping or tips, the must is too strong. As the 1609 beekeeping manual The Feminine Monarchie instructs: “If the liquor be not strong enough to beare an egge the breath of a two-pēce above it, thē put so much of your course hony into it, as wil give it that strength: or rather, when it is so strong powre in more water (stirring it with the liquor) until the egge sinke.” In other words; if it is too weak, add more honey, stir well to make sure the sugars are completely dissolved, and try again. If too strong, add some water, stir well, and try again. As you can imagine, it is easier to start with too strong a solution and dilute it, than to start with a weak solution and try to incrementally dissolve more sugars into it.

The table below matches egg position with specific gravity, giving us an idea of what to aim for. Egg readings are given for both 10% tolerance yeast (ale yeast) and 12% tolerance yeast. (from The Egg Test)

mead start SG egg start SG egg style 10% yeast reading 12% yeast reading dry mead 1.085 touches 1.1 20mm Medium 1.095 18mm 1.11 26mm Sweet 1.1 20mm 1.12 30mm Dessert 1.1 + > 20mm 1.2 + 30mm +

To make sure there is enough sugar for the yeast to feed on, the egg should float. But if it starts to tip over and not reliably float point up anymore, the solution has become too strong with too much honey sugar for the yeast to properly work and fermentation will likely stall. The average range of 1.08 to 1.12 g/ml at which the average, round fresh laid egg floats point up is also the ideal range of sugar content for starting a successful mead. And now that you have everything you need to make a successful solution using medieval techniques, whether it be for soapmaking, cooking or brewing, and are able to properly document it, let the experiments begin!

I would like to express my thanks to Mistress Roheisa le Sarjent from Lochac for her article The Egg Test for Period Brewers and Mead Makers. It proved a great starting point as we’re working from similar sources, and I’m grateful to find the heavy lifting of figuring out egg readings already done. Tak!

“Dryckeslag, Nordisk familjebok” from Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus or History of the Northern People, by Olaus Magnus, printed in Rome 1555.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Digby, Kenelme. The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digby Knight Opened, 1669

The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby Knight Opened. Anne MacDonell (ed.), 2005 https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/16441

Sibly, Belinda. The Egg Test for Period Brewers and Mead Makers, 2004

Mistress Roheisa le Sarjent, Cockatrice, May AS 49, p.20-29.

http://brewers.lochac.sca.org/files/2014/02/The-Egg-test-for-Period-Brewers2.pdf

Butler, Charles. The Feminine Monarchie. Oxford: 1609.

https://books.google.com/books?id=f5tbAAAAMAAJ&dq=the+feminine+monarchie+butler&source=gbs_navlinks_s (1623). Transcription by Susan Verberg.

Density values from http://homesteadlaboratory.blogspot.com/2014/02/historical-lye-making-part-2.html

Platt, Hugh. Jewell House of Art and Nature. 1594.

London: Peter Short. http://eebo.chadwyck.com/ Transcription by Susan Verberg

Anonymous, Koge Bog: Indeholdendis et hundrede fornødene stycker etc. Kiøbenhaffn (Copenhagen): Aff Salomone Sartorio, 1616. http://www.forest.gen.nz/Medieval/articles/cooking/1616.html

Krupp, Christina M. & Gillen, Bill. Making Medieval Mead, or Mead Before Digby. The Compleat Anachronist #120. Milpitas: SCA Inc, 2003. (includes the Complete Receipt Books of Ladie Elynor Fettiplace, 1604).

Ruscelli, Girolamo. The secretes of the reuerende Maister Alexis of Piemount. London: John Kingstone, 1558.

http://www.eebo.chadwyck.com.

Ruscelli, Girolamo. The seconde part of the Secretes of Master Alexis of Piemont. London: John Kyndon, 1560.

http://www.eebo.chadwyck.com.

Dawson, Thomas. The second part of the good hus-wiues iewell, London: E. Allde for Edward, 1597.

http://www.eebo.chadwyck.com

Clutium, Theodorum Van de Byen. Leyden: Jan Claesz van Dorp, Inde Vergulde Son, 1597.

https://books.google.com/books?id=Y0NnAAAAcAAJ&dq=van+de+byen&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Transcription by Susan Verberg.

More information on leaching soapmaking lye:

https://www.academia.edu/27755101/Of_Potash_and_Lye

More information on making medieval soft soap:

https://www.academia.edu/27757652/To_Make_Black_Sope

More information on brewing with honey: Of Hony, a Collection of Medieval Brewing Recipes.

WEBSITE forthcoming

To find a groat, and other period coins: http://alphaofficium.weebly.com/apps/search?q=groat

Image of fresh egg test from http://media.finedictionary.com/pictures/243/38/9971.jpg

Photographs of soap making lye by Susan Verberg, 2016.

Bees coming out of a hive to drive off an intruder.

Museum Meermanno, MMW, 10 B 25, Folio 37r – http://bestiary.ca/beasts/beastgallery260.htm#

Dryckeslag, Nordisk familjebok” from Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus, by Olaus Magnus, Rome, 1555.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Cate


Categories: SCA news sites

EASTERN RESULTS FROM THE OCTOBER 2016 LoAR

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-01-05 16:52

The Society College of Heralds runs on monthly cycles and letters. Each month, the College processes name and armory submissions from all of the Kingdoms. Final decisions on submissions are made at the monthly meetings of the Pelican Queen of Arms (names) and the Wreath Queen of Arms (armory). Pelican and Wreath then write up their decisions in a Letter of Acceptances and Return (LoAR). After review and proofreading, LoARs generally are released two months after the meeting where the decisions are made.

An “acceptance” indicates that the item(s) listed are now registered with the Society. A “return” indicates that the item is returned to the submitter for additional work. Most items are registered without comments. Sometimes, the LoAR will address specific issues about the name or armory or will praise the submitter/herald on putting together a very nice historically accurate item.

The following results are from the October 2016 Wreath and Pelican meetings.

 

From Laurel: Farewell Lillia

The College of Arms has a rank of Herald Extraordinary that has a long and honored history. The rank was formally created and defined in the July 1981 cover letter by Wilhelm Laurel. The intent of the rank is to recognize and reward “… those heralds who have greatly served the College of Heralds and/or the College of Arms and have achieved the highest level of competence in heraldry.”

In light of her considerable contribution to the College of Arms through her efforts as Pelican Queen of Arms, I confer upon Lillia de Vaux the rank and style of Herald Extraordinary. I charge her to register a title of her choosing with the College of Arms.

I am very grateful for Lillia’s service, and I wish her the best in her future endeavors both within the College of Arms, and without.

 

Society Pages

On December 3, 2016, Master Malcolm Bowman, new Brigantia Herald of the East, named Master Ryan Mac Whyte, retiring Brigantia, a Herald Extraordinary.

 

EAST acceptances

Angelina Foljambe. Household name House of the White Elephant and badge. Azure, an elephant and a bordure argent.

The submitter requested authenticity for English. The inn-sign Black Elephant and the pattern of White + [animal] are found in Lillywhite’s London Signs dated to the 16th century. Therefore, this household name appears to be authentic for 16th century England.

Arabella De Mere. Name.

The submitter may wish to know that the form de Mere is more likely than De Mere. The FamilySearch Historical Records database typically capitalizes prepositions and other elements, even if they were not capitalized in the primary source.

This name combines an English given name with a French byname from the Netherlands. This is an acceptable lingual mix under Appendix C of SENA.

This name does not conflict with the registered name Arabella de la Mer. A syllable has been removed and the vowel changed in Mere versus Mer. Therefore, this name is clear under PN3C1 of SENA.

Arsinoé Dragonette. Name.

Arsinoé is a French literary name.

Brandulfr Sæfinnsson. Name.

Submitted as Brandulfr Saefinnson, the name was changed in kingdom to Brand-Ulfr Sæfinnsson because Brand- and Ulfr- were documented as given names that could not be combined to form another given name. Instead, the name was modified to use Brand- as a prepended descriptive byname, so the name only had a single given name. In addition, the spelling of the patronym was modified from -son to -sson to match the documented form.

In commentary, Siren noted:

Brandulfr is a header form in Fellows Jensen; there’s a Brandulf in the Domesday Book (http://domesday.pase.ac.uk/Domesday?op=6&filterString=brandulf) and Brandlfsike is dated as a place name to the 13th-14th c. She admits that it is not impossible that it’s from a Continental Germanic name.

Therefore we can give the submitter the benefit of the doubt and register the submitted given name.

The submitter requested authenticity for a 10th century Norse name. This name does not meet this request because the given name is dated to the late 11th century from England and the byname is found in Iceland after the 10th century.

Brick James Beech. Device. Sable, on a chevron couched from dexter argent two footprints toes to dexter sable.

There is a step from period practice for the use of footprints.

East, Kingdom of the. Badge for the East Kingdom’s Southern Army. (Fieldless) Five mullets of six points conjoined in cross Or.

“East Kingdom’s Southern Army” is a generic identifier.

East, Kingdom of the. Badge for the East Kingdom’s Southern Army. Azure, five mullets of six points in cross Or.

“East Kingdom’s Southern Army” is a generic identifier.

Elaria Grenway. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for “late 14th cen./early 15th cen. England”. The entire name can be documented to England in the 1580s, but not in the 14th or 15th century. Therefore, this name does not meet the submitter’s request.

Gregor von Medehem. Name.

Nice late 14th century German name!

Grímólfr Skúlason. Badge. (Fieldless) A closed book argent sustaining in chief a wolf couchant sable.

Ile du Dragon Dormant, Baronnie de l’. Order name Award of the Argent Mountain.

Ile du Dragon Dormant, Baronnie de l’. Order name Award of the Gold Mountain.

Ile du Dragon Dormant, Baronnie de l’. Order name Award of the Purple Mountain.

Lorencio Matteo Espinosa. Device. Per pale azure and vert, a covered cup Or within an orle of flames proper.

Merlyn Kuster. Alternate name Eyjolfr dreki.

Muiredach Ua Dálaig. Device. Sable, a fess azure fimbriated between two talbots passant respectant and a cross formy argent.

Ogurr Aðalbrandsson. Name and device. Per pale vert and sable, a drinking horn and a sword in saltire and on a chief argent a pair of shackles sable.

We note that the form {O,}gurr, using an O-ogonek, is found in Geirr Bassi. However, under Appendix D of SENA, we can register this name as submitted instead of changing it to the attested form.

Sigrida Arnsdottir. Name and device. Per bend vert and sable, a bend embattled counter-embattled between an eagle’s head erased and a stag’s attire in annulo conjoined to itself Or.

Siobhán inghean uí Ghadhra. Name and device. Per pale vert and purpure, a unicorn argent between three harps Or.

Urr{a-}ka al-Tha`labiyya. Badge. (Fieldless) A magpie proper perched on and maintaining a rapier fesswise reversed Or.

 

EAST returns

Esa Gray. Name.

This name was pended to allow discussion of whether it presumes upon the name of 19th century botanist Asa Gray. Asa Gray is the original author and current namesake of Gray’s Manual, the standard reference on North American plants, and is considered to be the most important American botanist of his time. In addition, he collaborated with Charles Darwin, arranged for the publishing of On the Origin of Species in the United States, and wrote defenses of the highly controversial theory of evolution. Although his name is largely known only to specialists, his work “significantly shaped the course of science” in the areas of botany and genetics. Thus, Asa Gray is important enough to protect under PN4D1 of SENA.

The submitted name Esa Gray can be identical in sound to the protected Asa Gray, so we are returning this name for presumption.

Upon resubmission, we suggest the addition of a Scots or English locative byname to avoid the appearance of presumption: Esa Gray of X.

This name was pended from the May 2016 Letter of Acceptances and Returns.

Sitt al-Gharb ha-niqret Khazariyya. Badge. (Fieldless) Two winged monkeys combattant each maintaining two daggers the center daggers crossed in saltire Or.

This badge is returned for redraw, for violating SENA A2C2 which states “Elements must be drawn to be identifiable.” Commenters had trouble identifying the winged monkeys, probably because the daggers make the outline more confusing than the one used in her device.

 


Filed under: Uncategorized

Coronation of Timothy and Gabrielle

AEthelmearc Gazette - Thu, 2017-01-05 09:30

Timothy and Gabrielle. Photo by Maestro Filipo.

With Spring comes Coronation in Æthelmearc!

Join the Barony of Thescorre on April 22, 2017 in celebrating the Coronation of Timothy and Gabrielle.

The event will take place at the historic Zion Episcopal Church, 120 East Main Street, Palmyra, New York 14522. The site will open at 9am and close at 9pm. Details on the specific schedule for the day will be forthcoming.

The site is damp and open flames are allowed. There is a small lift to take those with mobility issues between floors as necessary, and a ground floor entrance as needed. Service dogs are allowed; be sure to have license and vaccination paperwork on hand. The site is allowing fighting and fencing on the front yard pending the weather; details of any specific tournaments will be forthcoming.

Adult event registration is $15.00; Adult Member discount event registration is $10.00; Youth registration (6-17) is $5.00; 5 and under free. All event registrations include a side board lunch. For an additional $8.00 adult, $4.00 6-17, 100 people can join us for the feast. Lord Andrew of Thescorre is preparing both lunch and feast. Any dietary questions can be relayed to him at andrew@thescorre.org or 585-747-6915.

Send reservations to Baron Fridrikr Tomasson (Tom Ireland-Delfs, 731 South Main Street, Newark, NY 14513). Make checks payable to SCA NY Inc., Barony of Thescorre. The event stewards are Baroness Orianna Fridrikskona (Orilee Ireland-Delfs, orianna@thescorre.org; 315-573-6326) and Lady Elisabetta de Venetia (Sabrina Sardella; 3goldroses@gmail.com). Questions on local hotels or crash space can be directed to the stewards.

Directions:

From the New York State Thruway East or West, take exit 43 (Palmyra, Manchester). After the toll booths, turn left onto Rt. 21 North. Go approximately 6 miles to the Village of Palmyra. The church will be on the left side at the traffic light. Parking at the church is limited but the village public lots are within a block of the site.


Categories: SCA news sites

College of Three Ravens: Current Class List

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2017-01-04 21:30

 

The following are the classes currently planned for College of Three Ravens on January 28 in the Barony of Thescorre:

 Arts & Sciences

  • Sweet Scents – Making Scented Hand Waters and Perfumes
  • Stained Glass Techniques
  • Gilded Letters
  • Making a Norse Thunderstone Amulet
  • Old Norse Drottkvatt Poetry: A Closer Look

Dance:

  • European Dance

Food:

  • Irish food and drink
  • Itamae – Fundamentals of Japanese Cuisine
  • Itamae – Fundamentals of Japanese Food Preparation
  • Itamae – Japanese Meal Planning and Execution

Heraldry:

  • Choosing a Persona
  • Choosing a Name

History:

  • Combalot! A History of Combs
  • History of the Settlement of Iceland

Music:

  • Using the Guidonian Hand for Gregorian Chant
  • Musical Manuscript Using Period Tools, Methods and Materials

Sewing/Fiber Arts:

  • Elizabethan Blackwork Coif
  • The Medieval Double Apron
  • Covering Your Benedict or Monastic Garb in Accordance with the Order of St. Benedict
  • Make Your Own Viking Handbag
  • The Amazing T-Tunic
  • Lucet for Dummies

Youth:

  • Children’s Service Roundtable

Martial:

  • Teaching Fencing
  • Italian Fencing
  • Spanish Fencing

Scribal:

  • Scribal Basics 102

Miscellaneous:

  • The Webminister Position and Web Basics
  • Teaching
  • It’s Been a Rough Day – I Cut Myself and My Clothes are Spotted and Dirty
  • How To Build a Pole Lathe
  • Pole Lathe How To/Demo/Hands-on For Those Who Wish to Learn Art & Mystrie of the Turner
  • Documentation

 

More classes are coming in, so I hope to have the schedule and more class information out soon. Any questions please contact me.

See the event announcement here.

Lady Adelheid Grunewalderin


Categories: SCA news sites

Award Recommendations for Their Highnesses

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-01-04 09:05

Greetings to the populace of the East!

We hope the new year finds you all well and hopeful.

We will be accepting award recommendations for our first polling until January 20th 2017. Please send your award recommendations via the www.eastkingdom.org website.

We look forward to hearing from you.

With much love and excitement for the future,
Princess Honig and Prince Ioannes


Filed under: Uncategorized

Are You Working on Your Pent Projects? It is Not Too Late!

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2017-01-03 20:48

Tiles by Lord Ian Campbell of Glen Mor, from the 2016 Pentathlon. Photo by Lady Aine ny Allane.

Greetings all and Happy New Year from the Ice Dragon Pent Staff!

We’re just popping in to remind everyone that there are 95 days left before Ice Dragon! It’s not too late to start working on those Pent entries! Make a Pent entry your New Year’s resolution. You’d complete it in the first quarter of the year and have another 9 months to tell your friends about it while they are still clearing their clutter and making those trips to the gym!

Please take a minute to look at the Ice Dragon Pentathlon page on Facebook and watch for further announcements. We have some new and categories and opportunities this year that should offer a little something to everyone from beginner to master craftsman. Here are just a few of the ways to be a part of the fun…

Judging the culinary entries. Photo by Tiercelin

**In the culinary category we have added a new subcategory just for breads! Hit those cookbooks, do your research and get creative. Your trial and error work should be delicious.

**Historic Combat is new this year. There are so many avenues to explore here. Research the texts and use your imagination to being some aspect of period combat alive for our judges. This category is for entries of artistic endeavor showcasing a martial art of SCA period and/or used currently within the Society. Entries in this category can take a variety of forms. The format is limited only by the entrant’s creativity and safety considerations.

**Don’t forget the 5-in1 Project category. Any ONE item that can qualify for entry in a minimum of 5 of the above listed main categories. This item may also be cross entered into ONE main category to count toward the grand Pentathlon Prize.

**From our Baron and Baroness of the Rhyddeich Hael we offer the special theme prize category. This year Their Excellencies have chose the theme “All Things Welsh” This is one more opportunity for people to use their imagination and creative skill without boundaries.

*Have you ever thought about being a judge, but didn’t know where to begin? We have a opportunities for shadow judging. Learn the ropes first hand from a seasoned Pentathlon judge in real time and space.

Photo by Master Fridrikr Tomasson.

**Would you like to take part but aren’t sure how exactly? Offer to help on our new docent staff. Enjoy the added bonus of seeing all the entries hours before we open the doors to the rest of the populace.

We’re looking forward to a nice turnout for 2017! Come to the Ice Dragon event and find your fun, so many ways to participate and so many people to enjoy!

Over the next several weeks, more information will be forthcoming on this Group/List, as well as in the AEstel, and on the Facebook Page. Questions can be directed to me by email.

I remain in Service,
Jenna MacPherson
2017 Pent Coordinator


Categories: SCA news sites

Arts & Sciences Research Paper #16: The Double Bind: Thomas Campion and Elizabethan Women

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2017-01-03 15:18

Our sixteenth A&S Research Paper comes to us from Lord Drake Oranwood of the Shire of Rusted Woodlands, who examines the work of the Elizabethan songwriter Thomas Campion, and uses his texts as a way to look closely at the role of women in that complex society. (Prospective future contributors, please check out our original Call for Papers.)

The Double Bind: Thomas Campion and Elizabethan Women

Young Lady Aged 21, possibly Helena Snakenborg, later Marchioness of Northampton. By English School, 16th century [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

The role of women in Elizabethan society is something that quickly called attention to itself from my first studies of Elizabethan popular songs. In developing an Elizabethan persona, I become quite fond of lute songs, as exemplified by John Dowland and his less-celebrated colleague, Thomas Campion. The more of these pieces I learned, however, the more troubling I found the attitudes about women that peeked through (between the lines, as it were). It is no secret that women lacked social equality with men throughout the Medieval and Renaissance period. Still, these pithy bits of popular entertainment provided a surprising window into the conflicting, contradictory, and inescapable demands to which women, particularly young women of the upper classes, were subjected. These quandaries of inequality have existed throughout history, of course, but the writings of the 16th century (written primarily by men) rarely articulated it as such or gave it a name. In the twentieth century a term emerged for this sort of paradoxical dilemma and the strain it places on its subjects: the double bind, which describes “a situation in which a person is confronted with two irreconcilable demands or a choice between two undesirable courses of action.” (Oxford English Dictionary)

In this article, I will examine primarily two songs from Campion’s first songbook, A Book of Airs (1601).[1] These two songs can, if juxtaposed together, be read as telling the story of an Elizabethan relationship first from a man’s perspective, then the woman’s contrasting one. This tale may serve to shed a light on the double bind faced by women Campion observed, and the different constricting forms it took. During Elizabeth’s reign, the power and entitlement men held over women, the conflicting roles and demands placed upon women of status, particularly in matters of sexuality, metastasized into ever more beautiful but suffocating forms.

Song XII.

Thou art not fair, for all thy red and white,
For all those rosy ornaments in thee;
Thou art not sweet, though made of mere delight,
Not fair nor sweet, unless thou pity me.
I will not soothe thy fancies: thou shalt prove
That beauty is no beauty without love.

Yet love not me, nor seek thou to allure
My thoughts with beauty, were it more divine:
Thy smiles and kisses I cannot endure,
I’ll not be wrapt up in those arms of thine:
Now shot it, if thou be a woman right,—
Embrace, and kiss, and love me, in despite!

 

  Song V.

My love hath vowed he will forsake me
And I am already sped.
For other promise he did make me
When he had my maidenhead.
If such danger be in playing
And sport must to earnest turn,
I will go no more a-maying.

Had I foreseen what is ensued,
And what now with pain I prove,
Unhappy then I had eschewed
This unkind event of love.
Maids foreknow their own undoing,
But fear naught till all is done,
When a man alone is wooing.

Dissembling wretch! to gain thy pleasure
What didst thou not vow and swear?
So didst thou rob me of the treasure
Which so long I held so dear.
Now thou prov’st to me a stranger,
Such is the vile guise of men,
When a woman is in danger.

That heart is nearest to misfortune
That will trust a feigned tongue.
When flatt’ring men our loves importune,
They intend us deepest wrong.
If this shame of loves betraying,
But this once I cleanly shun,
I will go no more a-maying.

Our exploration begins with “Thou art not fair”, a fairly typical love song of its time (and indeed many others), but which has a few features of particular interest to us. A male lover’s plea for his lady’s favor, it begins as many such pieces do with sharp accusation:

Thou art not fair, for all thy red and white,
For all those rosy ornaments in thee…

With classic Elizabethan word-play, Campion opens with a heavily loaded phrase: “Thou art not fair”. By punning on the word “fair”, our suitor is actually accusing his lady-friend of falling short of two ideals about English women, both of them double binds. He is calling her ”unfair” in the sense that she is denying him what he is entitled to as a man (and we shall explore that point in detail shortly). He is additionally suggesting she is not “fair”, meaning beautiful according to the standards of the day. But with “for all thy red and white” and “rosy ornaments”, he adds a third, literal, meaning to “fair” that illuminates those standards of beauty: she is not pale-skinned (or less so than she appears). He is accusing her of wearing makeup, which by the end of 16th century had become a special sort of insinuation.

Portrait of Dorothy, Lady Dormer (1577 – ?), daughter of Sir Robert, 1st Baron Dormer, of Wing (1552-1616) and wife of Henry Hudleston of Sawston. By Unknown English: English School (image) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Women’s makeup came into common use in the nobility during Elizabeth’s reign, popularized by the Queen’s copious use of it to achieve a particular idealized standard of beauty: “Pale skin was a sign of nobility, wealth, and (for women) delicacy, and was sought after by many. In a time when skin problems and the pox were commonplace, sunscreen unheard of, and skin creams and ointments out of reach for all but the well-off, smooth, unblemished and pale skin was a rarity.”[2]

Of course, most cosmetic formulations to create this alabaster skin, along with rosy lips and cheeks, were highly toxic and damaged the skin (and when lead was part of the mixture, the brain) with prolonged use. Elizabeth herself, as she aged, suffered from her constant use of cosmetics in public, and thus relied on them ever more heavily, which in turn subjected her to an increasing level of subversive mockery. In living up to men’s expectations of beauty, English noble women found themselves increasingly suspected and accused of being painted impostors wearing false fronts to disguise their bodies’ decay. By late in the reign, literary jabs at noblewomen for their made-up paleness were fairly common. Campion, ever the wit, made use of the trope elsewhere, for example in “I care not for these ladies” from this same songbook:

I care not for these ladies,
That must be wooed and prayed:
Give me kind Amaryllis,
The wanton country maid.
Nature art disdaineth,
Her beauty is her own.
For when we court and kiss,
She cries, “Forsooth, let go!”
But when we come where comfort is,
She never will say no. If I love Amaryllis,
She gives me fruit and flowers:
But if we love these ladies,
We must give golden showers.
Give them gold, that sell love,
Give me the nut-brown lass, …

Campion contrasts the upper-class “ladies” in question with the more accessible earthiness of Amaryllis, whose “beauty is her own” (i.e., not painted on), and whose body, tan from outdoor work, is far more readily available, with much less fuss, to men. Ladies’ makeup is a protective coating which makes them artificially beautiful, and less attainable, and the suitor of “Thou art not fair” mocks his lady’s (likely compulsory) use of it, hoping to lower her defenses:

Thou art not sweet, though made of mere delight,
Not fair nor sweet, unless thou pity me.
I will not soothe thy fancies: thou shalt prove
That beauty is no beauty without love. Yet love not me, nor seek thou to allure
My thoughts with beauty, were it more divine:
Thy smiles and kisses I cannot endure,
I’ll not be wrapt up in those arms of thine:
Now shot it, if thou be a woman right,—
Embrace, and kiss, and love me, in despite!

Lowering her defenses is indeed his aim, and he will carp at her until she bestows her “pity” on him. A classic trope of male entitlement (still widespread today, but rife in songs of the period) is the notion that a woman’s beauty holds such power over a man that it is cruelty beyond measure for her to tempt him with “smiles and kisses” but withhold sexual favors. Her “beauty is no beauty without love,” and note the ascending scale of the demands: “Embrace, and kiss, and love me, in despite!” Thus the suitor makes plain one end of the greater double bind we alluded to earlier—male entitlement. A desirable woman is hateful if she rejects a man’s sexual needs.

No thought is given in the piece to what the woman in question wants, or whether it is compatible with the man’s sense of entitlement; this is a commonplace of the genre. As Theresa D. Kemp observes, “The modes and genre of courtly love…rarely image an inner life or subjectivity for the lady; she is merely the object of the speaker’s desire.” (Women in the Age of Shakespeare, p. 3.)[3]

So, what if she acquiesces to the fervent plea, and gives herself to the poor fellow (as he appears to imagine himself), instead of taunting him with her supposedly deadly power? It is one thing for the low-born Amaryllis to freely enjoy the delights of the flesh with a man, but quite another for a “red and white” painted (and doubly bound) lady to do so. In “My love hath vowed,” Campion unspools the fate of a girl who makes this choice and faces the consequences of yielding to a man’s sexual entitlement. His telling suggests empathy for her plight, and yet surely this would have served as a stern warning and cautionary tale to any young woman of the day who heard it.

My love hath vowed he will forsake me
And I am already sped.
For other promise he did make me
When he had my maidenhead.
If such danger be in playing
And sport must to earnest turn,
I will go no more a-maying.

In contrast to the supposedly romantic sparring of the previous song, here we discover the aftermath of a consummated tryst. This young woman’s lover wastes no time “forsak[ing]” her on learning of her pregnancy, and, she is “already sped” from the scene of her shame. Her confession—that she gave him her “maidenhead”—is startlingly explicit for Elizabethan songs, which referenced sex constantly, but always veiled in coded language and wordplay. (“Maidenhead,” while used a few times by Shakespeare, appears in no other extant lute song of the period.[4]) There is “danger” in “playing” indeed: she has been ruined socially. This, then, is the other side of the double bind of men’s sexual entitlement: a pregnant, unmarried noblewoman has no bright future in this society.

The Elizabethan age was a period of great change, and a number of scholars mark Elizabeth’s coronation as the true beginning of the English Renaissance. To the extent that term “renaissance” means “rebirth”, however, it cannot be said to have been a step forward for women in Europe, and this was as true in England as anywhere.[5] In a world led exclusively by men, the rise of a woman to the supreme power might suggest the possibility of new equalities, but English society at large responded to this development with, if anything, a hardening and tightening of attitudes about power. In the decades prior, social changes had already been working to make life for high-born English women increasingly constricted and binding, more like a vise than a corset.

Crucially, the role of upper-class women had been shaped increasingly by concerns around wealth and inheritance. The jaws of the vise predated this era: the 14th-century establishment of primogeniture (the eldest male heir would now always be first in line for inheritance), and Henry VIII’s abolition of England’s monasteries in 1536 as part of the Reformation (eliminating convents, the one option for women to have an independent livelihood and life of the mind, outside the sway of men to a greater degree than secular life afforded). By Elizabeth’s time, an unmarried woman generally could not own or run a business on her own, and if married, all property was in the husband’s name. The only alternative to marriage was now domestic service.[vi] (Elizabeth herself famously avoided marriage, and the attendant loss of power and status, despite constant public pressure for an heir—and, of course, her choice not to provide one would end the Tudor line and her legacy of power.)

Had I foreseen what is ensued,
And what now with pain I prove,
Unhappy then I had eschewed
This unkind event of love.
Maids foreknow their own undoing,
But fear naught till all is done,
When a man alone is wooing.

In late sixteenth-century English society, then, upper-class women were valued exclusively for their marriageability even more than before. This required them to be as beautiful as possible (as evidenced by the obsession with paleness and cosmetics), but also, crucially, chaste. In a world where a high-status family used daughters to secure wealth, and a wealthy family used daughters to secure status, the assumption of virginity was essential to those transactions. Our song’s heroine has learned this lesson the hard way, through the “pain” of pregnancy and being shunned by society. She reflects how “maids” (in the parlance of the day, virgins) should anticipate “their own undoing,” but do not consider the consequences until too late.

Dissembling wretch! to gain thy pleasure
What didst thou not vow and swear?
So didst thou rob me of the treasure
Which so long I held so dear.
Now thou prov’st to me a stranger,
Such is the vile guise of men,
When a woman is in danger.

Moving from regret to anger, Campion affords his heroine the clarity to cast (legitimate) blame on her suitor, who as she has already hinted, was eager to “vow and swear” his love in order “to gain [his] pleasure” of her. She reminds the audience, lest they forget, of the loss of “the treasure / Which so long I held so dear”: her virginity. But note the harsh language with which she accosts her seducer: he is a liar, a thief, and ultimately a coward, content to evade the consequences of his wants, as she cannot.

It is intriguing that, for once, Campion spares a thought to acknowledge a man’s culpability in the double bind and the plight of this friendless woman. It is noteworthy in particular that (in the lady’s voice) Campion calls the man out for being untrue to her, both before and after getting his “pleasure”. This would appear to be a very conscious reversal of a ubiquitous trope of the time: that it is women who are false, lacking in honesty and courage. At the heart of each of the double binds faced by the Elizabethan woman, is the Elizabethan man’s constant suspicion of her. The cosmetics she wears to present the image that patriarchal society demands, of pristine youth and beauty, becomes proof of her inherent wily deception and falseness. And the man who demands that a girl remain a virgin until marriage, but who sings joyfully of a man’s sport in using his persuasion and power to take that virginity from her as he feels entitled, will ever wonder whether his fiancée, or his bride, is the virgin he takes her to be. If the Elizabethan woman’s power—the only one afforded to her—is her beauty and sexual allure, then every man’s fear is that she will make use of that power to satisfy her wants, rather than her husband’s. This fear appears to have the effect of drawing the vise ever tighter around the women of the age, with constant reminders that the risks in the game of sexual license and deception are not equally shared, but fall almost entirely on women. Thus does “My love hath vowed” conclude, with a doleful reminder and warning:

That heart is nearest to misfortune
That will trust a feigned tongue.
When flatt’ring men our loves importune,
They intend us deepest wrong.
If this shame of loves betraying,
But this once I cleanly shun,
I will go no more a-maying.

Our heroine sees the entitlement double bind clearly, and speaks now to her countrywomen, warning of the “feigned tongue” of men who risk nothing, to entrap women who risk everything for these moments of pleasure. The attendant “shame of loves betraying” has been her “undoing”, and she hopes others will follow her example going forward to “cleanly shun” such exploits.

Thomas Campion devoted over 10% of his creative output—14 songs out of 119—exploring a woman’s perspective, which was highly unusual for a writer of his day. If Campion, in his own essays, claimed not to place particular value on his mostly light-hearted English lyrics (Latin was the language for serious writing), he nevertheless slipped into them some sharp observations about the society he lived in. Certainly he knew well the double bind of the Elizabethan woman: ever primed and encouraged to be the target of male gaze and yearning, but subject to men’s harsh judgment whether she refuse, or respond in kind; ever pressed to be beautiful and alluring, but virginal; her life, freedom, and sexuality suborned in the service of men’s ambitions. In his songs it is hard to miss the dilemma, bound tightly (and pulling in opposite directions) around every noblewoman in England, up to and including Elizabeth herself.

Notes

[1] Philip Rosseter, Campion’s closest friend and a skilled lutenist, published this first book under his own name, but devoted the first half to Campion’s songs. After this Campion went on to publish subsequent songbooks under his own name. Campion was unusual as an Elizabethan songwriter who wrote his words and music together (the common practice was to add the tune or more often the lyrics later, which is why most lyrics for songwriters like John Dowland are considered anonymous). Rosseter, however, is generally credited with helping Campion with tunes and arrangements. The depth of their friendship was such that Campion, who died a bachelor, bequeathed what paltry wealth he possessed entirely to Rosseter, wishing it were more.

[2] Leed, Drea, “Elizabethan Make-up 101”. 

[3] Kemp, Theresa D. Women in the Age of Shakespeare. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2010. Also available at http://www.abc-clio.com.

[4] Karlsson, Katarina A. ‘Think’st Thou to Seduce Me Then?’ Impersonating Female Personas in Songs by Thomas Campion (1567-1620). (p 74) Thesis. University of Gothenburg, 2011. Kållered: Ineko AB, 2011. ResearchGate. ArtMonitor. Web.

[5] Kemp, p. 26.

[6] Kemp, p. 19-36.

 

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Filed under: A&S Research Papers, Arts and Sciences Tagged: a&s, Arts and Sciences

Court Docket for Kingdom Twelfth Night

AEthelmearc Gazette - Mon, 2017-01-02 19:28

Good Gentles of Æthelmearc,

If you are interested in requesting time for business on the Court docket at Kingdom 12th Night, please email me as soon as possible as the event is this weekend.

In service,
Orlando di Bene del Vinta,
Jewel Herald


Categories: SCA news sites

New Year’s Wishes from Their Majesties

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sun, 2017-01-01 10:31

We have been so pleased with being able to spend so much of 2016 as Royalty of Æthelmearc.

We are looking forward to the next four months and all of the things that we can do together as a Kingdom to lift each other up and continue to show the Known World how brightly Æthelmearc shines.

So take these moments to reflect and plan those goals for the new year, whether they be artistic, science, service, or prowess.

We look forward to seeing you at Carnivale (12th Night) and throughout the
duration of Our reign.

Marcus & Margerite
Sylvan Crown of Æthelmearc


Categories: SCA news sites