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Alum Feces–An Unusual Medieval Ingredient

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2017-08-22 00:32

By THL Elska á Fjárfelli (Susan Verberg)

In period known as alumen faecis, alom de fece, lume di fecca, and lume de fezza, alum feces is an often-mentioned medieval chemical ingredient which, surprisingly, has nothing to do with alum.

Naturally occurring winestone from white wine, untreated. All photos by THL Elska.

Alum of lees (alumen faecis) is potassium carbonate and made by burning the sediments of wine, called lees. During the fermentation of grape juice harmless crystalline deposits separate in wine as crude tartar and are deposited in wine casks. These deposits consist mostly of tartar, the potassium salt of tartaric acid,[1] with small amounts of cream of tartar and of pulp debris, dead yeast, and tannins; impurities which contaminate the potassium tartrate. Tartrates separate from new wines because they are less soluble in alcohol than in non-alcoholic grape juice. Approximately half of the tartrate soluble in grape juice is insoluble in wine, and in white wines the sediment can look alarmingly like shards of glass.[2] Crude tartar was well known during our time of study and is used as an ingredient in many books of secrets dealing with medicinal recipes, fabric cleaning, dyeing, etc.

Unfortunately, while recipes using the ingredients are plenty, instructions on acquiring and purifying chemical ingredients including tartar and its derivatives are rare, up until the late 17th to 18th century as attested by the 1842 A Dispensatory “the pure salt was first prepared during the last [18th] century, and its constitution was unknown [before].”

My impression is that the craftspeople worked things out very well by trial and error, but did not know why certain combinations worked. This could show in the inclusion of superfluous items, ingredients with no apparent use. For instance, juice of celandine has no cleaning properties as far as modern chemistry is aware.

The addition of specific combinations of ingredients (chemicals) would react with each other (chemistry) to create a new ingredient, which would significantly boost the workings of the recipe but without the craftsman knowing why it worked more effectively. For instance, the combination of alum feces (potassium carbonate) with crude tartar (dipotassium tartrate) would chemically react and precipitate cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate), a more effective stain cleaner than tartar itself. While it is not difficult to crystallize cream of tartar out of crude tartar and use as a straight ingredient, the question is: were the medieval craftsmen aware of this chemical and did they find it easier to produced it in situ, or did they use the round-about way as they did not know, aside from, this works?

From working with soap recipes, I had come across the mentions of tartar, alum feces, and alum catini multiple times, and as part of my soap research I wanted to learn how to make these from scratch. While it took me about two years to find a reference to alum feces (at a Pennsic workshop on laundry; I later tracked down the bibliography) that identified it as the burnt lees of wine, I only recently found the final piece of the puzzle.

Alum feces and alum catini are often mentioned in the same context in similar or the same recipes. I assumed them to be of a similar background and when I found that alum feces was burnt tartar I made a leap and assumed alum catini to be the ashes of burnt cream of tartar. It made sense at the time!

Unfortunately, after doing lots of digging into the chemistry of tartar and finding out that ashing tartar and cream of tartar ends up with the same chemical (but they might not have known that! my little devil went…) I finally found a reference in the wonderful book The Art of Dyeing in the History of Mankind which translates “alum catini” (and mentions quite a number of other alums which are also not, technically, alum) as soda, or soda ash. This makes perfect sense, as alum feces actually is potash…
With my background in soap making I could have anticipated this, but it never even occurred to me. What I did wonder about is why I did not find any mention to soda ash in any of my medieval soap recipes… Now, not only did I solve one small mystery of identification, I actually ended up solving a much larger one on technique.

[For more background & chemistry on Tartrates, please check my Ice Dragon documentation here.]

The word alumen faecis occurs in many books of secrets written in the 16th century on chemical technology and is described as the burnt remains of tartar, indicating potassium carbonate. An exact translation of this word would mean the dregs or refuse of alum. In the French The secrets of the master Alexis of Piemont it appears as “alum de fece”; in the English Alexis as “alumen fecis,” and, of course, in the German Alexis as “alun de feta.” Cesalpino, the well-known authority of the 16th century in his De Metallicis, Rome, 1596, says, “Alumen faecis, quae fex vini est combusta” or “Alumen faecis is the dregs of wine that is burned.” Gargiolli in L’Arte Della Seta in Florence, 1868, says of allume di feccia that “Cotesto allume non e altro che cenera cavata dale vinacce bruciate” – “This alum is nothing other that the ashes derived from burnt wine lees.”[3]

The word “tartar” comes to English via Medieval Latin from the Medieval Greek tartaron.[4] This crude form of tartar, also known as winestone, argol, and beeswing, is collected and purified to produce the white, odorless acidic powder known as cream of tartar, or potassium bitartrate. As a food additive, tartar shares the E number E336 with cream of tartar, which does not help the confusion between dipotassium tartrate (tartar) and potassium bitartrate (cream of tartar).[5] Alum feces or potassium carbonate can be made by igniting and ashing tartrates (natural winestone or commercial cream of tartar) to produce pearl ash. This salt (alkali) of tartar was deemed stronger than almost any that is obtained from other matters.[6]

Potash could also be purified by baking it in a kiln or oven until all the carbon impurities are burned off, which would also resulting in pearl ash (sometimes called fly ash, as it easily blows away). The same technique works to make alum catini by ashing calcined marine plants in a kiln … or you could buy a box of washing soda, which is also pure sodium carbonate. The production of potash and pearl ash from wood were of such importance to Britain that these commodities could not be exported by the American Colonies to ports outside of the British Realm.[7] High-quality potassium carbonate was used in glass making, soap making, fiber cleaning, and dyeing and as a medicinal ingredient. Tartrates were used in fiber cleaning & dyeing and as a medicinal ingredient.

The different chemicals made from natural winestone:

  • Winestone is crude tartar.
  • Refined crude tartar becomes tartar or argol (dipotassium tartrate).
  • Refined tartar becomes cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate).
  • Burnt tartar & cream of tartar become alum feces (potassium carbonate)

In cleaning solutions and recipes, tartrates and carbonates have specific functions:

  • Tartrates are buffering agents. Tartar (sometimes in the form of wine lees), was a common ingredient in both lye-based and non-lye-based cleaning solutions. Tartar’s acidic qualities somewhat neutralize the harshness of an alkaline solution,[8] which greatly helps protein-based fabrics like woolen cloth.
  • Tartrates are acidic, and act as sequestrants. As well as providing buffering action, the acidity of tartar and cream of tartar makes these substances useful in removing inorganic stains. They have some ability to act as sequestrants,[9] by interrupting the oxidation of metals, making it possible to dissolve and removing metal and iron oxidation. It is taken from the Latin word “sequestrare” meaning to remove from use.[10] Cream of tartar is an effective and still in use household remedy against iron stains and fruit stains on linen.
  • Carbonates are alkalis. In solution with water carbonates (CO3) react to produce hydroxides (OH); for instance potassium carbonate (K2CO3) plus water (H2O) produces potassium hydroxide (KOH), which is alkaline. Alkaline solutions are common cleaning agent of the 15th and 16th centuries. Alkalis are best at removing stains of a fatty nature and some proteins. When applied to grease and oil stains, the saponification that occurs is an additional aid to stain removal.[11] Alkaline solutions were also made from boiling potash (including hearth ashes), a common source of potassium carbonates, but depending on the quality of the source is often significantly less pure (due to incomplete burn) than burnt tartar, or alum feces.

To make Tartar

“… as well as its property of not being soluble in water without much difficulty: for a very great quantity of water is requisite to keep the crystals of tartar in solution; and it must moreover be boiling hot; otherwise as soon as it cools most of the tartar dissolved in it separates from the liquor, and falls to the bottom in the form of a white powder” From the Encyclopedia Britannica, 1771.

From the information given in the above text, among others, I choose to boil the winestone and let it cool down to re-crystallize the tartar out of the suspension.

The Process:
Rinse and dry crude tartar. My tartar came from a local wine maker (Barry Family Cellars) and comes from white wine (which is why it is uncolored). It smells weird. The crude tartar is added to water. It only dissolves during the boiling stage of water and settles back out of solution when the water cools down.

The refined tartar settles out of solution in a fine powder and as a sludge can easily be dried.
When using red wine winestone, this stage would be done multiple times while decanting the water which would contain most of the colorants and tannins.

I assumed it would crystallize to the sides, given the text by Lémery from 1686 below:
“Boil in a great deal of water what quantity of white Tartar you please, until it be all dissolved; pass the liquor hot through Hippocrates his Sleeve, into an earthen vessel, and evaporate about half of it: set the vessel in a cool place two or three days, & you’l find little Crystals on the sides, which you are to separate; evaporate again half the liquor that remains, and remit the vessel to the Cellar as before, there will shoot out new Crystals: continue doing thus, until you have gotten all your Tartar , dry the Crystals in the Sun, and keep them for use.”[12]

This did not happen. I did not filter the hot liquid but let it cool down on its own, as indicated by the more recent texts. I wonder if the little crystals indicated are cream of tartar instead of straight tartar, as cream of tartar will keep appearing at each new boil until the liquid is exhausted.

The dried sludge is broken off and powdered in a fine mortar and sieved.
The resulting white powder is tartar, or potassium tartrate.

To make Alumen faecis

The crude tartar is calcined over open fire (propane burner) in a fireproof vessel in a well-ventilated area (sunroom) into charcoal. Iron was indicated to be able to withstand the heat, but because I enjoy my cast iron I choose to use a pyroceramic corningware dish (Pyrex would shatter). Calcining creates lots of smoke while the organic contaminants and volatile gasses are burned off.

Then the black charcoaled winestone is put on an iron dish (pizza plate) into the oven and ashed using the self-cleaning cycle. This worked really well (and I was very glad I did the calcining outdoors as we do not have an outdoor vent on our oven).

The powder is then filtered and stored in a jar. As mentioned in the 1686 A course of chemistry, if these ashes are dissolved or lixiviated in water, and then evaporated, another salt will appear, which will have become hygroscopic, or draw moisture from the air: “Break the Retort which served you for distillation of Tartar, and take the black mass you find in it; Calcine it until it becomes white, then put it into a great deal of hot water, and make a Lixivium, filtrate it, and pour it into a glass, or earthen vessel, evaporate in a sand-heat all the water, and there will remain a white salt, which is called the Alkali Salt of Tartar.

If you expose for some days in a Cellar this Salt of Tartar in a wide glass vessel, it will dissolve into a liquor that is improperly called Oil of Tartar per Deliquium.”[13] What this indicates is that the ashes of tartar, or the potassium carbonate, dissolved in water reacted to form potassium hydroxide, which when evaporated will re-crystallize, but will also be hygroscopic (pull moisture from the air, as soap makers know from experience hydroxide is wont to do!).

Following are two period recipes which include tartar and alum feces. For more samples, please see my Ice Dragon documentation.

From T bouck va wonder (The Book of Wonders), anonymous, 1513: this recipe would make an all-purpose cleaning soap ball. The rock alum would act as a mild deodorant and acidic buffer, the tartar would help buffer the alkaline soap and help remove mineral stains, the egg would help disperse trapped dirt (and help with sticking the dry powders to the hard Spanish soap). I am not familiar with waterlily rhizomes in specific, but know of similar plants which are saponaria (soap plants) and would act as a wetting agent to help the soap penetrate the fabric deeper so more debris can be rinsed away.

32. To make soap, that, purifies all sorts of stains, whatever they might be.
Take rock alum, lees [tartar] one pound and make this in a powder, rhizomes of flames or waterlilies of Florence, pulverized a half pound, a fresh egg, two pounds and a half of spanish soap, stomp the previously mentioned powders with the egg and the soap, and make little balles thereof. And if you think the egg was not enough, take as many as you like, or as you think is enough, to make the previously mentioned. And if you want to take on the stain, take clean water, and soak and wash the mentioned stain of both sides of the sheet, and rub with the mentioned ball, and sheet on sheet; that done, wash the dirtiness out with fresh water, and wring the sheet to get rid of the fat, and wash the sheet again with fresh water, and it will stay clean.

From Allerley Mackel (All Kinds of Spots) by Peter Jordanim, 1532: This recipe describes not only the use of tartar in a cleaning solution, but also a method by which cream of tartar was obtained for use in cleaning. When alum feces (potash or pearlash; potassium carbonate) is combined with crude tartar (tartaric acid) in a liquid solution, cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate) is precipitated. Some precipitation occurs naturally during the winemaking process, but collecting the tartar-rich solid leftovers during winemaking and adding them to a solution of potassium hydroxide (lye, or potassium carbonate mixed with water) allows for a much greater amount of pure cream of tartar to be created. (Leed) And once again just about all available cleaning materials are then mixed together. This combinations should form a concentrated emulsion containing solvents to hold fats and waxes in solution (the campfor and oxgall), tartrates to help remove mineral stains, and absorbents to help remove embedded dirt (the alum with the dragon’s blood would form an aluminum resinate which would give some viscosity to the mix).[14]

3. Another way
Six ounces alum feces, four ounces crude tartar, two ounces alum, one half quent [1/4 scruple or a dragme] camphor, one half quent dragon’s blood, grind all together to a fine powder and mix well, then take six ounces ox gall and six “bucklin” of clear water, put all together in a kettle, let boil to remove a third of the volume, then strain through a piece of cloth. Whenever you cannot get the ox gall or the camphor the water itself is strong enough. For use take a new piece of woolen cloth, moisten it with the water, and rub the spot or stain with it. When the piece of cloth becomes dry, moisten it again with the water and rub until the spot has disappeared; thereupon take warm water and wash the place where the stain has been. But for white cloth take the same water and add some soap, distill it, and work as before.

[Winestone donated by my friend Ian Barry of Barry Family Cellars.]

For a complete bibliography, more background, more photos, and how to make cream of tarter, you can download my documentation here.





[3] Edelstein, Sidney M. (1964) The Allerley Matkel (1532) Technology and Culture, Vol. 5, No. 3 (Summer, 1964). The Johns Hopkins University Press. p.313



[6] (1771) Encyclopedia Brittanica. Vol. II. Edinburgh: Colin Macfarquhar, Society of Gentlemen in Scotland.

[7] Ellis, Marietta (2015?) Colonial Soapmaking – Its History and Techniques. Spadét.

[8] Leed, Drea (2006) “Ye Shall Have It Clean”. Medieval Clothing and Textiles, Vol 2, the Boydell Press, NY.

[9 Leed


[11] Leed

[12] Lémery, Nicolas & Harris, Walter (1686) A course of chemistry. London: R.N. for Walter Kettilby, p.433

[13] Lémery, 433

[14] Edelstein 1964


Categories: SCA news sites

Unofficial Court Report for Great Northeastern War, July 7 and 8

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2017-08-21 18:10

Master Rowen Cloteworthy submitted this unofficial Court Report on behalf of Mistress Mylisant Grey.

During the July 7 Court, The following awards were presented:

Anna Serena, Silver Wheel; C&I: Eleanor Catlyng

Kate the Wicked, Silver Wheel; C&I: Aud Leifsdottir

Kevin D’noe, Silver Wheel; C&I: Mickel von Salm

Radbod of Endewearde, Silver Wheel; C&I: Camille des Jardins

Ranka Sveinsdottir, Award of Arms; C&I: Millicent Rowan

Gabrielle de la Plume, Queen’s Order of Courtesy; Token

Richard Crowe, Vigil for Chivalry.

During the July 8 Court, the following awards were presented:

Nuala McKensie, Award of Arms; Scroll forthcoming

Aurelia Colleoni a’Buccafurno, Award of Arms; C&I: Elen Alswyth of Eriskay

Thomas de Winterwade, Silver Tyger; C&I: Lisabetta Medaglia

Gregor Von Medehem, Silver Tyger; Scroll forthcoming

Bison of Thunder, Silver Tyger; C&I: Sunniva Ormstung

Wilhelm von Hammaborg, Silver Tyger; C&I: Edward McGuyver dos Scorpos

Eirikr Oxnaháls, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Edward McGuyver dos Scorpos

Cailte Crobdurg MacScandal, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Wynefryd Bredhers, W: Nicol mac Donnchaidh

David Poirier de LeLoup, Award of Arms; C&I: þóra Eiríksdóttir

Tiberius Iulius Rufus, Tygers Combattant; C&I: Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova, W: Steffan ap Cenydd

Karl der Falchner, Award of Arms; C&I: Tactus Malus Scriptorium (V)

Christian Wolfe, Defense; C&I: Alexandre St. Pierre and Camille des Jardins

Richard Crowe, Chivalry; C&I: Katherine Stanhope

Perceval Gower, Vigil for Pelican

Stefan of Silverforge, Vigil for Laurel

Bryon de Burgh, Queen’s Thrown Weapon Champion; C&I: Emeline la chauciere

Cedric of Thanet, King’s Thrown Weapon Champion; C&I: Emeline la chauciere

Gaius Claudius Valerianus, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Adrienne d’Evreus, W: Nicol mac Donnchaidh

Aureliana Curva, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Aleksei Dmitriev

Úlfeiðr Artadóttir, Award of Arms; C&I: Embla Knútrdottir, W: Nicol mac Donnchaidh

Sorcha Dhorcha of Stonemarche, Award of Arms; C&I: Eva Woderose

Frederick Van Der Veer, Silver Brooch; C&I: Aelisif Hoarr Kona

Olalla Tristana, Silver Brooch; C&I: Elena O’Siridean, W: Marion of Ruantallan

Aesileif Hoarr Kona, Silver Brooch; C&I: Saerlaith ingen Chennetig

Edmund Beneyt, Award of Arms; C&I: Marieta Charay

Garrick Øxnhálsson, Silver Wheel; C&I: Olaf Haraldson

Asbjorn Øxnhálsson, Silver Wheel; C&I: Robert dwe Makminne

Lasair An Dunaich, Silver Wheel; I: Melina al Andalusiyya, C: Robin Dit Dessaint, W: Yehuda ben Moshe

Aloysius, Silver Wheel; C&I: Altani Khatagi

Rose Copper Steel, Queen’s Order of Courtesy; C&I: Techan MacGothraidh, W: Nicol mac Donnchaidh

Tiberius Iulius Rufus, Laurel; C&I: Conor O Ceallaigh

Brenden Crane, Court Barony with Grant of Arms; C&I: Elen Alswyth of Eriskay, W: Aneleda Falconbridge

Christiana Crane, Court Barony; I: Eleanore MacCarthaigh, C: Aleksei Dimitriev

Mora Ruadh, Award of Arms; I: Camille des Jardins, C: Mikel von Salm, W: Maxton Gunn

Boden Henebry, Silver Crescent; C&I: Harold von Auerbach

Antony Martin of Sheffield, Silver Crescent; C&I: Agatha Wanderer

Fortune Sancte Keyne, Silver Crescent; C&I: Aesa feilinn Jossursdottir

Steinar Bjornsson, Award of Arms; C&I: Triona MacCasky, W: Toki Redbeard

Galen of Blackthorne, Maunche; C&I: Robin dit Dessaint, W: Anastasia Guta

Helen Attebroke, Award of Arms; C&I: Katrusha Skomorokh, W: Tristan Chanticler

Stefan of Silverforge, Laurel; C&I: Alexandre St. Pierre and Camille des Jardins

Perceval Gower, Pelican; C&I: Mergriet van Wijenhorst

Michael Acrensis, Writ for Pelican; C&I: Briana de Luna

Other Business:

  • The Ridings of Giggleswick and Ravensbridge presented the results of their largesse competition to Their Majesties.
  • Don Eldrich Gaiman presented handmade scarves for the Eastern Rapier Champions team.
  • Lord Osmond de Berwick announced the victory of the Youth Archers of the East in several categories in the Inter-Kingdom Archery Championships
  • Their Majesties honored the children of the East with toys from the royal toy chest
  • Their Majesties thanked outgoing Thrown Weapons Champions Lord Magnus the Broken and Lord Matteo Genovese for their service.
  • Their Majesties invited newcomers forward and gifted them with tokens of welcome.
  • Master Godric of Hamtun announced a new Master Bowman: John Buchnan from the Barony Beyond the Mountain
  • Don Lupold Hass and Don Eldrich Gaiman announced the Pennsic Rapier Champions
  • Master Magnus Hvalmagi, Guildmaster of the East Kingdom Brewers Guild, announced a new Craftsman Brewer: Lady Aoife Beowyn

Filed under: Announcements, Court Tagged: court report

Polling Deadline Tonight

East Kingdom Gazette - Mon, 2017-08-21 17:49

The deadline to answer the first order polling of Ivan and Matilde is today. Polls close at 11:59 pm.

Filed under: Announcements Tagged: pollings

Melee Madness in the Barony of Endless Hills – Court Report

AEthelmearc Gazette - Sun, 2017-08-20 15:17

From the Scrolls of the Reign of Timothy and Gabrielle, King and Queen of AEthelmearc, as recorded by Dame Kateryna ty Isaf, Jewel of AEthelmearc Herald with the assistance of Countess Margerite Eisenwald and Maestro Orlando di Bene del Vinta at Melee Madness in the Barony of Endless Hills on June 3, Anno Societatis LII.

Their Majesties, Timothy and Gabrielle, invited The Baron and Baroness of Endless Hills, Verdi Stephan and Fiona to Their court.

Their Majesties asked the Equestrians who participated in the Kingdom Equestrian Championship to come forth. They thanked them all, noting that for many this was the first event they attended and Their Majesties were greatly impressed with the horsemanship displayed. They were especially thankful for the opportunity the equestrians afforded Their son, Timothy the Younger to ride in the procession.

Their Majesties advised the court that while there were many participants who excelled, the Kingdom needed a Champion and thus They invited Mistress Ysebeau Tiercelin to stand as King’s Champion and Kingdom Equestrian Champion. They also invited Master Tiernach MacCaithal to stand as Queen’s Champion.









Their Majesties called forth Ashley of Endless Hills. For her work in helping in the kitchen, retaining, with set up and tear down, Their Majesties inducted her into the Order of the Silver Buccle. Scroll by Lady Jinx.

Their Majesties called forth the rest of the children present and asked Lord Nicolo to give the toy chest fleet feet. The children were instructed to take one toy each, beginning with the youngest child present. Having been given a count of ten, Lord Nicolo fled the court with the children fast behind.

Their Majesties gave leave to Their Excellencies of Endless Hills to hold Their court.

Upon the completion of the Baronial court, Her Majesty spoke of the honor and grace of the fencers who fought this day and how she was impressed by all the contenders. Knowing that there could be but one who would be called upon to be Her Champion, She invited before Her Master Clewin Kupfenhelblinc to stand as her Queen’s Rapier Champion. Her Majesty then called Lord Durante de Caravaggio forth and divested him of the regalia of the Queen’s Champion and thanked him for his service to both Coutness Marguerite and Herself. She invested Master Clewin with the regalia of his office and asked him to join the court as Her Champion.

Before dismissing Lord Durante, Her Majesty invited Countess Marguerite to join Her in the next business of the court. The Countess spoke movingly of the service Lord Durante had provided to her and was pleased to be part of the court during this moment. Her Majesty then Granted Arms to Durante and awarded him the Queen’s Order of Excellence for his faithful service to Her predecessor. To mark his new station, a circlet was placed upon his brow, gifted by Her Excellency. Scroll was limned by an unknown artist, words and calligraphy by Baroness Graidhne ni Ruaidh.

Their Majesties called forth Helena Kobot. Noting that she was working diligently on her fencing, had started making her own garb and was always helpful at events, They were moved to make her a Lady of the court by Award of Arms. Scroll by THLady Máirghréad Stí­obhard inghean uí­ Choinne.

Their Majesties called Vincenzo of Endless Hills. Gratified to see such a hardworking young man willing to take on the tasks of adulthood within the Society, They felt it only proper he be given the rank and station of an adult. Therefore for his work retaining, setting up and tearing down at events, helping autocrats and head cooks alike, They Awarded him Arms and made him a Lord of the court. Scroll by Baroness Fiona the Prepared.

Their Majesties called forth Eustacious di Mecina. Because of he is a person who is seen everywhere helping in tasks great and small and always with a joyful and enthusiastic smile, Their Majesties saw fit to make him a Lord of the court and Awarded him Arms.

Their Majesties asked Their Excellencies to convey an award for Them since it was known that the Gentle in question would not be in Their presence to be given the award by Their Hands and charged Their Excellencies to carry this missive to him at Their next opportunity. Their Majesties then had Lord Leo the Ronin added to the Order of the Keystone for his great endeavors in creating an online presence for the Barony of Endless Hills and his work as both Chronicler and Web Minister. Scroll by Baroness Barbary Rose.

Their Majesties called for Lord Alayn Pyett to attend Them. For his works of art as Blacksmith, wood carver and weaver, They inducted him to the Order of the Sycamore. Scroll by Baron Caleb Reynolds and Sir Murdoch Bayne.

Their Majesties called forth Lady Kolfina Jodisdottir. Knowing her to be skilled with rapier and bow, and dedicated to building her skills by rigorous practice many nights a week, They were moved to induct her to the Order of the Golden Alce. Scroll by Baron Caleb Reynolds and Sir Murdoch Bayne.

Their Majesties called Lady Valgeror inn rosti to attend Them. A fencer who has chosen and researched the form of Destresa fencing, she has overcome obstacles to become a force to be reckoned with upon the field and so They inducted her to Their Order of the Golden Alce. Scroll by Lady Kolfina Jodisdottir.

Their Majesties called forth Lady AEsa Hegulfsdottir. Knowing that she has served her Barony as Archery Champion, has been a heavy weapons fighter and is skilled with the bow, Their Majesties were moved to make her a Companion of the Order of the Golden Alce. Sir Murdoch presented her with the Golden Alce medallion passed down through the members of the order in her household. Scroll by Sir Murdoch Bayne.

Their Majesties advised that it is Their right and privilege to give recognition long overlooked. They called forth Lord Kenrick of Endless Hills and inducted him to the Order of the Golden Alce for his skill in heavy weapons fighting, his continued teaching of the combat arts and his service as Baronial Champion for Heavy Weapons combat. Scroll was limned by an unknown artist and calligraphed by Mistress Euriol of Lothian.

Their Majesties invited before them Dame Kateryna ty Isaf. Their Majesties then called forth the Order of the Fleur d’Aethelmearc to attend Them. Speaking of how delighted They were to recognize her gift for feeding Their Realm both delicious and well researched feasts and how They were looking forward to yet another such feast this day, They were moved to induct her into the Order of the Fleur d’Aethelmearc upon this day. The scroll was by Sir Murdoch Bayne, wordsmithing by Lord Gregory Hillson.

Their Majesties called before them Lady Antionette DeLorraine. Their Majesties advised They having asked Their Order of the Millrind for counsel regarding gentles in the Realm deserving inclusion in that order, one name did rise to Their attention that They felt needed to be done immediately. Their Majesties then called for the Order of the Millrind to attend Them. They advised that for her work as Seneschal, Autocrat and many times serving as Retainer, They were moved to induct her to the Order of the Millrind and grant her arms. The scroll is a work in progress by THLady Alianora Bronhulle.

Their Majesties asked that all scribes who contributed to the scrolls given during the courts today stand and be recognized.

Her Majesty asked Don Po Silvertop to attend Her. Her Majesty was moved to recognize Don Po as Her inspiration of the day and bestowed upon him the Golden Escarbuncle for not only his prowess on the fencing field, but also the joy he brings to his bouts and instills in others.

There being no further business this day, Their Majesties court was thus concluded.

– The Heralds and Signet would like to thank all the scribes who contributed to the day. If you worked on a specific scroll and were not attributed, please contact the Jewel Herald at to have the court report amended.​​​

Categories: SCA news sites

Unofficial Court Report: Pennsic – (The Condensed Version)

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-08-18 15:36

Rowen Cloteworthy reporting

Pennsic XLVI – August, 2017

__Friday, August 4, 2017__

Elias Gedney – Pelican – C&I: Eloise of Coulter

__Saturday, August 5, 2017__

Magdalena Lantfarerin – Silver Brooch – C&I: Kay Leigh Mac Whyte

Godric of Hamtun – Presentation of archery equipment to Her Majesty

Samuel Peter Bump – Vigil for Pelican

__Sunday, August 6, 2017__

Quintus Lucius Fortunatus – Silver Tyger – C&I: Elisabeth Greenleaf – W & Latin: Steffan ap Kennyd

Ulfr HofHorr – Tygers Combatant – C&I: Cassius Pontus

Ryoukojin of the Iron Skies – Vigil for Chivalry

Baptiste O’Brien – Vigil for Chivalry

Cassius of La Familia – Chivalry – W, C&I: Eleanor Catlyn – Latin: Eric and Christopher Michaelson – Greek: Michael James

Zohane Faber – Silver Rapier – C&I: Magdalena von Kirschberg – W: Remy Delamontagne de Gascogne

Brendan Firebow – Golden Rapier – C&I: Orlando Sforza – W: Lorenzo Gorla

Thomas del Broc – Vigil for Defense

__Monday, August 7, 2017__

Baptiste O’Brien – Chivalry – C&I: Jan Janowicz Bogdanski – Arabic: Tara al-Zahra

__Tuesday, August 8, 2017__

Thomas del Broc – Defense – C&I: Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova – W: Alys  Mackyntoich

Maria Charriez – Court Barony with Grant of Arms – C&I: Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova

__Wednesday, August 9, 2017__

House Bloodguard – Fealty

Donnan Fitzgerald – Vigil for Chivalry

Wilham de Broc – Court Barony – C&I: Chrestienne la pescheresse

Children of the East – Gifts from the Crown

Kythe Szubielka – Brewer to the Crown

Aleyd Czypsser – Seamstress to the Crown

Elgiva Wilhelm – Seamstress to the Crown

Winners of the Heroic Champions – Presentation of Arm Bands from Her Majesty

Reuben the Curious – Award of Arms – Backlog – C&I: Katherine Stanhope – Backlogged to First Court, Apr 1, 2017

Donovan Shinnock – Valor of the East

Southern Rapier Army – Blue Tyger Legion

Joseph of the Red Griffin – Golden Mantle – C&I: Tola knitýr – W: Eloise of Coulter

Helena Lundonie – Silver Crescent – C&I: Sarra Graeham of Birnham

Alys Mackyntoich – Defense – C&I: Fiona O’Maille ó Chuan Coille – W: Anastasia Gutane

Samuel Peter Bump – Pelican – C&I: Christiana Crane – W: Nicol mac Donnachaidh

Gaius Claudius Valerianus – Metalsmith to the Crown

Katerina Falconer de Lanark – Award of Arms – C&I: Myrun Leifsdottir – W: Remy Delamontagne de Gascogne

William Spicer – Silver Brooch – C&I: Marieta Charay – W: Serafina Medvednikova

John of Yseaux – Maunche – C&I: Christiana Crane – W: Nicol mac Donnachaidh

Aleyd Czypsser – Queen’s Order of Courtesy – C&I: Catarina Giaocchini

Zhigmun Czypsser – Augmentation of Arms – C&I: Elisabeth Greenleaf

Ryoukojin of the Iron Skies n- Chivalry – C&I: Lada Monguligin – W: Mariette de Bretagne

__Friday, August 11, 2017__

Shimazu Yasukaze – Award of Arms – C&I: Helena Osterholm

Donnan Fitzgerald – Chivalry – C&I: Nest verch Tangwistel

Filed under: Court, Pennsic

Half-Timber Malt House

AEthelmearc Gazette - Fri, 2017-08-18 14:31

The following article was submitted to the Gazette by THL Madoc Arundel, who displayed his Malt House reproduction project at this year’s Ice Dragon Pentathlon:

Historical Background

The malting of grain – converting complex starches into simple sugars – is necessary for the grain to be used in the production of alcoholic beverage. While early malting was crude and rudimentary, experience and innovation improved the process over time. By the middle ages, Europeans were producing malted grain in industrial sized batches. This advancement necessitated the move of the malting process from the campfire and kitchen to an industrial sized building or cavern known as a malting house.

As the process has not changed much in two millennia, so has the structure of a malting house remained similar. Archaeologists have uncovered sites in Great Britain and on the European continent of malting houses dating back as far as the Roman occupation. In general, these malting houses consisted of a grain storage area, a soaking pit, a growing floor, and a kiln. Variations existed; but the linear design of the malting house did not change. A very early version of a malting setup in Roman occupied Bavaria in the second century talks about the layout:

Within an oblong set of stone foundations are arranged—clockwise—a deep well; a water-tight basin at ground level; a kiln with a fire pit and a flue; and a stone-ringed fire place, about 3 feet in diameter. The probable date of the site, according to Dr. Andreas Boos, chief archaeologist at the Regensburg Historical Museum and keeper of the pavilion’s key, is the last quarter of the second century AD, when Regensburg was called Castra Regina, the largest Roman military camp in what is now Bavaria.[1]

While the layout is slightly different in this description of an early Irish archaeological site, the functional portions of the facility meet similar criteria to the Bavarian site:

The kiln consisted of a stone-lined bowl and T-shaped flue as well as a possible stoke hole, and measured 5.75m northeast–southwest and 5.9m northwest–southeast… A significant amount of sprouting barley was also recovered from within the kiln which prompted archaeobotanist Sarah Cobain, to suggest that the kiln might have been involved in the process of malting grain. Malting however requires the prolonged soaking of grain and brewing requires the steeping of malted grain in warm water. A large, sub-rectangular stone and mortar-lined pit was located c. 40m to the south-east of the T-shaped kiln. It measured 3m in length, 2.2m in width and 1.05m in depth.[2]

Illustration courtesy of the Great Dunmow Maltings restoration project

The Barley Store: A loft used for dry storage of the grain to be malted. Barley was delivered in sacks through a loading door at wagon height.[3] The store was at one end of the malting house with access to a street for the wagons. Underneath Nottingham, there are several cave complexes that were used in lieu of malting houses. In these locations, grain was delivered through a cave entrance and stored in a dry bin adjacent to a well or cistern.[4]

The Steeping Pit: A watertight room, a well, a cistern, or a large vat. Generally, the pit would be adjacent or immediately below the barley store, with a chute or trap for transferring the dry grain. The following is a description of a steeping pit at an archaeological site in Balbriggen, Ireland:

A large, sub-rectangular stone and mortar-lined pit was located c. 40m to the south-east of the T-shaped kiln. It measured 3m in length, 2.2m in width and 1.05m in depth. The lining consisted of mortared stone with a thick layer of compact lime and sand based mortar along the base. The stone lining within the pit suggests it was meant to retain liquid. It is likely to be associated with two further sub-rectangular pits uncovered in the immediate vicinity. Both possessed a lime mortar base but no stone or mortar on the sides.[5]

This is a more generic description of the function of the steeping pit, describing the exothermic reaction that assists with the germination process:

The grain was first soaked in a steeping pit or cistern for a day or more. This was constructed of brick or stone, and was sometimes lined with lead. It was rectangular and no more than 40 inches deep. Soon after being covered with water, the grain began to swell and increase its bulk by approximately 25 percent. The cistern was then drained and the grain transferred to another vessel called a couch…[6]

The Couch: A holding bin for barley between the steeping pit and the growing floor. Grain never spent more than a day in the couch. Although numerous archaeological references refer to the couch as the next step, the purpose was to enable a tax assessor to determine the volume of grain to properly assess the Malt Tax. Since the Malt Tax in England ran from 1697 to 1880[7], and there are no references to the couch in continental archaeological records, it is not likely that the couch was a necessary part of the malting process.[8]

The Growing Floor: This was the largest single area, since a great deal of space was needed to spread the grain to various depths. The growing floor was longer than it was wide, as the grain would be moved along the floor towards the kiln as the germination process advanced – new grains in one end and older grains out the other. The wet grain would be spread out, the depth dictated by temperature, but sufficiently deep to encourage vegetation. It was turned at intervals of a few hours to achieve even growth and assure that all grains had equal access to ambient air.[9] The temperature and humidity levels were partially controlled by ventilation using slatted windows, and partially controlled by thinning out the depth of the grain layer.[10] The ceiling was relatively low – six feet or so – to enable more stable temperatures throughout the room. “The flagged stone floor would serve excellently to first heap and then spread the steeped barley on, and with the low-roofed hall to keep down the temperature and prevent the malt being spoiled.”[11]

Drying was either done in the sun or in a kiln, each had its advantages. Sun-drying produced the cleanest tasting malt, but was, of course, dependent upon good weather, and the acrospire might continue to grow to the point where it consumed all the grain’s nutrients, making it useless for brewing.[12]

The Kiln: At times referred to as a grain oven, malt oven, drying kiln, or grain dryer, the kiln has three purposes: dry out the grain, stop the growth process, and caramelize the sugars.[13] The kiln is made up of a drying floor, fire box (consisting of a fire hole and a heat sink), and vent. The fire box had to allow for a gradual increase in the size and strength of the fire, since low heat was required to dry the grain while higher heat was necessary for caramelization. This was accomplished through a stoke hole in the side allowing for placement of additional fuel or for the fire tender to move hot coals around as necessary.[14] Special care had to be taken to avoid roasting the grain, which destroys the enzymes rendering the malt unsuitable for mashing.[15] The heat sink consists of sheets of metal, porcelain, or ceramic arranged to dissipate the heat and spread it more evenly across the underside of the grain bed.[16], [17]

The early furnace was a simple fire basket with a cast-iron sheet above it to disperse the heat. Hornbeam coppice wood was often used as a fuel in Hertfordshire as it produced an intense heat and was said to ‘burn like a candle.’ Later good quality anthracite became the fuel of choice since it creates hardly any smoke.[18]

The Baking and Brew House, Bolton Castle, Yorkshire c. 1379. Sketch courtesy of Jamie Olivers

The barley was moved onto the drying floor (above the fire box), and raked to a depth of about 4 to 6 inches.[19]

Because moist grain spoils quickly in storage, the Regensburg maltsters dried it in the kiln. The kiln walls have a narrow ledge that probably supported a floor made of organic material. An open fire pit and a praefurnium (a work area for stoking the fire) are in front of a covered flue that sent hot air into a hypocaustum (a heat chamber) under the kiln floor.[20]

The drying floor was porous to allow heat and air to circulate through and around the grain. A solid floor would heat up just fine, but would result in simply creating hot, wet grain.[21] The weave had to be tight enough to avoid the grain falling through. “The drying floor was originally a horse-hair carpet but later wire mesh, perforated tiles or iron plates were used. This floor was approximately twelve feet above the furnace.”[22] This distance was necessary to allow for the heat and airflow to reach the barley while preventing or minimizing the risk of a grain fire.

Photograph courtesy of Travis Rupp, University of Colorado Boulder

In 1978, the ruins of a malt house in what is now Regensburg, Germany show us a typical construct for such buildings in the first millennium.

Within an oblong set of stone foundations are arranged—clockwise—a deep well; a water-tight basin at ground level; a kiln with a fire pit and a flue; and a stone-ringed fire place, about 3 feet in diameter. The probable date of the site, according to Dr. Andreas Boos, chief archaeologist at the Regensburg Historical Museum and keeper of the pavilion’s key, is the last quarter of the second century AD, when Regensburg was called Castra Regina, the largest Roman military camp in what is now Bavaria.[23]

Photos and corresponding artist’s renditions courtesy of the German Beer Institute

In this example, we see the foundation which includes access to the fire pit (bottom pictures) for the kiln and the drying floor, and what is presumably the drying area (top pictures.) The drying floor would have been made of porous material, most likely woven straw or flax. The kiln, the oven and the cistern (seen in the near corner of the bottom left) are all made from stone or hardened clay.

The upper level would have been made of contemporary materials.[24] A half-timber or all-wood construction would have been lighter, easier to build, and fully functional. In the artist’s rendition (upper right picture), we see a smooth and level ‘capping’ of the stone structure, which would have been appropriate for a wood framed upper level. For this reason, I chose to make my model using a stone and mortar base with a half-timber upper level. Additionally, the Roman architectural style known as Opus Craticium involves…

…squared timber uprights or arrectaria (8 -12 cm thick) were combined with horizontal transversaria (6 – 8 cm) to form panels measuring between 50 and 80 cm. These were then infilled with concrete and rubble. To provide stability the main structure of the house was also supported by piers of brick and blockwork.[25]

This type of design, with masonry on the ground floor and half-timber on subsequent stories, extended into the construction of non-commercial buildings and homes during the 15th century.[26]

Half-timber construction was very popular in both the countryside and city in Germany in the middle ages and later. The frame of the building was made of timber, usually oak. The timbers were morticed and pegged together. Triangular bracing was used to give additional support. The spaces between the timbers were filled with waddle and daub, brick, stones or plaster. The timber remained visible both inside and outside the building.[27]

Diagram from Jackson’s “The Half-Timber House”

There are heavy timbers placed at strategic locations along a wall, followed with bracing in horizontal, vertical, or diagonal configurations. The gaps between the framing timbers and the bracing timbers is filled with non-load bearing material as a barrier against the elements.[28] The result is a less expensive option than full timber construction, and at times a pleasing aesthetic.[29]

These constructions have walls of granite stone with regular masonry in the corners and major parts. The half timbers with earth found in this region are not used for building the whole floor, which is common practice in other regions in Galacia, but only for small parts of the building which also support the roof structure. The structural wooden frame is made of a weak main skeleton of wooden pillars from the sleeper beam to the roof beam, reinforced half-height with other horizontal pieces.[30]

Timber construction

So then he will begin to chop; now it does not take many hours with an ax, squaring up the trunk of a tree, to learn that it is easier to make one’s timbers large than small. It is as much, if not more, bother to get out a thin plank, than it is a great stick; and so he will save time and use the big timbers. With their great size and strength, he may well space them some distance apart, and fill in between with something or other not so hard to make as planks. For this purpose, he will use a mortar or ‘daub’ made of lime and straw, or clay and twigs, or anything that will stick and harden, and reasonably resist the weather, which is not rigorous or one that makes great demands on building materials. As a groundwork for lathing for this plaster he will weave willow twigs together and make a groove in the sides of his timber to take the ends and make a tighter bond between the filling and the beams, so that if the timber does shrink away there will not be an open crack straight through the wall. Then if he plasters the inside of the wall all over he will be as snug as possible. He may make it a more substantial wall by using as a filling brickbats, small stones or what-not, and covering the whole with plaster.[31]

Graphic courtesy of Tony Graham ( showing interwoven sticks

For the corner posts a baulk was used, cut near the foot of the tree to get the beginning of the sweeping curve where it runs out into the roots. These sticks were turned upside down and the curved end formed the bracket to support the girt for the over-hanging second story, while the crooked branches were used for the curved struts and braces.[32]

In early southern Germany, connecting joints between the frame and the intermediate timbers were most commonly lap joints[33], while later designs increasingly used tenons.[34] Like modern design, windows were framed between a sill and a lintel.[35]

Sketch courtesy of Olivier Aymard (

Photo courtesy of Jerzy Gorecki ( illustrates completed structure

The Project

Madoc working on the project’s walls.

I created the ground level using a mix of construction mortar and garden gravel. The upper level is constructed of green birch. I used greenwood, as it is likely that was the form used in period construction. As the wood shrinks, the joints tighten contributing to the stability of the structure. The corner joints are half-lap horizontal joins with vertical mortise and tenon posts. Each of the intermediate uprights is mortised into the horizontal beams. While the tenons were cut using a power tool, the mortises were done by drilling an initial hole with a bit and brace, and squaring the hole with a ¼-inch chisel. The documentation above shows that the tenons were pinned with wooden pegs. However, because of the scale of this model, I used metal pins instead.

Detail of the mortises

The half-timber fill is aggregated plaster over lath. One panel is lathed with woven willow twigs, as was common in period, to demonstrate the concept. Due to the thickness of the walls, the lath was applied in a series of three coats, allowing each application to completely dry and cure before applying the subsequent coat. Each layer was scored with a three-pronged stick to ensure that subsequent applications would adhere properly.

Wall detail

Soaking pit construction

The soaking pit is constructed of the same mortar and gravel mix as the ground floor wall. The interior of the pit is lined with clay to ensure that it is watertight. The fire pit and heat sink are constructed of clay lined with cut fire brick for safety. I needed the insulation the fire brick provides as protection from scorching that would otherwise be provided by lack of proximity in a full-size malt house. The chimney is constructed of baked clay. While the period examples I have found were constructed of brick, the size of the model precluded that option. Baked clay is a reasonable alternative to actual brick.

The following pictures show the construction of the fire pit and illustrate its use:

Fire pit floor and vent to heat sink in layout

Forming the fire pit cylinder








Fire pit and heat sink before encasing the pit

Heat venting into the heat sink





Flames from the fire pit come though the chimney – note the glow emanating from the stoke hole


Completed Project. Photo courtesy of Elska a Fjarfelli (Susan Verberg)


123RF – Royalty Free Digital Content (n.d.) Retrieved 30 January 2017, from

Adam, Jean-Pierre (1994). Roman building: materials and techniques. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Ailey, Chris (2004). “Bishop’s Stortford’s Malting Industry.” Bishop’s Stortford and Thorley: A History and Guide. Retrieved 9 May 2016 from

Blanck, Maggie (2005). “German House and Barns – Exteriors.” Retrieved 31 January 2017, from

Cawley, Laurence (25 June 2008). “Medieval maltings found at famous brewer.” East Anglian Daily Times.

Clark, Christine (1998). The British Malting Industry Since 1830. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Clements, Peter & Michael (n.d.) “House of the Opus Cracitium”, AD79: Destruction and Re-discovery. Retrieved 31 January 2017, from

Craven, Jackie (2016). “What is ‘Half-Timbered’ Construction? Medieval Tree Houses Expose Their Timbers.” About Home. Retrieved 1 February 2017, from

Dineley, Merrin (13 September 2014). “Grain dryers, malt kilns & ‘malting ovens’.” Ancient Malt & Ale. Retrieved 9 May 2016 from

Dornbusch, Horst (1998). Prost! The Story of German Beer. Boulder: Brewers Publications.

Dornbusch, Horst (1 May 2004). “The World’s Oldest Malt and Brew House.” All About Beer, 25:2.

Duffy, P., Cobain, S. and Kavanagh, H. (2014). “From Skill to Skill: evidence for medieval brewing at Balbriggan.” Journal of Irish Archaeology, XXII: 59-76.

“Fancy a pint? Northampton’s first malting kiln.” Museum of London Archaeology (8 October 2015). Retrieved 9 May 2016 from

Friedman, Donald (). The Investigation of Buildings. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Hagen, Karl (1995). “The Economics of Medieval English Brewing.” Unpublished. Presented at the 1995 conference of the Medieval Association of the Pacific. Retrieved 9 May 2016 from

Harris, Richard (1993). Discovering Timber-framed Buildings (3rd ed.) London: Shire Publications.

Harrison, William (1577). A Description of England. London: Walter Scott.

“How Malt is Made” (2005). The Great Dunmow Maltings Preservation Trust. Retrieved 9 May 2016 from

“How they tax common luxuries in England.” New York Times, 26 February 1865.

Howard, Wendy, Kirsten Bedigan, and Ben Jervis (2015). Food and Drink in Archaeology 4: University of Exeter Post-Graduate Conference 2010. London: Prospect Books.

Jackson, Allen W. (1912). The Half-Timber House: Its Origin, Design, Modern Plan, and Construction. New York: McBride, Nast & Company.

Kavanagh, H. and Bailey, F. (2010). Final Report of Archaeological Excavation of Development at Folkstown Great or Clonard, Area 2/3 08E054, Balbriggan, County Dublin. Unpublished final excavation report prepared for IAC Ltd.

Lomax, Scott C. (2013). Nottingham: The Buried Past of a Historic City Revealed. Barnsley: Pen and Sword.

“Medieval Malting Oven Unearthed in Northampton.” Archaeology News Network (23 August 2014). Retrieved 9 May 2016 from

Mileto, C., F. Vegas, L. García Soriano, & V. Cristini (2014). Earthen Architecture: Past, Present and Future. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Nicola (2012). “Beer Caves Redux.” Edible Geography. Retrieved 9 May 2016 from

“Second medieval malting oven discovered in Northampton.” BBC News (10 September 2014).  Retrieved 9 May 2016 from

Sygrave, Jon (2004). “From medieval malt house to 20th century pub: excavations at 9–11 Poplar High Street, London E14.” London Archaeologist, Spring 2004, pp. 215-222.

Trent & Peak Archaeology (2010). “Malt Kilns.” Nottingham Caves Survey, a project of the York Archaeological Trust. Retrieved 9 May 2016 from

Whitaker, Alan (2006). Brewers in Hertfordshire: A Historical Gazetteer. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.

World Heritage Encyclopedia (n.d.) Timber Framing. Retrieved 1 February 2017, from

Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association (1900). The Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, Volume XV. Leeds: John Whitehead & Son.


[1] Dornbusch, 2004

[2] Duffy, Cobain, and Kavanagh, pp. 74-5

[3] Great Dunmow Maltings Preservation Trust

[4] Nicola

[5] Duffy, Cobain, and Kavanagh, pp. 63-4

[6] Commissioners of Inquiry, pp. 24-5

[7] Clark, p. 24

[8] The New York Times

[9] Whitaker, pg. 11

[10] Whitaker, pg. 12

[11] Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Society, pg. 396

[12] Hagen

[13] Great Dunmow Maltings Preservation Trust

[14] Nicola

[15] Museum of London Archaeology

[16] Great Dunmow Maltings Preservation Trust

[17] Sygrave, pp. 218-9

[18] Whitaker, pg. 12

[19] Commissioners of Inquiry, pg. 27

[20] Dornbusch, 2004

[21] Dineley

[22] Whitaker, pg. 12

[23] Dornbusch, 2004

[24] Lomax, chapter on Medieval Houses

[25] Clements

[26] Craven

[27] Blanck

[28] Friedman, pg. 59

[29] 123RF

[30] Mileto et al, pg. 141

[31] Jackson, pp. 13-14

[32] Jackson, pg. 14

[33] Master Eadweard Boisewright, “The half-lap with sill and a tenon into the half-lap joint.”

[34] World Heritage Encyclopedia

[35] Adams, pg. 239

Categories: SCA news sites

SCA Inc seeks candidates for Society Minister of Arts and Sciences

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-08-18 12:55

The Society for Creative Anachronism is seeking candidates for the position of Society Minister of Arts and Sciences (MOAS), which is a warranted 3-year term of service.
The Minister of Arts and Sciences is the officer responsible for reporting on the artistic programs of the SCA, fostering the study of medieval culture and technology, and for promoting methods for producing historically inspired artifacts and performances.

Duties and responsibilities include:
•       coordinating the efforts of kingdom officers in the field;
•       promoting the dissemination of accurate information;
•       responding to inquiries from the membership and artisans in a courteous and timely manner;
•       constructive problem solving;
•       ensuring accurate and consistent reporting from A&S officers to meet the SCA’s audited charitable reporting requirements;
•       reporting quarterly on the artistic programs of the SCA.
•       performing other duties assigned by the Board.

This is an unpaid position. Applicants should be paid members of the Society and able to travel to other kingdoms as approved by the board, and have easy access to phone, computer, mail and e-mail. Experience in both the practice and coordination of the Arts and Sciences as practiced in the SCA is strongly preferred.

Hard copies of résumés (both professional and SCA related, including offices held and honors) must be sent to the attention of ‘The Board of Directors’, SCA, Inc., P.O. Box 360789, Milpitas, CA 95036-0789. Electronic courtesy copies should also be sent to resumes at by October 1, 2017.

Comments are strongly encouraged and can be sent to:
SCA Inc.
Box 360789
Milpitas,  CA 95036

You may also email

This announcement is an official informational release by the Society for Creative Anachronism , Inc.  Permission is granted to reproduce this announcement in its entirety in newsletters, websites and electronic mailing lists.

Filed under: Announcements, Corporate

Pennsic: A&S War Point Competition

AEthelmearc Gazette - Thu, 2017-08-17 23:45

Master Cynwyl MacDaire’s Hand-carved horn with silver embellishment

By THL Elska á Fjárfelli (Susan Verberg)

Lord Otto Boese’s 13th century Magyar (Hungarian) archery kit. All photos by THL Elska.

For the Arts & Sciences portion of the Pennsic War Point this year, last year’s participant Mistress Fredeburg selected and organized this year’s contingent of Æthelmearc artisans.

Lady Shirin of Susa’s Canon page from the Armenian Gospels of Gladzor

As in previous years, each side could choose 12 entrants consisting of five Laurels and seven non-Laurels.

But this year, different from previous years, the item to be displayed could not have been entered in any previous A&S competitions, making this competition quite the last-minute challenge for our artisans.

Master Robert of Sugar Grove’s “bench for His Excellency”

To preserve anonymity performance entries were also not allowed, as were cooking entries for public health safety.

While in previous years only awarded artisans (Sycamore or higher) could vote, this year all Pennsic attendees could participate. Each person wishing to vote for their A&S Champions of choice would be given three beans to place in any of the entrants’ cups. At the end of the competitions the beans would be counted and scored for a winner-take-all for the 2 War Points.

Lord Hrólfr á Fjárfelli’s weaving broken diamond twill fabric to create a Viking-age apron dress

Although our side did not win, the results were very, very close with a difference of only 82 points from over a total of 1,800 votes cast. The quality of entries was incredible and I think our Æthelmearc artisans deserve a big thank you for giving it all they had!

Our artisans were:

  • Master Robert of Sugar Grove
  • Master Cynwyl MacDaire
  • Lord Hrólfr á Fjárfelli
  • Lord Otto Boese
  • Lady Shirin of Susa

Thank you Mistress Fredeburg for organizing such an amazing team, and thank you Lady Shirin for stepping in at the last minute when one of our allies had an artisan drop out.

Categories: SCA news sites

Information About Phishing from the Webminister

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-08-17 19:18
Greetings from Mael Eoin mac Echuid,  Interim EK ​Webminister

The webministry has had a report of a phishing attempt on a Kingdom officer this week, and figured it’d be a good time to remind all those who have an East Kingdom email address of the following:

No one in the East Kingdom Webministry will ever ask you for your password or *especially* not for other non-SCA personal information via email.  We never need your password from you; we can reset it for you if you need it, but we don’t ever need to _know_ your password for anything.  Anyone who asks for it is not representing the Kingdom or this office.

Here’s is an example email, broken down into pieces, with some hints and comments:

Subject: Scheduled Maintenance & Upgrade Date: 2017-08-14 14:28 From: Help Desk <> To: <> Reply-To: First off, notice the “From” line. isn’t official, and nothing official would be coming from a personal email address.
All official correspondence – not just from our office, but all official emails – come from addresses.  So if you don’t see, don’t trust the email.

Your account is in the process of being upgraded to the newest Windows-based servers and an enhanced online email interface inline with internet infrastructure Maintenance. The new servers will provide better anti-spam and anti-virus functions, along with IMAP Support for mobile devices to enhance your usage. They throw jargon around here.  Some of it even makes sense, but the long and short of it is that if this were the Webministry, we would use more user-friendly language to explain what was going on. To ensure that your account is not disrupted but active during and after this upgrade, you are required to kindly confirm your account by stating the details below: * Domain\user name: * Password: No. Never.

We know your username and we don’t ever need your password.

Sincerely, Customer Care Team This is also a red flag. Whoever is sending the email will sign it with their SCA name and title/role in the Webministry.  You can look us up on the EK wiki, reach out to us on Facebook or via email, but you will _always_ have a name to associate with any email we send out. If you aren’t sure, forward the email to us with a note.  Don’t reply to the email, it’ll signal that they successfully reached a live account and they might keep trying.​

To sum it up:

    • ​ Phishing emails are passive attempts to   ​get access to your account for malicious purposes (hacking, spamming, etc.).
  • Sometimes they’re terribly obvious, sometimes they’re devious and seemingly on​-point.
  • Everyone gets these and everyone’s susceptible to believing them, sooner or later. Even experienced technical folks

Event Announcement: Artifacts of A Life

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-08-17 15:31

Another Pennsic War has come and gone, and now it’s time for the artisans of the East to focus on just one thing: entries for Artifacts of a Life!

Artifacts of a Life III will be held in the Barony Beyond the Mountain (New Britain, CT) on September 30, 2017. Artifacts is a different sort of arts competition: entries must be “themed” – the theme is things that would have been used/owned by a single individual sometime in period. Possibly they are the items that would have been left in a will, or even just the day to day paraphernalia of life. They do not have to be items owned by your persona, but they do have to be linked to one person in one time/place.

There are three categories: Typical, Elite, and Village. The Typical category must include 3 to 5 items from a single culture and time. The Elite category will include 6 to 9 items from a single culture and time. And for the communally ambitious, the Village category will allow you to work with others in a team to collaboratively create 6 to 9 items. To flog the horse, all of the items in an entry must be placed within a uniform time and culture.

And prizes! Did we mention the lovely prizes? As at the first two events, we will be bestowing hand-made wooden chests stuffed with materials to make the fingers of even hardened artisans twitch with avarice.

The event announcement is here. The event website, with information about the rules, and pre-registration is here. Please watch both spaces for updated information, as details about the event itself are always changing.

PLEASE NOTE: Entry in the competition REQUIRES pre-registration with Mistress Elizabeth Vynehorn (vynehorn (at) by September 23, 2017. Please see the contest rules at for more information.
If you have not specifically notified her of your intention to compete, we will not be able to accept your entry. This is for the benefit of the contestants. Knowing at least roughly what you plan to enter allows us to recruit the best possible judges to give you the best possible feedback. Without pre-registration we will not have sufficient/appropriate judges.

Judges Needed
If you are available and interested in judging for Artifacts, please let us know. Recruiting judges is by far the most difficult aspect of the event, and if you can assist we would be most grateful. Please contact Mistress Elizabeth or Baron Jehan du Lac via the website or event announcement.
As a thank you to those who give of their time to judge, a hearty and delicious dayboard will be provided to judges at no cost.

Filed under: Arts and Sciences, Events, Uncategorized

An Interview with Prince Gareth and Princess Juliana

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2017-08-16 23:51

On September 16th in the Shire of Ballachlagan, Prince Gareth and Princess Juliana will be crowned King and Queen of Æthelmearc. Mistress Arianna of Wynthrope interviewed the Prince and Princess to help you learn more about them and their plans for their upcoming reign.

Please tell us about Your personae.

Gareth: When I joined the SCA, I wanted to be a Scotsman of the 2nd Crusade, which was in the 12th century. That’s why I chose Gareth as my name. Since then, I’ve become interested in Roman history as well as early Greek history from around 400 BC.

Juliana: My name is 14th century English but shortly after I chose it I became interested in Viking culture. Because of Gareth, I  frequently wear Roman garb, but I’m not tied to any one time or place.

What do You do in the real world?

G: I’m a Methodist minister, which is why I sometimes have to leave events on Saturday night to be home in time to work on Sunday mornings.

J: I’m a high school science teacher, mostly teaching biology.

What sort of things have You done in the SCA?

G: I’ve been in the SCA for 21 years; Pennsic 46 was my 20th War. As many people know, I’m primarily an armorer, but I also enjoy woodworking, leatherworking, making jewelry, and doing scrolls including some in etched copper. I’m a heavy weapons marshal, former thrown weapons marshal, and recently I’ve been training to become a rapier marshal. I joined the SCA in Blackstone Mountain where I served as Knight Marshal before moving to Misty Highlands.

J: I’ve been in the SCA for 16 years. I received my Laurel in fiber arts, specifically Norse and brocade tablet weaving. My Fleur was for embroidery and Norse garb. I also enjoy making scrolls, though I think I’m a better illuminator than calligrapher. In addition, I’ve been a heavy fighter, a thrown weapons marshal, done combat archery, and autocrated events. Between us, Gareth and I have held most of the offices in our Shire of Misty Highlands over the years.

What are some of Your goals for Your reign?

We’d like to encourage the arts, which are really important to us. For example, we’ve been very impressed with the efforts of the artisans making us garb under the supervision of Mistress Elisabeth Johanna von Flossenberg. She’s gathered artisans from a variety of disciplines to make us multiple sets of clothing, and we plan to recognize their work by announcing their names in court at each event.

We’d also like to see more newcomer growth. We encourage people to help newcomers in as many ways as they can. Our household, Sable Maul, was built on new people, and we make a practice of providing the things they need, like garb and armor.

We would love to see as many people as possible to attend Gulf Wars. Gareth first attended Gulf Wars because King Henri gave an inspiring speech about the camaraderie and great deeds to be done there, and he’s been back most years since. Camping together at Gulf Wars with people from throughout Æthelmearc fostered a greater sense of unity and family than we get camping as separate shires, baronies, and households at events like Pennsic. In addition, the more people we bring to Gulf Wars, the more we build our Kingdom’s renown. Gulf Wars is very different from Pennsic. It feels more like a true medieval village, with a lot of permanent structures that help provide an immersive experience not only for the martially inclined, but also artisans and performers at the Green Dragon Inn, equestrian, falconry, and other cool things.

This year at Gulf Wars there will be a Crusader theme, which is right up Gareth’s alley. There will also be a Viking Deed battle with Danes vs. Saxons, like the Battle of Hastings at Pennsic, where Sir Marek will be the commander of the Danes. Fighters are requested to bring gifts; Gareth will be making arm rings to give away. Each participant is expected to bring “loot” in proportion to their rank, so we’ll need to have a lot of gifts. And of course it gives Gareth an excuse to make yet another new set of armor, not that he needs an excuse….

We also plan to travel extensively, though living on the southern edge of the Kingdom will make for some long trips. It’s about 12 hours from Misty Highlands to Coppertree, for example.

What would You like the populace to do to help You during Your reign?

Our website has information about the events we’re attending, and we welcome any type of assistance from the populace, most especially award recommendations.

We want people to think about the experienced SCA members who helped them when they first joined, and then “pay it forward” to new people joining now. The SCA can sometimes have too much headbutting and worrying over getting “cookies.” Let’s focus on having fun and helping each other. Being gracious to others is a gift you give yourself.


Categories: SCA news sites

Pennsic Arts and Sciences Champions

East Kingdom Gazette - Tue, 2017-08-15 14:25

The Gazette thanks the King’s Champion of Arts and Sciences, Lady Raziya bint Rusa, for this report.

The East Kingdom’s team of artisans displayed a wide array of fabulous skills at the Pennsic 46 Arts and Sciences War Point. Below, we are pleased to provide some highlights of their work.

A deliberately forged charter scroll for the College of Scribes of the East Kingdom, based on a 16th Century papal bull. Calligraphy and illumination by Duchess Thyra Eiriksdottir. The seal (not part of competition) was made by Master Aaron the Arrowsmith.

The reference document was a papal bull, and was chosen for its complexity and topic. The original has about 1850 words, and is the charter for St. Mary’s College. In addition to the reference material having clear parallels in use, the concept of a deliberate forgery is medieval.

Many medieval organizations would write up charters after they were established, because they needed a document to prove legitimacy. This was done despite the fact that the documents may not have been required when the organization was founded. The East Kingdom College of Scribes is in a similar situation, with no royal charter on record. This charter was not made to be an official charter, but instead to translate the concept of an official forgery to Society culture.

The charter itself is very similar to the original but not an exact copy. The scale is smaller because of the cost of parchment. The ink is walnut instead of black keeping with the ink of the original.

The text has undergone small changes in order to make the references to SCA culture, instead of the Roman Catholic Church. The beginning and ending lines have likewise been changed to note that the document is not official, and the date is written to society standards. Some of the changed lines now read (in translation): “By the order/request of the Signet, this document has absolutely no legal standing. In fact, this document should not be taken seriously.”

A lady’s red silk surcoat, circa 1350’s England. Dress created by Baroness Kathryn Fontayne.

This dress was made as an imitation of a wealthy noblewoman’s gown, and as such is fairly sumptuous. It is not as ornamented or as expensive as that of the queen. The garment is made of silk and linen and contains artificial pearls and metal accents.

The outer dress is red silk with white silk lining the tippets; linen lines the rest of the garment. The most expensive fabric is used on the most visible areas, and more utilitarian fabric is used elsewhere. This is an appropriate medieval practice that was deliberately duplicated here .

Internal non-visible seams were machine sewed to save time, due to time constraints. All visible seams were hand sewed, and can be seen in the felling of the body seams. The dress is covered in 36 “pearled” roses. Each rose took approximately a half hour to create.

16th century Italian reticello apron. Apron and lace by Lady Sofia Gianetta de Trieste.

The apron and samples of Reticello on display are based on 16th Century Italian lacemaking. This project was made more difficult to research because the all extant examples of the craft are later than 1600, despite confirmation that the craft occurred before 1600.

Reticello is the earliest documented form of needle lace. The process involves removing threads from the construction of the fabric and binding the remaining threads together into artistic patterns. The challenge arises from engineering the product to be both beautiful and structural.

The apron is made of 4.5 oz Barry weight weight linen with 60/2 linen thread for the lace. It has 23 2″ squares of reticello lace in a line through the lower part of the garment. Each square takes approximately 6-8 hours of work. Not including the sewing, or practive, this accounts for 138-184 hours of labor. There should be three additional vertical lines of lace on the apron to be more accurate to Italian aesthetics. The lacing was limited due to time constraints.

Viking silver spiral armring, Smithing by Duke Kenric aet Essex

This piece is made as a copy of an extant silver example from a Swedish museum. The armring was for a woman and likely dated to the 8th century.

The ring was constructed carefully because, due to cost of materials, there would not be an opportunity for a second chance at making the armring. 30″ (8.5 oz) of sterling silver bar were required to make the piece. Sterling was used instead of pure silver, because medieval silver was not very pure.

Practice for the final work was done in copper, although copper has significantly different properties when working. Silver melts quickly – a property which almost resulted in the loss of the piece.

The piece required forming by hammer, annealing, twisting, polishing, and stamping. The stamping was made with a tool that had two triangular shapes on it. The squares on the final product are the negative space left over between the stamped impressions.

Laurel headdress in the style of the 14th century. Metalwork by Master Stefan of Silverforge.

The laurel wreath was created in the style of wreaths seen in illustrations in the 14th Century. No surviving laurel wreaths from that time have been found, but older Greek and Roman versions exist. Given the context of one illustration – gold leaves, the brittle nature of real laurel, and the presence of the leaves upon an emperor – the assumption is that the illustration depicts a metal, rather than a real wreath made of the laurel plant.

The wreath was made of brass rather than gold, due to finanical concerns. Sheets of brass were soldered to wire in pairs; each pair was then attached to a spine. The brass pieces were so thin that several wore through during construction and had to be remade. Embossing veins on the leaves was done with fingernail and blunt pencil.

In period this kind of work would have been done with an alcohol blow lamp; this piece was made with a propane plumbers torch. A mix of ash, sand, and pumice in a matrix of wax and oil would have been used to clean up the marking and flux from construction. It would have been manipulated with sticks when applied to the metal; in this case a modern dremel with scouring pads was used because of time constraints.

NB: All photographs of the exhibition graciously provided by Mistress Anastasia Gutane.

Filed under: Arts and Sciences, Pennsic

Æthelmearc’s Newest Subject Arrives

AEthelmearc Gazette - Tue, 2017-08-15 11:40

Lord Christian Goldenlok and Lady Adelyn Idesbourne welcomed their baby daughter, Elizabeth (called Betty) at 5:16 this morning, August 15.

New dad Christian says Betty weighs 8 lbs. 7 oz. and has “bright blue eyes, strawberry blonde hair, and a cry that is heard in the next zip code.” Mom and baby are doing well. As the photo below shows, dad’s doing pretty well, too.


Categories: SCA news sites

Pennsic Populace Archery Shoot War Points

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-08-11 18:29

The Gazette thanks Mistress Ygraine of Kellswood for the following report.

The Midrealm-East-Ealdormere side has taken all 3 populace war points in Archery! Each of the three traditional shoots — presented with a Norse theme this year — was worth one war point. Archers could shoot each one up to five times during the War.

The Castle Window was a 30 second timed shoot at a distance of about 30 yards. Archers launched as many arrows or bolts as they were able in that time at a target representing a castle window slot. Hits in the slot were worth 1 point each; hits on the small white Thor’s hammer inside the slot were worth 2 points each. The AEthelmearc-Atlantia-Allies team scored a total of 1446 points; team Midrealm-East-Ealdormere scored 1836.

The “Soldiers” this year were pairs of Frost Giants at 15 yards, 35 yards, 45 yards and 55 yards. Archers could launch 6 arrows at the targets of their choice, worth 1, 2, 3 or 4 points respectively (for a maximum of 24 points per end). The AEthelmearc-Atlantia-Allies side scored 5189 total points; the Midrealm-East-Ealdormere side scored 7696.

The Clout consisted of a Giant at 100 yards inside a castle turret. On the way to that target was a serpent in a moat at approximately 50 yards. Hits landing in the moat were worth 1 point; hits on the serpent were 2 points; shots landing inside the castle were worth 3 points; and hits on the Giant earned 4 points. Archers could launch 6 arrows at the targets of their choice (for a maximum, again, of 24 points per end). The A-A-A archers totaled 4176 points; the M-E-E archers scored 6423.

Thanks to all the archers who shot and to all the marshals who worked so hard to make everything run smoothly and safely!

Filed under: Archery, Pennsic Tagged: Pennsic

Report on Pennsic War Points

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-08-11 18:15

Today’s Armored Combat battle ended in a tie.

The Arts & Sciences war point was awarded to the East/Mid.

Filed under: Pennsic Tagged: Pennsic

Rapier War Points

East Kingdom Gazette - Fri, 2017-08-11 17:03
The EK-Mid won the final Rapier War point, taking the Strongholds Battle three minutes faster than the Aethlemarc Alliance. EK-Mid Rapier Army won 13 of the 14 possible war points this year.
Filed under: Pennsic, Rapier Tagged: Pennsic, Rapier

Report on War Point in Thrown Weapons

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-08-10 23:43

The Gazette thanks Serafina Della Torre for the following report on the Thrown Weapons War Point.

On the last Thursday of Pennsic War 46, throwers and royalty from around the Known World assembled to compete for the Pennsic Thrown Weapons Champions War Point in a tournament designed by Marshal in Charge, Altan of the Moritu. The tournament consisted of 12 champions representing kingdoms throughout the world. They competed in a challenging axe, knife, and spear tournament consisting of eight hard and soft targets. Participants were given specific challenges for scoring including cutting rope, hitting certain small areas of an imagine, and could have points deducted if the wrong areas were hit. Throwers were also challenged to use varying technique for throwing spear, being required to throw both under and over handed. If a weapon penetrated a target and fell out, no points are given, causing the notable quote from Tristan of Northshield: “Hurry up! Score me! Score me! There’s a breeze!”

The victor was determined by team total score. Aethelmearc and Allies had a resounding victory with 795 total points against the East, Middle, and Allies 434. The tournament had a possible 240 point perfect score for each thrower. Tristan was the highest single score with 95 points. Sir Cedric of Thanet was the highest East, Middle, and Allies team scorer with 75 points. Marshal Altan celebrated Catriona MacDhonnachaidh for throwing in full period garb. Several assembled marshals and audience members noted the courtesy, comportment, and collegiality shown by contestants of both teams toward one another.

Pennsic Thrown Weapons Champions War Point – Contestants

Daniel of Whitby
Catriona MacDhonnachaidh
Duke Master Moonwolf
Safiya the Hot Tempered
Patrick the Red
Sir Cedric of Thanet
Alexander MacKeystie
Matteo Genovese
Colin MacKenzie
Mikael McCue
Ulf Jarnhauss

Antonio de Luna
Juan Miguel Cezar
Deals Cohen
Tigernach MacCathail
Keys Kostarev
Cecelia Medici


Filed under: Pennsic Tagged: pennsic 46, pennsic war points, thrown weapons

Pennsic 46 War Points: Thursday, August 10

East Kingdom Gazette - Thu, 2017-08-10 23:32

This year’s Pennsic War is a contest between the Kingdoms of the East, the Middle, and Ealdormere and their allies vs Æthelmearc and Northshield and their allies.

Yesterday’s Armored Woods Battle was a tie with two points going to each side.  The Combat Archery and Siege Battle that was also held yesterday was won by the East, Middle, Ealdormere and Allies and was worth one point.

Today’s Armored Allied Champions Battle was won by the East, Middle, Ealdormere and Allies for one point. The Thrown Weapons Champions Throw went to Æthelmearc, Northshield and their allies and was worth one point. The top Thrown Weapon’s scorer for the East was Sir Cedric of Thanet, the King’s Champion.

The following information on the Archery Champion Team Competition was reported by Mistress Ygraine of Kellswood.

The Middle-East-Ealdormere team won 1 of the available war points, and the AEthelmearc-Atlantia-Allies team won 2. Each point was based on total points scored in each of the three shoots.

Friend/Foe Shoot: A-A scored 167 points, Mid-East scored 153.
Long-distance Walkup Shoot: A-A scored 365 points, Mid-East scored 432.
10 Station Roving Range: A-A scored 2303 points, Mid-East scored 2123.

An article with photos of the A&S entries and its results will be posted at a later date.


Filed under: Pennsic Tagged: pennsic 46, pennsic war points

Pennsic 46 War Points: Wednesday, August 9

East Kingdom Gazette - Wed, 2017-08-09 21:19
This year’s Pennsic War is a contest between the Kingdoms of the East, the Middle, and Ealdormere and their allies vs Æthelmearc and Northshield and their allies.

EK-Mid Rapier earned another four War Points.

The EK-Mid Rapier Army took all four time checks in the Woods Battle today. They captured 11 of 12 flags over the course of the four checks.
Filed under: Pennsic Tagged: pennsic 46, pennsic war points, Rapier

More News from Pennsic

AEthelmearc Gazette - Wed, 2017-08-09 19:07

THL Ulrick

This has been a War of many writs, vigils, and elevations, as well as other joyous accolades.

THLord Tegrinus. Photo by Ursus.

THL Ulrick von Schwarzburg is on vigil tonight (Wednesday) in Sable Maul Camp, then will be elevated to the Order of Chivalry on the Battlefield Friday morning before the Armored Wall Battle.

THL Tegrinus de Rhina also will be elevated to the Order of Chivalry, but the ceremony will be tomorrow (Thursday) morning on the Battlefield before the Allied Champions Battle.

Baron Master Eric Grenier de Labarre, called Grendel. Photo by Baroness Katja

Baron Master Eric Grenier de Labarre was elevated to the Order of Defense Tuesday morning on the Battlefield before the Rapier Field Battle.

Baroness Mistress Anna Eisenkopf was elevated to the Order of the Pelican in AEthelmearc Court Tuesday night.

Mistress Anna. Photo by Lady Amalie Reinhardt.

THL Rynea Ingen of Stormsport received her writ for the Order of the Pelican on Tuesday afternoon on the Battlefield and will be on vigil Thursday night at Runestone Watch camp. Her elevation will be at Coronation.

Baroness Constance Glyn Dwr was given a writ in AEthelmearc Court on Tuesday for the Order of the Pelican. Her vigil and elevation will be during Their Highnesses’ reign.

THL Thorsol Solinauga, who received his writ at Bog 3 Day/Investiture, will be elevated to the Order of the Chivalry at Harvest Raid.

Baroness Mistress Elisabeth Johanna von Flossenburg, who received her writ at Pax Interruptus, will be elevated to the Order of the Pelican at Æthelmearc 20 Year.

Viscountess Eleanor and Sir Haakon. Photo by Baroness Katja

In addition, Their Majesties presented Augmentations of Arms to Sir Haakon Oaktall and Viscountess Eleanor of Waldren at his bardic night last week in AE Royal.

Reporting by Baroness Katja (Chris Adler-France)






Categories: SCA news sites